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Beyond Form and Fancy: The Merchant Palaces of Kazimierz Dolny in Poland

  • Katie Jakobiec

Abstract

This article builds upon Jan Białostocki's seminal book The Art of the Renaissance in Eastern Europe by examining two merchant palaces in the port city of Kazimierz Dolny on the Vistula River in Poland but departs from his interpretation of them. Focusing on the stucco architecture and relief-sculpture of their façades, the article argues against Białostocki's traditional reading of imitation as being driven by artistic influence, and, through the study of the city's mercantile and pilgrimage context, it proposes instead that a notion of imitation that was deeply immersed in sophisticated practices of copying and reference making. It concludes that the merchant community in Kazimierz Dolny was aiming to forge a new civic identity in order to contend in a broader social, religious and economic realm that was traversed by merchants, travellers and pilgrims alike.

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NOTES

1 Białostocki, Jan, The Art of the Renaissance in Eastern Europe. Hungary, Bohemia, Poland (Oxford, 1976). For engagement with Białostocki's work, see Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta, ‘Italian Sculptors and Sculpture Outside of Italy (Chiefly in Central Europe): Problems of Approach, Possibilities of Reception’, in Reframing the Renaissance: Visual Culture in Europe and Latin America 1450–1650, ed. Farago, Claire (New Haven and London, 1995), pp. 4766 ; Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta, ‘Acculturation, Transculturation, Cultural Difference and Diffusion? Assessing the Assimilation of the Renaissance’, in Unity and Discontinuity: Architectural Relationships Between the Southern and Northern Low Countries (1530–1700), ed. De Jonge, Krista and Ottenheym, Konrad (Turnhout, 2007), pp. 339–49.

2 Białostocki, The Art of the Renaissance in Eastern Europe, p. 11.

3 Ibid ., p. 5.

4 Ibid . See discussion in Kaufmann, ‘Italian Sculptors and Sculpture Outside of Italy’, pp. 47– 66.

5 Białostocki, The Art of the Renaissance in Eastern Europe, p. 88.

6 Ibid ., pp. 2 and 43.

7 Ibid ., p. 88.

8 Cooper, Donal and Leino, Marika, ‘Introduction’, in Depth of Field: Relief Sculpture in Renaissance Italy, ed. Cooper, Donal and Leino, Marika (Bern, 2007), pp. 21 and 29; Boucher, Bruce, ‘Italian Renaissance Terracotta: Artistic Revival or Technological Innovation’, in Earth and Fire: Italian Terracotta Sculpture from Donatello to Canova, ed. Boucher, Bruce (New Haven, 2001), p. 31 .

9 Białostocki, The Art of the Renaissance in Eastern Europe, p. 88. Białostocki was not the only historian to offer critical assessment of the merchant houses of Kazimierz Dolny; see also Majewski, Karol, ‘Dekoracja fasad kamienic Przybyłowskich w Kazimierzu’, Studia i materiały Lubelskie. Historia Sztuki, 1 (1963), pp. 73127 ; Husarski, Wacław, Kamienice renesansowe w Kazimierzu Dolnym (Warszawa, 1950); Miłobędzki, Adam, ‘Ze studiów nad architekturą Kazimierza Dolnego’, in Granice Sztuki, ed. Białostocki, Jan, Piwocki, Ksawery et al. (Warszawa, 1972), pp. 95102 ; Miłobędzki, Adam, Zarys dziejów architektury w Polsce (Warszawa, 1968).

10 Miłobędzki, ‘Ze studiów nad architekturą Kazimierza Dolnego’, p. 100.

11 Wood, Christopher S., ‘Germany's Blind Renaissance’, in Infinite Boundaries: Order, Disorder, and Reorder in Early Modern German Culture, ed. Reinhart, Max (Kirksville, 1997), pp. 225244 (pp. 225–26)

12 Kaufmann, ‘Italian Sculptors and Sculpture Outside of Italy’, p. 57.

13 Guile, Carolyn C., ‘Circulations: Early Modern Architecture in the Polish-Lithuanian Borderland’, in Circulations in the Global History of Art, ed. Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta, Dossin, Catherine, and Joyeux-Prunel, Béatrice (Surrey, 2015), pp. 7996 (p. 80–81).

14 Richter, I.A., ed., The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (Oxford, 1952), p. 330 .

15 Cooper and Leino, ‘Introduction’, in Depth of Field, ed. Cooper and Leino, pp. 21–40 (p. 21). See also Boucher, ‘Italian Renaissance Terracotta’, pp. 28–29. Boucher discusses the prejudice against terracotta and examines the differences between the subtractive processes in sculpture versus the adding processes.

16 Maria Giulia Barberini, ‘Base or Noble Material? Clay Sculpture in Seventeenth-and Eighteenth-Century Italy’, in Earth and Fire, ed. Boucher pp. 43–59 (p. 43).

17 Frascari, Marco, ‘ Semiotica Ab Edendo, Taste in Architecture’, in Eating Architecture, ed. Horwitz, Jamie and Singley, Paulette (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 191203 .

18 Białostocki, The Art of the Renaissance in Eastern Europe, pp. 88. In Bialostocki's writing there is further evidence of the paragone debate where he assesses the relief sculpture as a ‘striving for concrete forms dominates this decoration: it is plastic, convex, tactile, not painterly but picturesque’. He lists a series of classifying principles, such as painterly versus linear or the Classical sobriety versus Baroque fancifulness as described in Wölfflin, Henrich, Principles of Art History: The Problem of the Development of Style in Later Art (ed. New York, 1950; (First published in 1915). See the discussion of these issues in Johnson, ‘The Art of Touch in Early Modern Italy’, pp. 74–75.

19 Vitruvius, De architectura, 7, Chap. 5; The Ten Books on Architecture, trans. Morgan, Morris Hicky (New York, 1960), pp. 210–11.

20 Ibid.; trans. Morgan, p. 211.

21 Ibid.; trans. Morgan, p. 212.

22 Payne, Alina, ‘Renaissance sgraffito Façades and the Circulation of Objects in the Mediterranean’, in Synergies in Visual Culture, ed. Hoffmann, Annette and Suthor, Nicola (Munich, 2013), pp. 229–41 (p. 229); Payne, Alina, ‘Wrapped in Fabric: Florentine Façades, Mediterranean Textiles, and A-Tectonic Ornament in the Renaissance’, in Histories of Ornament: From Global to Local, ed. Necipoğlu, Gürlu and Payne, Alina (Princeton, 2016), pp. 274305 (pp. 274–89); Alina Payne, ‘Materiality, Crafting and Scale in Renaissance Architecture’, Oxford Art Journal (2009), pp. 365–86.

23 Payne, ‘Renaissance sgraffito Façades', pp. 231–33; Payne, ‘Wrapped in Fabric’, pp. 274–89. Studies on Polish sgraffito include: Moisan-Jabłońska, Krystyna, ‘Sgraffito na fasadzie kamienicy Górskich w Kazimierz Dolnym nad Wisłą i jego pierwowzór graficzny’, in Studia nad sztuką renesansu i baroku VIII. Fundator i dzieło w sztuce nowożytnej, cz. III, ed. Lileyko, Jerzy and Rolska-Boruch, I. (Lublin, 2007), pp. 259–74; Rudkowski, Tadeusz, ‘Dekoracje sgraffitowe kamienic mieszczańskich w Polsce w XVI i XVII wieku’, Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki, XXX, z. 2 (1985), pp. 227–43; Rudkowski, Tadeusz, Polskie sgraffita renesansowe (Warszawa, 2006); Rudkowski, Tadeusz, ‘Renesansowe sgraffita figuralne na elewacjach kamienic mieszczańskich w Europie Środkowej’, in Sztuka miast i mieszczaństwa XV–XVIII wieku w Europie Środkowowschodniej, ed. Harasimowicz, Jan (Warszawa, 1990), pp. 317–34.

24 Payne, ‘Renaissance sgraffito’, p. 235. See also The Image in Form: Selected Writings of Adrian Stokes ed. Wollheim, Richard (Harmondsworth, 1973), pp. 150–51. Stokes differentiates between the carving and modelling approach in sculptural arts. He states that ‘in the two activities there lies a vast difference that symbolises not only the two aspects of labour, but even the respective roles of male and female. Man, in his male aspect, is the cultivator or carver of woman who, in her female aspect, moulds her products as does the earth’.

25 I discovered the prayer books at the archive of the Parish Church in Kazimierz Dolny. Thanks to John T. McQuillan, assistant curator at the Morgan Library, for explaining the technique to me. See examples of such prayer books in, Kyriss, Ernst, Der verzierte europäische Einband vor der Renaissance (Stuttgart, 1957); Foot, Mirjam M., The History of Bookbinding as a Mirror of Society (London, 1998).

26 It has been noted that the depicted rulers are both Catholic and Protestant. This co-existence of faiths will be discussed later in the paper where I argue that it is a theme of architectural iconography to show one's religious identity but to emphasise its tolerant character through juxtaposition of virtues and Latin inscriptions articulating civic ethics and morals.

27 I do not mean metaphorically. It has come to my attention that there were instances of pilgrims bringing back dust and/or scratched building matter collected at holy sites that they mixed into a drink.

28 Jakobiec, Katie, ‘Architecture of Benefaction: The Last Will and Testament of a Grain Merchant’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 47: 4 (2017), pp. 119 .

29 Obuchowska-Pysiowa, Honorata, Handel wiślany w pierwszej połowie XVII wieku (Wrocław, 1964), p. 56 ; Kus, Józef, ‘Udział Kazimierza Dolnego w spławie wiślanym od XVI do XVIII wieku’, in Problemy dziejów i konserwacji miast zabytkowych, ed. Szczygieł, R. (Radom, 1990), p. 57 ; Chruszczewski, Adam, ‘Kupcy zbożowi i handel zbożem w Kazimierzu Dolnym w drugiej połowie XVI wieku’, Roczniki Humanistyczne KUL t. VI, z. 5 (1958), p. 96 .

30 Van Tielhof, Milja, The ‘Mother of all Trades’. The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam From the Late 16th to the Early 19th Century (Leiden, 2002); Attman, Artur, The Russian and Polish Markets in International Trade 1500–1650 (Göteborg, 1973), p. 21 ; Obuchowska-Pysiowa, Handel wiślany, p. 56.

31 Chruszczewski, ‘Kupcy zbożowi i handel zbożem’, p. 102; Małecki, Jan M., Związki handlowe miast polskich z Gdańskiem w XVI i pierwszej połowie XVII wieku (Wrocław, 1968), p. 121 .

32 Miłobędzki, Adam, ‘Architektura i społeczeństwo’, in Polska w epoce Odrodzenia: państwo, społeczeństwo, kultura, ed. Wyczański, Andrzej (Warszawa, 1986), pp. 357–99 (p. 358). Miłobędzki states that in c.1500 only four per cent of buildings on Crown land were stone (except in Royal Prussia, where there were Teutonic buildings constructed out of brick). See also Miłobędzki, Adam, ‘Architektoniczna tradycja średniowiecza w krajobrazie kulturowym Polski XVI–XVIII w. Sześć propozycji problemowych’, in Symbolae historiae artium: studia z historii sztuki Lechowi Kalinowskiemu dedykowane (Warsaw, 1986), pp. 369–70. He writes that stone architecture constituted less than one per cent of urban development, the rest was wood. See also Herbst, Stanisław, Miasta i mieszczaństwo renesansu polskiego (Warsaw, 1954), p. 22 ; Andrzej Wyrobisz, Budownictwo murowane w Małopolsce w XIV i XV wieku. Instytut Historii Kultury Materialnej Polskiej Akademii Nauk: Studia z dziejów rzemiosła i przemysłu, T. 3 (Wrocław, 1963), pp. 36–37 and 40–46. Wyrobisz claims that there was no stone-building tradition in Poland before the introduction of Christianity. Then, stone architecture was limited to the building of churches, fortresses (which were architectural projects funded by the Church or princely patrons), and to a much lesser extent residential buildings; see also Żaryń, Stanisław, ‘Kamienica warszawska w XV i XVI wieku’, Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki, XXX, z. 2 (1985), pp. 103–25 (p. 106).

33 Archiwum Państwowe w Lublinie (APL), APL–35–37–0, Signature 5, 1614, p. 391; APL–35–37–0, Signature 8, 1632, pp. 417–18.

34 APL–35–37–0, Signature 5, 1613, p. 189; APL–35–37–0, Signature 5, 1613, p. 159; Maria Stankowa, ‘Kazimierz nad Wisłą i starostwo kazimierskie. Rys historyczny’ (unpublished dissertation completed in 1951, Lublin), p. 200; this work is presently held at the Muzeum Nadwiślańskie w Kazimierzu Dolnym (MNK), Archiwum Nr. 3712 DT.

35 Pinińska, Joanna, Bobrawska, Alicja and Łukasiak, Dominik, ‘The Influence of Natural Climatic Factors on the Geomechanical Properties of Siliceous Limestones from Kazimierz Dolny (Poland)’, Studia Quaternaria, vol. 33, no. 2 (2016), pp. 103–10 (p. 104). See also Beard, Stucco and Decorative Plasterwork in Europe, p. 10. Lime needs to be burned which turns it into ‘quick lime’, or calcium oxide, and is then ‘slaked’ with added water to become calcium hydroxide.

36 Teodorowicz-Czerepińska, Jadwiga, Rozpoznanie historyczne tzw. Spichlerza Feirsteina w Kazimierzu Dolnym (ul. Puławska 40) (Lublin: 1985), pp. 35 . This document is at the Muzeum Nadwiślańskie w Kazimierzu Dolnym (MNK), Archiwum Nr. 2263 DT. See also Dumnicki, Juliusz, Spichrze polskie (Warszawa, 1987), p. 59 (see footnote 99).

37 See for example Clarke, Georgia, Roman House-Renaissance Palaces: Inventing Antiquity in Fifteenth-Century Italy (Cambridge, 2003), p. 221 . Clarke writes that imitating stone would have been even more important than using ‘original’ materials because it was a means to display skill. See also Burroughs, Charles, The Italian Renaissance Palace Façade: Structures of Authority, Surfaces of Sense (Cambridge, 2002), p. 64 .

38 Miłobędzki, Adam, ‘Architecture in Wood: Technology, Symbolic Content, Art’, Artibus et Historiae, vol. 10, no. 19 (1989), pp. 177206 (p. 177).

39 Translating the term kamienica into English is a challenge. According to the Pocket Oxford – PWN Polish Dictionary (Oxford, 2005), p. 121 , a kamienica is a ‘tenement house’. Scholars have also used the term ‘burgher house’ (Bürgerhaus in German), or alternatively ‘town house’ or ‘patrician house’. The term ‘tenement’ would suggest that this type of building was always tenanted or, in other words, divided into separate areas or apartments and used by various tenants and renters; but, although the conversion of the single-family house into a tenement did occur sporadically in other cities in Poland as early as the end of the sixteenth century, this cannot be said for every kamienica and it certainly does not present the range of its uses over time. See Simpson, J.A. and Weiner, E.S.C., ‘Tenement,’ The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, vol. XVII (Oxford, 1989), pp. 77475. See also Kręglewska-Foksowicz, Ewa, ‘Kamienica miejska w Polsce do końca XVIII wieku’, Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki, XXX, z. 2 (1985), pp. 99103 (p. 105); Tajchman, Jan, ‘Przemiany funkcjonalne toruńskiego domu mieszczańskiego w czasach nowożytnych’, Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki, XXX, z. 2 (1985), pp. 111–33 (p. 133).

40 Ibid.

41 In the archives, there are multiple references to patrons supplying materials. In one case a patron failed to abide by the contract and delayed the workmen who brought the case to court; APL–35–37–0, Signature 5, p. 399; APL–35–37–0, Signature 6, pp. 181–82.

42 Gapper, Claire and Orton, Jeff, ‘Plaster, Stucco and Stuccoes’, Journal of Architectural Conservation, 17:3 (2011), pp. 722 ; Ling, Roger, ‘Stuccowork’, Stuccowork and Painting in Roman Italy, ed. Ling, Roger (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 209–21 (p. 209).

43 Clarke, Michael, ‘Stucco’, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms, Second Edition (Oxford, 2010), no page number.

44 Vitruvius, De architectura, 7, Chaps 2–6; trans. Morgan, p. 207.

45 Ibid.; trans. Morgan, pp. 204–14.

46 Pliny, Historia naturalis, 36, 53, 174; Natural History in Ten Volumes X: Libri XXXVI–XXXVII, trans. Eichholz, D. E. (Cambridge, 1962), p. 137 .

47 Ibid., 36, 53, 174 – 55, 177; trans. Eichholz, pp. 137–41.

48 Alberti, Leon Battista, On the Art of Building in Ten Books, trans. Rykwert, Joseph, Leach, Neil and Tavernor, Robert (London, 1988), Book 2, Chapter 11, pp. 53–56.

49 Gapper and Orton, ‘Plaster, Stucco and Stuccoes’, p. 10.

50 Ling, ‘Stuccowork’, p. 215. See also Beard, Geoffrey, Stucco and Decorative Plasterwork in Europe (London, 1983), pp. 911 . Beard writes that chopped animal hair was added to stucco to create the armature.

51 The Image in Form: Selected Writings of Adrian Stokes, ed. Wollheim, p. 156. See also Schmitter, Monika, ‘Falling Through the Cracks: the Fate of Painted Palace Façades in Sixteenth-Century Italy’, in The Built Surface: Architecture and the Pictorial Arts from Antiquity to the Enlightenment, ed. Anderson, Christy (Aldershot, 2002), pp. 130–61 (p. 153).

52 Gapper and Orton, ‘Plaster, Stucco and Stuccoes’, p. 9; Vasari, Giorgio, Vasari on Technique, ed. Brown, G. Baldwin (New York, 1960), pp. 170–72.

53 Vasari, Giorgio, Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori, scultori ed architetti, ed. Milanesi, Gaetano., 9 vols (Florence 1878–85), 6, pp. 551–57.

54 Gapper and Orton, ‘Plaster, Stucco and Stuccoes’, pp. 10–11.

55 Vasari, Le vite, 4, p. 160.

56 Kaufmann, ‘Italian Sculptors and Sculpture Outside of Italy’, pp. 62–63.

57 Miłobędzki, ‘Ze studiów nad architekturą Kazimierza Dolnego’, p. 100.

58 Marek Rembiś, A. Smoleńska, ‘Kamień w architekturze i rzeźbie Kaplicy Boimów we Lwowie’, Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki, t. LI, z. 1–4 (2007), pp. 147–159.

59 Here I am discussing the Przybyło houses and not making a general claim about the other kamienice in Kazimierz Dolny. The archives speak about the different uses of the houses at different times; they were rented for their apartments and stores. Nicolaus Przybyło uses the main chamber of his kamienica to draft his last will and testament in the presence of male witnesses, which shows that the house could have been regularly used as a meeting space for formal and business transactions (APL–35–37–0, Signature 5, 1614, pp. 423–24; APL–35–37–0, Signature 5, 1615, p. 427).

60 I discuss the significance of this in Jakobiec, ‘Architecture of Benefaction’, pp. 1–19.

61 Husarski, Kamienice renesansowe w Kazimierzu Dolnym, p. 26; Majewski, ‘Dekoracja fasad kamienic Przybyłowskich w Kazimierzu’, p. 89.

62 Shearman, John, Mannerism (London, 1967), p. 21 .

63 Czekierski, ‘Kazimierz Dolny’, p. 34.

64 For a discussion of frames see Peter Dent, ‘Contemplative Relief: Meditating on Christ through Sculptural Form in Early Trecento Italy’, in Depth of Field, ed. Cooper and Leino), pp. 41–69 (p. 42). Dent talks about the use of frames with the aim to imitate the painted panel, or the ‘chiselled picture’ or ‘sculpted image’.

65 Johnson, Geraldine A., ‘Art or artefact? Madonna and Child Reliefs in the Early Renaissance’, in The Sculptural Object 1400–1700, ed. Currie, Stuart and Motture, Peta (Brookfield, 1997), pp. 117 (p. 3); Kreytenberg, Gert, ‘Ein doppelseitiges Triptychon in Marmor von Tino di Camaino aus der Zeit um 1334’, in Medien der Macht. Kunst zur Zeit der Anjous in Italien, ed. Michalsky, Tanja (Berlin, 2001), pp. 262–74; Johnson, ‘The Art of Touch in Early Modern Italy’, pp. 59–84; Seidel, Max, Italian Art of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Venice, 2005); Dent, ‘Contemplative Relief’, pp. 41–69.

66 Krystyna Trzeciak et al., Kazimierz Dolny. Konserwacja kamienic Przybyłowskich 1982–1987 r. Maszynopis (MNK), Archiwum Nr. 3389 DT, pp. 1–12.

67 Farmer, David, Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Oxford, 1997), pp. 100–01.

68 Voragine, Jacobus, The Golden Legend, trans. Ryan, G. and Ripperger, H. (London, 1941), p. 377 .

69 Muir, Edward, ‘The Virgin on the Street Corner: The Place of the Sacred in Italian Cities’, in Religion and Culture in the Renaissance and Reformation, ed. Ozment, Steven (Kirksville, Mo, 1989), pp. 2540 (pp. 25–26); Motture, Peta, ‘Making and Viewing: Donatello and the Treatment of Relief’, in Depth of Field: The Place of Relief in the Time of Donatello, ed. Curtis, Penelope (Leeds, 2005), pp. 1829 (p. 19). Sell also Paoletti, John T., ‘Familiar Objects: Sculptural Types in the Collections of the Early Medici’, in Looking at Italian Renaissance Sculpture, ed. McHam, Sarah Blake (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 79110 (p. 81); Dent, ‘Contemplative Relief’, p. 67.

70 Dünninger, J., ‘Fourteen Holy Helpers’, in New Catholic Encyclopaedia, vol. 5, 2nd ed. (Detroit, 2003), pp. 836–37; Farmer, Oxford Dictionary of Saints, 100–01; Henderson, John, The Renaissance Hospital: Healing the Body and Healing the Soul (New Haven and London, 2006), p. 126 .

71 Farmer, Oxford Dictionary of Saints, pp. 100–01. See also the example given by Wood of an indulgence woodcut showing a wound of Christ in actual size that Pope Innocent promised insurance against death for those who kissed the printed cross, Wood, ‘Germany's Blind Renaissance’, p. 240.

72 Anderson, Christy, Inigo Jones and the Classical Tradition (Cambridge, 2007), p. 108 . See also Burroughs, The Italian Renaissance Palace Façade, p. 28; Bath, Michael, Speaking Pictures: English Emblem Books and Renaissance Culture (London, 1994), pp. 3132 . As Charles Burroughs stated about the Renaissance façade, ‘meaning arises in a process of interpretation that is open-ended and even ludic, responsive to allusions and cues that invite further reflection, rather than enforcing a single, universally binding construal’.

73 Paoletti, ‘Familiar Objects’, p. 81.

74 Parshall, Peter, ‘Imago Contrafacta: Images and facts in the Northern Renaissance’, Art History, v. 16, issue 4 (1993), pp. 554579 (p. 565).

75 Sieciechowiczowa, Lucyna, Życie codzienne w renesansowym Poznaniu 1518–1619 (Warszawa, 1974), pp. 1718 . Kowalczyk, Jerzy, ‘Fasada ratusza poznańskiego. Recepcja form z traktatu Serlia i artystyczny program’, Rocznik Historii Sztuki, t. VIII (1970), pp. 141173 .

76 Kowalczyk, ‘Fasada ratusza poznańskiego’, pp. 141–173.

77 Kowalczyk, ‘Fasada ratusza poznańskiego’, pp. 164–165.

78 Bielak, Jacek, ‘Ikonografia Złotej Kamienicy na nowo odczytana. O związkach polityki, kultury i sztuki w Gdańsku początku XVII wieku,’ in Mieszczaństwo gdańskie, ed. Salmonowicz, Stanisław (Gdańsk, 1997), pp. 377392 .

79 Archivum Conventus Casimiriensis P.P. Reformatorum ad Aedes B.V. Mariae ab Archangelo Salutatae, p. 16. The painting is oil on panel (210 x 119 cm). The manuscript is located at the Archiwum Prowincji Franciszkanów-Reformatów w Krakowie (APFR).

80 Ibid. p. 113, 120. For a discussion of cultic imagery see, Bynum, Caroline Walker, Christian Materiality: An Essay on Religion in Late Medieval Europe (New York, 2011), pp. 5359 .

81 Michalczuk, Stanisław, ‘Domek loretański w Gołębiu. Geneza jego treści ideowych i artystycznych’, in Treści dzieła sztuki (Warszawa, 1969), pp. 153–71.

82 Krautheimer, Richard, ‘Introduction to an “Iconography of Medieval Architecture”’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, v. 5 (1942), pp. 133 . See also Davies, Paul, Howard, Deborah and Pullan, Wendy, eds., Architecture and Pilgrimage 1000–1500: Southern Europe and Beyond (Farnham, 2013).

83 Nova, Alessandro, ‘“Popular” Art in Renaissance Italy: Early Response to the Holy Mountain at Varallo’, in Reframing the Renaissance: Visual Culture in European and Latin America 1450–1650, ed. Farago, Claire (New Haven and London, 1995), pp. 113–26; Hood, William, ‘The Sacro Monte of Varallo: Renaissance Art and Popular Religion’, in Monasticism and the Arts, ed. Verdon, Timothy (New York, 1990), pp. 291311 .

84 See this idea in Krautheimer ‘Introduction to an ‘Iconography of Medieval Architecture’, pp. 1–33.

85 See these ideas in Maniura, Robert, ‘Two Marian Image Shrines in Fifteenth-Century Tuscany, the ‘Iconography of Architecture’ and the Limits of ‘Holy Competition’, in Architecture and Pilgrimage 1000–1500: Southern Europe and Beyond, eds. Davies, Paul, Howard, Deborah and Pullan, Wendy (Farnham, 2013), pp. 213229 (p. 220–21); Davies, Paul, ‘Likeness in Italian Renaissance Pilgrimage Architecture’, in Architecture and Pilgrimage 1000–1500: Southern Europe and Beyond, eds. Davies, Paul, Howard, Deborah and Pullan, Wendy (Farnham, 2013), pp. 187211 ; Davies, Paul, ‘The Madonna delle Carceri in Prato and Italian Renaissance pilgrimage architecture’, Architectural History, 36 (1993), pp. 118 .

86 Davies, ‘Likeness in Italian Renaissance Pilgrimage Architecture’, p. 197.

87 Paulette Singley and Jamie Horwitz, ‘Introduction’, in Eating Architecture, pp. 5–17; Allen S. Weiss, ‘Culinary Manifestations of the Genius Loci’, in Eating Architecture, pp. 21–32.

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