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Reply to commentaries to willpower with and without effort

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 April 2021

George Ainslie*
Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Coatesville, PA19320.;


Twenty-six commentators from several disciplines have written on the assumption that choice is determined by comparative valuation in a common denominator of reward, the “competitive marketplace.” There was no apparent disagreement that prospective rewards are discounted hyperbolically, although some found that the resulting predictions could come just as well from other models, including the interpretation of delay as risk and analysis in terms of hot versus cold valuation systems. Several novel ideas emerged.

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Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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