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Attention and multisensory modulation argue against total encapsulation

  • Benjamin de Haas (a1) (a2), Dietrich Samuel Schwarzkopf (a1) (a2) and Geraint Rees (a1) (a3)


Firestone & Scholl (F&S) postulate that vision proceeds without any direct interference from cognition. We argue that this view is extreme and not in line with the available evidence. Specifically, we discuss two well-established counterexamples: Attention directly affects core aspects of visual processing, and multisensory modulations of vision originate on multiple levels, some of which are unlikely to fall “within perception.”



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