Skip to main content Accessibility help

Behaviorism at fifty

  • B. F. Skinner (a1)


Each of us is uniquely subject to certain kinds of stimulation from a small part of the universe within our skins. Mentalistic psychologies insist that other kinds of events, lacking the physical dimensions of stimuli, are accessible to the owner of the skin within which they occur. One solution often regarded as behavioristic, granting the distinction between public and private events and ruling the latter out of consideration, has not been successful. A science of behavior must face the problem of privacy by dealing with events within the skin in their relation to behavior, without assuming they have a special nature or must be known in a special way.

The search for copies of the world within the body (e.g. the sensations and images of conscious content) has also had discouraging results. The organism does not create duplicates: Its seeing, hearing, smelling, and so on are forms of action rather than of reproduction. Seeing does not imply something seen. We know that when we dream of wolves, no wolves are actually there; it is harder to understand that not even representations of wolves are there.

Mentalistic formulations create mental way stations. Where experimental analyses examine the effects of variables on behavior, mentalistic psychologies deal first with their effects on inferred entities such as feelings or expectations and then with the effects of these entities on behavior. Mental states thus seem to bridge gaps between dependent and independent variables, and mentalistic interpretations are particularly attractive when these are separated by long time periods. The practice confuses the order of events and leads to unfinished causal accounts.



Hide All
Attneave, F. (1960) In defense of homunculi. In: Sensory communication, ed. Rosenblith, W.. MIT Press. [WGL]
Barr, A., Cohen, P. R. & Feigenbaum, E. A., eds. (1982) The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, vols. 1–3. William Kaufmann. [ML]
Berlin, B. & Kay, P. (1969) Basic color terms: Their universality and evolution. University of California Press. [TRZ]
Berwick, R. C. & Weinberg, A. (1983) The grammatical basis of linguistic performance. MIT Press. [JCM]
Bindra, D. (1978) How adaptive behavior is produced: A perceptual-motivational alternative to response-reinforcement. Behavioral and Brainmn Sciences 1:4191. [FMT]
Black, M. (1962) Models and metaphors. Cornell University Press. [MB]
Block, N., ed. (1980a) Readings in the philosophy of psychology, vol. 1. Harvard University Press. [RS]
Block, N., ed. (1980b) Troubles with functionalism. In: Readings in the philosophy of psychology, vol. 1, ed. Block, N.. Harvard University Press. [GR]
Block, N., ed. (1980c) What is functionalism? In: Readings in the philosophy of psychology, vol. 1, ed. Block, N.. Harvard University Press. [LHD]
Blodgett, H. (1929) The effect of the introduction of reward upon the maze performance of rats. In: University of California publications in psychology. University of California Press. [GR, rBFS]
Blough, D. S. (1956) Dark adaptation in the pigeon. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 49:425–30. [taBFS]
Blough, D. S. (1959) Delayed matching in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 2:151–60. [WST]
Blough, D. S. & Schrier, A. M. (1963) Scotopic spectral sensitivity in the monkey. Science 139:493–94. [taBFS]
Bolter, D. J. (1984) Turing's man. University of North Carolina Press. [MB]
Bornstein, M. H. (1975) Qualities of color vision in infancy. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 19:401–19. [RKT]
Bornstein, M. H. (1978) Chromatic vision in infancy. In: Advances in child development and behavior, vol. 12, ed. Reese, H. W. & Lipsitt, L. H.. Academic Press. [HMW]
Bornstein, M. H. (1981) Psychological studies of color perception in human infants: Habituation, discrimination and categorization, recognition and conceptualization. In: Advances in infancy research, ed. Lipsitt, L. P. & Rovee-Collier, C. K.. Ablex. [TRZ]
Bornstein, M. H., Kessen, W. & Weiskopf, S. (1976) Color vision and hue categorization in young human infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Performance and Perception 2:115–29. [TRZ]
Brady, J. V. (1975) Conditioning and emotion. In: Emotions: Their parameters and measurement, ed. Levi, L.. Raven Press. [MLW]
Bransford, J. D., McCarrel, N. W., Franks, J. J. & Nitsch, K. E. (1977) Towards unexplaining memory. In: Perceiving, acting, and knowing: Toward an ecological psychology, ed. Shaw, R. E. & Bransford, J. D.. Erlbaum. [MJM]
Bretherton, I., McNew, S. & Beeghly-Smith, M. (1981) Early person knowledge as expressed in gestural and verbal communication: When do infants acquire a “Theory of Mind?” In: Social cognition in infancy, ed. Lamb, M. & Sherrod, L.. Erlbaum. [CNJ]
Bridgman, P. W. (1959) The ways things are. Harvard University Press. [taBFS]
Broadbent, D. E. (1958) Perception and communication. Pergamon. [BAF, rBFS]
Brunswik, E. (1955) Representative design and probabilistic theory in a functional psychology. Psychological Review 62:193217. [EJW]
Carlson, N. R. (1981) Physiology of behavior. 2d ed.Allyn and Bacon. [FW1]
Chisholm, R (1957) Perceiving: A philosophical study. Cornell University Press. [GR]
Chomsky, N. (1959) Review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Language 35:2658. [WGL, GR, DNR]
Craik, K. J. W. (1943) The nature of explanation. Cambridge University Press. [JCM]
Danto, A. C. (1983) Science as an intentional system. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6:359–60. [MB]
Davidson, D. (1970) Mental events. In: Experience and theory, ed. Foster, L. & Swenson, J. W.. University of Massachusetts Press. [JH]
Davis, L. H. (1982) Functionalism and absent qualia. Philosophical Studies 41:231–49. [LHD]
Dawson, M. E. (1973) Can classical conditioning occur without contingency learning? A review and evaluation of the evidence. Psychophysiology 10:8286. [JJF]
Dawson, M. E. & Furedy, J. J. (1976) The role of awareness in human differential autonomic classical conditioning: The necessary gate hypothesis. Psychophysiology 13:5053. [JJF]
Day, W. (1969a) On certain similarities between the philosophical investigations of Ludwig Wittgenstein and the operationism of B. F. Skinner. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 12:489506. [MJM]
Day, W. (1969b) Radical behaviorism in reconciliation with phenomenology. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 12:315–28. [MJM]
Dennett, D. C. (1975) Why the law of effect will not go away. Journal of the Theory of Social Behaviour 5:169–87. [WGL]
Dennett, D. C. (1978a) Brainstorms. Bradford Books. [RCM]
Dennett, D. C. (1978b) Skinner skinned. In: Brainstorms. Bradford Books. [JEA, WGL, GR]
Dennett, D. C. (1978c) Why the law of effect won't go away. In: Brainstorms. Bradford Books. [GR]
Dennett, D. C. (1979) Brainstorms. Bradford Books. [LHD, MJM]
Dennett, D. C. (1983) Intentional systems in cognitive ethology: The “Panglossian paradigm” defended. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6:343–90. [ML]
Deutsch, J. A. (1960) The structural basis of behavior. University of Chicago Press. [FMT]
Dickinson, A. (1980) Contemporary animal learning theory. Cambridge University Press. [FMT]
Domjan, M & Burkhard, B. (1982) The principles of learning and behavior. Brooks-Cole. [WST]
Donahoe, J. W. & Wessells, M. G. (1980) Learning, language and memory. Harper & Row. [WST]
Duncan, P. M. & Duncan, N. C. (1971) Free-operant and T-maze avoidance performance by septal and hippocampal-damaged rats. Physiology & Behavior 7:687–93. [MLW]
Eddington, A. (1958) The nature of the physical world. University of Michigan Press. [EJW]
Fodor, J. A. (1968a) The appeal to tacit knowledge in psychological explanation. Journal of Philosophy 65:627–40. [WGL]
Fodor, J. A. (1968b) Psychological explanation. Random House. [GR]
Fodor, J. A. (1975) The language of thought. Crowell. [WGL, GR]
Fodor, J. A. (1980) Methodological solipsism considered as a research strategy in cognitive psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:6373. [WGL, JCM]
Fodor, J. A. (1983) The modularity of mind. MIT Press. [LHD]
Furedy, J. J. (1973) Some limits of the cognitive control of conditioned autonomic behavior. Psychophysiology 10:108–11. [JJF]
Furedy, J. J. & Riley, D. M. (1982) Classical and operant conditioning in the enhancement of biofeedback: Specifics and speculations. In: Clinical biofeedback: Efficacy and mechanisms, ed. White, L. & Tursky, B.. Guilford Press. [JJF]
Furedy, J. J., Riley, D. M. & Fredrickson, M. (1983) Pavlovian extinction, phobias, and the limits of the cognitive paradigm. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Psychology 18:126–35. [JJF]
Gallistel, C. R. (1980) The organization of action: A new synthesis. Erlbaum. [FMT]
Gallup, G. G. Jr (1983) Toward a comparative psychology of mind. In: Animal cognition and behavior, ed. Mellgren, R. L.. North Holland Publishing Co. [GGG]
Galton, F. (1883) Inquiries into human faculty and its development. J. M. Dent and Company. [taBFS]
Gelman, R. & Spelke, E. (1981) The development of thoughts about animate and inanimate objects: Implications for research on social cognition. In: Social cognitive development, ed. Flavell, J. H. & Ross, L.. Cambridge University Press. [CNJ]
Gier, N. F. (1981) Wittgenstein and phenomenology. State University of New York Press. [MJM]
Gleitman, H. (1963) Place-learning. Scientific American 209:116–22. [GR]
Goffman, E. (1959) The presentation of self in everyday life. Doubleday Anchor. [JEA]
Gould, S. J. (1980) The panda's thumb: More reflections in natural history. W.W. Norton & Co. [EJW]
Griffin, D. R. (1976) The question of animal awareness. Rockefeller University Press. [WST]
Gunderson, K. (1971) Asymmetries and mind-body perplexities. In: Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science, vol. 4, ed. Radner, M. & Winokur, S.. University of Minnesota Press. [KG]
Guttman, N. (1956) The pigeon and the spectrum and the other perplexities. Psychological Reports 2:449–60. [rBFS]
Harlow, H. F. (1949) The formation of learning sets. Psychological Review 56:5165. [GR]
Harlow, H. F. (1959) Learning set and error factor theory. In: Psychology: A study of science, vol. 2, ed. Koch, S.. McGraw Hill. [GR]
Harnad, S. (1982) Consciousness: An afterthought. Cognition and Brain Theory 5:2947. [DP]
Harzem, P. & Miles, T. R. (1978) Conceptual issues in operant psychology. John Wiley and Sons. [MJM]
Heelas, P. & Lock, A., eds. (1981) Indigenous psychologies. Academic Press. [CNJ]
Heider, E. R. (1972) Universals in color naming and memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93:1020. [TRZ]
Heil, J. (1982) Seeing is believing. American Philosophical Quarterly 19:229–39. [JH]
Heil, J. (1983) Perception and cognition. University of California Press. [JH]
Herrnstein, R. J. & van Sommers, P. (1962) Method for sensory scaling with animals. Science 135:4041. [taBFS]
Hogben, L. (1957) Statistical theory. Allen and Unwin. [taBFS]
Honig, W. K. (1978) On the conceptual nature of cognitive terms: An initial essay. In: Cognitive processes in animal behavior, ed. Hulse, S. W., Fowler, H. & Honig, W. K.. Erlbaum. [WST]
Honig, W. K. & James, P. H. R. (1971) Animal memory. Academic Press. [WST]
Hospers, J. (1958) What means this freedom? In: Determinism and freedom, ed. Hook, S.. Collier Books. [JEA]
Hull, C. L. (1943) Principles of behavior: An introduction to behavior theory. Appleton-Century. [EJW]
Hulse, S. W., Fowler, H & Honig, W. K. (1978) Cognitive processes in animal behavior. Erlbaum. [WST]
Irwin, F. W. (1971) Intentional behavior and motivation: A cognitive theory. J.B. Lippincott Co. [FWI]
Isaacson, R. L. (1982) The limbic system. Plenum Publishing. [MLW]
Jarvik, M. E. (1956) Simple color discrimination in chimpanzees: Effects of varying continguity between cue and incentive. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 49:492–95. [EJW]
Jenkins, H. M. (1979) Animal learning and behavior theory. In: The first century of experimental psychology, ed. Hearst, E.. Erlbaum. [EJW]
Johnson, C. N. (1982) Acquisition of mental verbs and the concept of mind. In: Language development, vol. 1, ed. Kuczaj, S.. Erlbaum. [CNJ]
Johnson, C. N. & Wellman, H. M. (1980) Children's developing understanding of mental verbs: Remember, know, and guess. Child Development 51:10951102. [HMW]
Köhler, W. (1926) The mentality of apes. Harcourt, Brace and World. [GR, rBFS]
Kuhn, T. S. (1970) The structure of scientific revolutions. University of Chicago Press. [MB]
Lashley, K. (1923) The behavioristic interpretation of consciousness. Psychological Review 30:237–72, 329–53. [WL]
Lebowitz, M. (1983) Generalization from natural language text. Cognitive Science 7:140. [ML]
Leibniz, G. (1714) The monadology and other philosophical writings. Trans. Latta, R.. Oxford University Press. [KG, JCM]
Lewontin, R. (1979) Sociobiology as an adaptationist paradigm. Behavioral Science 24:514. [EJW]
Lycan, W. G. (1981a) Form, function, and feel. Journal of Philosophy 78:2450. [WGL]
Lycan, W. G. (1981b) Toward a homuncular theory of believing. Cognition and Brain Theory 4:139–59. [WGL]
MacCorquodale, K. (1970) On Chomsky's review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 13:8399. [JCM]
Marr, D. (1982) Vision. W.H. Freeman. [JCM]
Marr, J. (1983) Memory: Models and metaphors. Psychological Record 33:1219. [MJM]
Marshall, J. C. (1977) Minds, machines and metaphors. Social Studies of Science 7:475–88. [JCM]
Maze, J. R. (1953) On some corruptions of the doctrine of homeostasis. Psychological Review 60:405–12. [JJF]
Menzel, E. W. (1978) Cognitive mapping in chimpanzees. In: Cognitive processes in animal behavior, ed. Hulse, S. W., Fowler, H. & Honig, W. K.. Erlbaum. [WST]
Menzel, E. W. Jr & Juno, C. (1982) Marmosets (Saguinus fuscicollis): Are learning sets learned? Science 217:750–52. [EJW]
Minsky, M. (1968) Matter, mind, and models. In: Semantic information processing, ed. Minsky, M.. MIT Press. [DP]
Moore, B. R. (1973) The role of directed Pavlovian reactions in simple instrumental learning in the pigeon. In: Constraints on learning, ed. Hinde, R. A. & Stevenson-Hinde, J.. Academic Press. [FMT]
Mountjoy, P. P. & Malott, M. K. (1968) Wave-length generalization curves for chickens reared in restricted portions of the spectrum. Psychological Record 18:575–83. [TRZ]
Neurath, O. (1970) Foundations of the social sciences. In: The foundations of the unity of science, ed. Neurath, O. et al. University of Chicago Press. [MB]
Nisbett, R. E. & Wilson, T. D. (1977) On saying more than we can know. Psychological Review 84:231–59. [GR]
Oatley, K. (1973) Simulation and theory of thirst. The neuropsychology of thirst: New findings and advances in concepts, ed. Epstein, A. N., Kissileff, H. R. & Stellar, E.. V.H. Winston. [FMT]
O'Keefe, J. & Nadel, L. (1978) The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford University Press. [MLW]
Olton, D. S. (1978) Characteristics of spatial memory. In: Cognitive processes in animal behavior, ed. Hulse, S. W., Fowler, H. & Honig, W. K.. Erlbaum. [WST]
Olton, D. S., Becker, J. T. & Handelmann, G. E. (1979) Hippocampus, space, and memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:313–65. [MLW]
Paivio, A. (1975) Neomentalism. Canadian Journal of Psychology 29:263–91. [RMG]
Penfield, W. (1969) Consciousness, memory and man's conditioned reflexes. In: On the biology of learning, ed. Pribram, K. H.. Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich. [FMT]
Peterson, N. (1962) Effect of monochromatic rearing on the control of responding by wavelength. Science 136:774–75. [rBFS]
Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978) Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:515–26. [GGG, LCNJ]
Pribran, K. H. (1971) Languages of the brain: Experimental paradoxes and principles in neuropsychology. Prentice-Hall. [MLW]
Putnam, H. (1975) The meaning of “meaning.” In: Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science, vol. 7, Language, mind and knowledge, ed. Gunderson, K.. University of Minnesota Press. [WGL]
Quine, W. V. O. (1951) Notes on the theory of reference. In: From a logical point of view and other essays. Harper & Row. [GR]
Quine, W. V. O. (1953) Two dogmas of empiricism. In: From a logical point of view. Harvard University Press. [MB]
Quine, W. V. O. (1960) Word and object. MIT Press. [MJM, GR]
Ratliff, F. (1962) Some interrelations among physics, physiology, and psychology in the study of vision. In Psychology: A study of a science, study 2, vol. 4, ed. Koch, S.. McGraw-Hill. [RKT]
Rescorla, R. A. & Wagner, A. R. (1972) A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In: Classical conditioning, vol. 2, ed. Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F.. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [WST]
Rey, G. (1980) What are mental images? In: Readings in the philosophy of psychology, vol. 2, ed. Block, N.. Harvard University Press. [GR]
Rey, G. (1983) A reason for doubting the existence of consciousness. In: Consciousness and self-regulation, vol. 3, ed. Davidson, R., Schwartz, G. & Shapiro, D.. Plenum. [GR]
Riley, D. A. & Leuin, T. C. (1971) Stimulus-generalization gradients in chickens reared in monochromatic light and tested with single wavelength values. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 75:399402. [TRZ]
Robinson, D. N. (1979) Systems of modern psychology: A critical sketch. Columbia University Press. [DNR]
Robinson, D. N. (1981) An intellectual history of psychology. Rev. ed.Macmillan. [DNR]
Roediger, H. L. (1980) Memory metaphors in cognitive psychology. Memory and Cognition 8:231–46. [MJM]
Roitblat, H. L. (1982) The meaning of representation in animal memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:353406. [EJW]
Rosch, E. H. (1973) Natural categories. Cognitive Psychology 4:4953. [TRZ]
Rosch, E., Mervis, C. B., Gay, W. D., Boyes-Braem, P. & Johnson, D. N. (1976) Basic objects in natural categories. Cognitive Psychology 8:382439. [HMW]
Ross, L. (1981) The “intuitive scientist” formulation and its developmental implications. In: Social cognitive development, ed. Flavell, J. H. & Ross, L.. Cambridge University Press. [CNJ]
Ryle, G. (1949) The concept of mind. Hutchinson. [JJF, WL]
Scriven, M. (1956) A study of radical behaviorism. In: The foundations of science and the concepts of psychology and psychoanalysis. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 1, ed. Feigl, H. & Scriven, M.. University of Minnesota Press. [MAS]
Shatz, M., Wellman, H. M. & Silber, S. (1983) The acquisition of mental verbs: A systematic investigation of the first reference to mental state. Cognition 14:301–21. [HMW]
Shepard, J. (1933) Higher processes in the behavior of rats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 19:149–52. [GR]
Skinner, B. F. (1938) The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [FWI]
Skinner, B. F. (1947) Current trends in experimental psychology. In: Current trends in psychology. University of Pittsburgh Press. [JCM]
Skinner, B. F. (1950) Arc theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review 57:193216. [WST]
Skinner, B. F. (1953) Science and human behavior. Macmillan. [BAF, KG, WL, rBFS]
Skinner, B. F. (1957) Verbal behavior. Appleton. [rBFS]
Skinner, B. F. (1965) Science and human behavior. 1st ed. 1953. Collier Macmillan-Free Press. [WL]
Skinner, B. F. (1966a) Operant behavior. In: Operant behavior: Areas of research and application, ed. Honig, W. K.. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [MLW]
Skinner, B. F. (1966b) The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science 153:1205–13. [EJW]
Skinner, B. F. (1969) Contingencies of reinforcement: A theoretical analysis. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [FW]
Skinner, B. F. (1971) Beyond freedom and dignity. Knopf. [BAF, rBFS]
Skinner, B. F. (1974) About behaviorism. Knopf. [RS, MAS, EJW]
Skinner, B. F. (1975a) The shaping of phylogenic behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 24:117–20. [RS]
Skinner, B. F. (1975b) The steep and thorny way to a science of behavior. In: Problems of scientific revolution, ed. Harré, R.. Clarendon Press. [BAF]
Skinner, B. F. (1976) About behaviorism. Vintage Books. [SPS]
Skinner, B. F. (1977) Why I am not a cognitive psychologist. Behaviorism 5(2):110. [RKT]
Skinner, B. F. (1979) The shaping of a behaviorist. Knopf. [rBFS]
Skinner, B. F. (1981) Selection by consequences. Science 213:501–4. [EJW]
Skinner, B. F. (1983) A better way to deal with selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6:377–78. [ML]
Smart, J. (1959) Sensations and brain processes. Philosophical Review 68:141–56. [CM, GR]
Stevens, S. S. (1935) The operational basis of psychology. American Journal of Psychology 47:323–30. [taBFS]
Strauss, M. S. & Curtis, L. E. (1981) Infant perception of numerosity. Child Development 52:1146–52. [HMW]
Strawson, P. F. (1968) Freedom and resentment. In: Studies in the philosophy of thought and action, ed Strawson, P. F.. Oxford University Press. [JEA, rBFS]
Teitelbaum, P. (1966) The use of operant methods in the assessment and control of motivational states. In: Operant behavior: Areas of research and application, ed. Honig, W. K.. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [MLW]
Teuber, H. L. (1974) Key problems in the programming of movements. Brain Research 71:535–68. [JCM]
Tolman, E. C. (1922) A new formula for behaviorism. Psychological Review 29:4453. [WL]
Tolman, E. C. (1932) Purposive behavior in animals and men. Century. [EJW]
Tolman, E. C. (1935) Psychology versus immediate experience. Philosophy of Science 2:356–80. [EJW]
Tolman, E. C. (1948) Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review 55:189208. [EJW]
Tolman, E. & Honzik, C. (1930), “Insight” in rats. In: University of California publications in psychology. University of California Press. [GR, rBFS]
Tracy, W. K. (1970) Wavelength generalization and preference in monochromatically reared ducklings. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 13:163–78. [TRZ]
Tulving, E. (1979) Memory research: What kind of progress. In: Perspectives in memory research, ed. Nilsson, L. A.. Erlbaum. [MJM]
Ullman, S. (1979) The interpretation of visual motion. MIT Press. [JCM]
de Waal, F. (1982) Chimpanzee politics. Jonathan Cape. [GGG]
Wagner, A. R., Rudy, J. W. & Whitlow, J. W. (1973) Rehearsal in animal conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97:407–26. [WST]
Waltz, D. L. (1975) Understanding line drawings of scenes with shadows. In: The psychology of computer vision, ed. Winston, P.. McGraw-Hill. [RCM]
Wann, T. W. (1964) Behaviorism and phenomenology: Contrasting bases for modern psychology. University of Chicago Press. [CNJ, RKT]
Watson, J. B. (1921) Is thinking merely that action of the language mechanisms? British Journal of Psychology 11:87104. [WL]
Weiskrantz, L., Warrington, E. K., Sanders, M. D. & Marshall, J. (1974) Visual capacity in the hemianopie field following a restricted occipital ablation. Brain 97:709–28. [RMG]
Wellman, H. M. (in press) The origins of metacognition. In: Metacognition, cognition and human performance, ed. Forrest-Pressley, D., MacKinnon, G. E. & Waller, T. G.. Academic Press. [CNJ, HMW]
Wiener, N. (1948) Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine. Wiley. [JCM]
Wimmer, H. & Perner, J. (1983) Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception. Cognition 13:103–28. [CNJ]
Wisdom, J. (1952) Other minds. Basil Blackwell. [KG]
Wittgenstein, L. (1958) The blue and brown books. Harper & Row. [MJM]
Wolf, D. (1982) Understanding others: A longitudinal case study of the concept of independent agency. In: Action and thought, ed. Forman, G. E.. Academic Press. [CNJ]
Woodruff, G. & Premack, D. (1979) Intentional communication in the chimpanzee: The development of deception. Cognition 7:333–62. [CNJ]
Woodworth, R. S. & Schlosberg, H. (1955) Experimental psychology. Methuen. [WL]
Wright, A. A. & Cumming, W. W. (1971) Color-naming functions for the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 15:717. [TRZ]
Zentall, T. R. & Edwards, C. A. (in press) Categorical color coding by pigeons. Animal Learning and Behavior. [TRZ]
Zentall, T. R., Edwards, C. A., Moore, B. S. & Hogan, D. E. (1981) Identity: The basis for both matching and oddity learning in pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 7:7086. [TRZ]
Zuriff, G. E. (1979) Ten inner causes. Behaviorism 7:18. [RS, rBFS]


Behaviorism at fifty

  • B. F. Skinner (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed