Stroke: roles of B vitamins, homocysteine and antioxidants. Nutr Res Rev.
Homocysteine, B-vitamins and CVD. Proc Nutr Soc.
Riboflavin lowers homocysteine in individuals homozygous for the MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism. Circulation. 2006 Jan 3;113(1):74–80.
Homocysteine--risk factor for ischemic stroke?
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.
Homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) correlation in ischemic stroke patients. J Neurol Sci.
2009 Jun 15;281(1–2):64–8.
Homocysteine and its relationship to stroke subtypes in a UK black population: the south London ethnicity and stroke study. Stroke. 2008 Nov;39(11):2943–9.
Correlations between folate, B12, homocysteine levels, and radiological markers of neuropathology in elderly post-stroke patients. J Am Coll Nutr.
Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2002 Oct 23-30;288(16):2015–22.
Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ. 2002 Nov 23;325(7374):1202.
Homocysteine, MTHFR 677C-->T polymorphism, and risk of ischemic stroke: results of a meta-analysis. Neurology. 2002 Aug 27;59(4):529–36.
Is ischemic stroke risk related to folate status or other nutrients correlated with folate intake?
Stroke. 2008 Dec;39(12):3152–8.
Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and methionine intakes and risk of stroke subtypes in male smokers. Am J Epidemiol.
2008 Apr 15;167(8):954–61.
B vitamin plasma levels and the risk of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack in a German cohort. Stroke. 2007 Nov;38(11):2912–8.
Van Guelpen, B.
Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: a prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke. 2005 Jul;36(7):1426–31.
Periventricular white matter lucencies relate to low vitamin B12 levels in patients with small vessel stroke. Stroke. 2009 May;40(5):1623–6.
Folate, vitamin B6, and B12 intakes in relation to risk of stroke among men. Stroke. 2004 Jan;35(1):169–74.
Inflammation, homocysteine, and vitamin B6 status after ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2004 Jan;35(1):12–5.
Low circulating folate and vitamin B6 concentrations: risk factors for stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease. European COMAC Group. Circulation. 1998 Feb 10;97(5):437–43.
Riboflavin status in acute ischaemic stroke. Eur J Clin Nutr.
Prospective evaluation of dietary and other predictors of fatal stroke in Shanghai, China. Circulation. 1997 Jul 1;96(1):50–5.
Homocystine levels, polymorphisms and the risk of ischemic stroke in young Asian Indians. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis.
[Prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation among patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease in Aragon]
An Med Interna.
Role of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in ischemic stroke. Neurol India. 2006 Mar;54(1):48–50.
Hyperhomocysteinemia, low folate and vitamin B12 concentrations, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase mutation in cerebral venous thrombosis. Stroke. 2004 Aug;35(8):1790–4.
Polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene: its impact on plasma homocysteine levels and carotid atherosclerosis in ESRD patients receiving hemodialysis. Nephron. 2001 Mar;87(3):249–56.
Opposite effects of plasma homocysteine and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation on carotid artery geometry in asymptomatic adults. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and homocysteine-lowering effect of vitamin therapy in Singaporean stroke patients. Stroke. 2006 Feb;37(2):456–60.
Ischemic stroke and hyperhomocysteinemia: truth or myth?
Acta Neurol Belg.
Homocysteine and cerebral ischemia: pathogenic and therapeutical implications. Curr Med Chem.
Clinical usefulness of plasma homocysteine in vascular disease. Med J Aust.
2004 Sep 20;181(6):314–8.
DACH-LIGA homocystein (german, austrian and swiss homocysteine society): consensus paper on the rational clinical use of homocysteine, folic acid and B-vitamins in cardiovascular and thrombotic diseases: guidelines and recommendations. Clin Chem Lab Med.
Hyperhomocysteinaemia: a critical review of old and new aspects. Curr Drug Metab.
Vitamins and stroke: the homocysteine hypothesis still in doubt. Neurologist. 2008 Jan;14(1):2–4.
Homocysteine in the prevention of ischemic heart disease, stroke and venous thromboembolism: therapeutic target or just another distraction?
Curr Opin Hematol.
Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: a review of the evidence. Diab Vasc Dis Res.
Novel pro-atherogenic molecule coupling factor 6 is elevated in patients with stroke: a possible linkage to homocysteine. Ann Med.
Homocysteine decreases blood flow to the brain due to vascular resistance in carotid artery. Neurochem Int.
Clinical use and rational management of homocysteine, folic acid, and B vitamins in cardiovascular and thrombotic diseases. Z Kardiol.
[Hyperhomocysteinemia: an independent risk factor or a simple marker of vascular disease?. 1. Basic data]
Pathol Biol (Paris). 2003 Mar;51(2):101–10.
Inflammation, homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness. Rev Port Cardiol.
[Hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with atherosclerotic extracranial disease of the carotid artery]
Klin Lab Diagn.
2006 Jun;(6):20–2, 35.
Serum level of homocysteine is correlated to carotid artery atherosclerosis in Chinese with ischemic stroke. Neurol Res.
et al. Carotid wall thickness and stroke risk in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid stenosis. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Jan 4. Epub.
Carotid intima-media thickness: knowledge and application to everyday practice. Postgrad Med.
Common carotid intima-media thickness in acute ischemic stroke: A case control study. Neurol India. 2009 Sep-Oct;57(5):627–30.
Homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness in ischemic stroke patients are not correlated. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Apr;4(2):477–9.
Correlations between plasma homocysteine and folate concentrations and carotid atherosclerosis in high-risk individuals: baseline data from the Homocysteine and Atherosclerosis Reduction Trial (HART). Vasc Med.
Effect of a treatment strategy consisting of pravastatin, vitamin E, and homocysteine lowering on carotid intima-media thickness, endothelial function, and renal function in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease: results from the Anti-Oxidant Therapy in Chronic Renal Insufficiency (ATIC) Study. Arch Intern Med.
2007 Jun 25;167(12):1262–70.
Effect of folic acid treatment on carotid intima-media thickness of patients with coronary disease. Int J Cardiol.
2007 Jun 12;118(3):345–9.
High-dose B vitamin supplementation and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke. 2009 Mar;40(3):730–6.
Uremic hyperhomocysteinemia: a randomized trial of folate treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular events. Hemodial Int.
Effect of short-term folate and vitamin B supplementation on blood homocysteine level and carotid artery wall thickness in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Med Assoc Thai.
Decrease of carotid intima-media thickness in patients at risk to cerebral ischemia after supplementation with folic acid, Vitamins B6 and B12. Atherosclerosis. 2005 Jul;181(1):131–5.
van Dijk, RA.
Long-term homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus pyridoxine is associated with decreased blood pressure but not with improved brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation or carotid artery stiffness: a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.
Homocysteine reduces endothelial progenitor cells in stroke patients through apoptosis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab.
Folic acid deficiency increases delayed neuronal death, DNA damage, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity, and gliosis in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci Res.
[Effects of folic acid, vitamin B(6) and vitamin B(12) on learning and memory function in cerebral ischemia rats]
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007 May;41(3):212–4.
Folic acid improves endothelial function in coronary artery disease via mechanisms largely independent of homocysteine lowering. Circulation. 2002 Jan 1;105(1):22–6.
Administration of riboflavin improves behavioral outcome and reduces edema formation and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2005 Oct;22(10):1112–22.
Mortality and cardiovascular events in patients treated with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins after coronary angiography: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Aug 20;300(7):795–804.
Effect of folic acid and B vitamins on risk of cardiovascular events and total mortality among women at high risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008 May 7;299(17):2027–36.
Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med.
2006 Apr 13;354(15):1578–88.
Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. N Engl J Med.
2006 Apr 13;354(15):1567–77.
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Atherosclerosis and Folic Acid Supplementation Trial (ASFAST) in chronic renal failure: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol.
2006 Mar 21;47(6):1108–16.
Homocysteine-lowering vitamin B treatment decreases cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients. Blood Purif.
Vitamin Intervention For Stroke Prevention trial: an efficacy analysis. Stroke. 2005 Nov;36(11):2404–9.
Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004 Feb 4;291(5):565–75.
Secondary prevention with folic acid: results of the Goes extension study. Heart. 2005 Sep;91(9):1213–4.
Efficacy of folic acid when added to statin therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia following acute myocardial infarction: a randomised pilot trial. Int J Cardiol.
Randomized trial of folic acid for prevention of cardiovascular events in end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol.
Lowered risks of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease after vitamin/mineral supplementation: the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trial. Am J Epidemiol.
1996 Apr 1;143(7):658–64.
et al. Homocysteine lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.
2009 Oct 7;(4):CD006612.
Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2006 Dec 13;296(22):2720–6.
Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007 Jun 2;369(9576):1876–82.
SEARCH Study Collaborative Group.
Study of the effectiveness of additional reductions in cholesterol and homocysteine (SEARCH): characteristics of a randomized trial among 12064 myocardial infarction survivors. Am Heart J.
2007 Nov;154(5):815-23, 823.
SEARCH Study Collaborative Group. SEARCH (Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine): randomized comparison of folic acid 2 mg plus vitamin b12 1 mg daily versus placebo for 7 years in 12,064 myocardial infarction survivors. Circulation
Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular disease risk: lost in translation. Can J Cardiol.
Opinion on the COCHRANE Review ‘’Homocysteine-lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events. European Nutraceutical Association website at:
Perspective on the efficacy analysis of the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention trial. Clin Chem Lab Med.
Homocysteine and folate status in an era of folic acid fortification: balancing benefits, risks, and B-vitamins. Clin Chem.
Folic acid, homocysteine, and cardiovascular disease: judging causality in the face of inconclusive trial evidence. BMJ. 2006 Nov 25;333(7578):1114–7.
Folic acid modestly protects against cardiovascular events Heartwire 2006 reproduced in Medscape web site
Folic acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease: the state of the art. Am J Med Sci.
The SU.FOL.OM3 Study: a secondary prevention trial testing the impact of supplementation with folate and B-vitamins and/or Omega-3 PUFA on fatal and non fatal cardiovascular events, design, methods and participants characteristics. Trials. 2008 Jun 10;9:35.
VITATOPS Trial Study Group.
VITATOPS, the VITAmins TO prevent stroke trial: rationale and design of a randomised trial of B-vitamin therapy in patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or stroke (NCT00097669) (ISRCTN74743444). Int J Stroke. 2007 May;2(2):144–50.
Homocysteine-lowering trials for prevention of vascular disease: protocol for a collaborative meta-analysis. Clin Chem Lab Med.