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Power and Professionalism

  • Alan Sked (a1)


Professor heindl is to be thanked for providing us with an excellent overview of the history of the imperial civil service during the last century and a half of the Habsburgmonarchy. She must also be thanked for providing us with an interesting historiographyof both the Austrian and Prussian bureaucracies, although, she has to confess, at least in theAustrian case, there remains an almost endless list of unanswered questions about these people,ranging from their social and economic background, to the nature and extent of their cooperationon different levels, to their political biases and national leanings, not to mention, of course, their treatment of ordinary citizens.



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1 Waltraud, Heindl, Gehorsame Rebellen. Bürokratie und Beamte in Österreich 1780 bis 1848 (Vienna, 1990).

2 Ibid., 142–59.

3 Ibid., 155.

4 Ibid., 155–59.

5 For research on the foreign ministry, see Godsey, William D. Jr, Aristocratic Redoubt: The Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office on the Eve of the First World War (West Lafayette, 1999); Helmut, Rumpler, ‘Die rechtlich-organisatorischen und sozialen Rahmenbedingungen fur die AuCenpolitik der Habsburgermonarchie 1848–1918,’ in Die Habsburgermonarchie, vol. 4, part 1, Die Habsburgermonarchie im System der internationalen Beziehungen, ed. Adam, Wandruszka and Peter, Urbanitsch (Vienna, 1989), 1121; Éva, Somogyi, ‘Magyar Diplomaták a közsös külügyminisztériumban’ [Hungarian diplomats in the common Ministry of Foreign Affairs], in Századok. A Magyar történelmi társulat folyóirata. Az alapitás Éve 1867. Különlenyomat [Centuries: The journal of the Hungarian Historical Society. Founded in 1867. Offprint] 138, no. 3 (2004): 602–72; and Somogyi, , ‘Im Dienst der Monarchic oder der Nation? Ungarische Führungsbeamte am Ballhausplatz,’ Österreichische Osthefte 44, nos. 34 (2002): 596626.

6 Alan, Sked, The Survival of the Habsburg Empire: Radetzky, the Imperial Army and the Class War, 1848 (London, 1979), chap. 1.

7 Heindl, , Gehorsame Rebellen, 140.

8 Herbert, Matis, Austria's leading economic historian, first pointed out to me the value of Turnbull's volumes many years ago. See Peter, Evan Turnbull, Austria, 2 vols. (London, 1840). For his figure for the number of civil servants, see Ibid., 2:241.

9 Ibid., 2:248.

10 Ibid., 2:244.

11 Raymond, Grew, ‘The Nineteenth-Century European State,’ in Statemaking and Social Movements: Essays in History and Theory, ed. Charles, Bright and Susan, Harding (Ann Arbor, 1987), 83120, esp. 87.

12 Hamerow, Theodore S., The Birth of a New Europe: State and Society in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill, 1983), 264. On page 263, he gives the figures for British civil servants employed by central government as 50,000 in 1881 and 116,000 in 1901. These again demonstrate, given the figures in the main text, just how difficult it is to find reliable, never mind comparable, statistics.

13 Anderson, Eugene N. and Anderson, Pauline R., Political Institutions and Social Change in Continental Europe in the Nineteenth Century (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1967), 167. It is not clear whether England refers to the entire United Kingdom in this case.

14 G. E., Aylmer, ‘Bureaucracy,’ in The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 13, Companion Volume, ed. Peter, Burke (Cambridge, 1979). On the other hand, there are some (economic) statistics on Austria Hungary in Mitchell, B. R., European Historical Statistics, 1750–1970 (Stanford, 1978).

15 Turnbull, , Austria, 2:242.

16 Ibid., 2:244.

17 Ibid., 2:390–91.

18 Ibid., 2:391.

19 See Alan, Sked, The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815–1918, 2nd ed. (London, 2001), 294–99.

20 Ibid., 280–99: ‘Metternich's Austria as a Josephinist State.’

21 Research has been done, of course, on the foreign ministry, as Heindl points out. What is missing is research on the home civil service. See note 5.

22 A. Lawrence, Lowell, Governments and Parties in Continental Europe, 2 vols. (London, 1986). Austria-Hungary is dealt with in Ibid., 2:70–179.

23 Ibid., 2:78.

24 Ibid., 2:78.

25 Ibid., 2:78–79.

26 Ibid., 2:79.

27 For these examples, see Ibid., 2:80–82.

28 Ibid., 2:82–83.

29 Ibid.,2:83nl.

30 Ibid., 2:84.

31 Ibid., 2:84.

32 Ibid., 2:82.

33 Ibid., 2:82.

34 Rudolf, Sieghart, Die Letzten jahrzehnte einer Crossmacht. Menschen, Völker, Probleme des Habsburger-Reichs (Berlin, 1932), 265–69.

35 Ibid., 265.

36 Ibid., 268.

37 Ibid., 269.

Power and Professionalism

  • Alan Sked (a1)


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