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Quantum probability and comparative cognition

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 May 2013

Randolph C. Grace
Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Simon Kemp
Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.


Evolution would favor organisms that can make recurrent decisions in accordance with classical probability (CP) theory, because such choices would be optimal in the long run. This is illustrated by the base-rate fallacy and probability matching, where nonhumans choose optimally but humans do not. Quantum probability (QP) theory may be able to account for these species differences in terms of orthogonal versus nonorthogonal representations.

Open Peer Commentary
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013 

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