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Chromium and diabetes

In a nutshell

Chromium enhances glucose control and decreases insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

RCT evidence suggests that supplements are safe and will offer some benefit in glucose control for such patients. Further trials are needed to confirm this and to clarify in what dose and form chromium supplements are best given.

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References

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1. Bradley, R. et al. Naturopathic medicine and type 2 diabetes: a retrospective analysis from an academic clinic. Altern Med Rev. 2006 Mar;11(1):30–9.
2. Morrow, T. Is chromium III a new key to effective diabetes management? Manag Care. 2005 Nov;14(11):7880.
3. Cefalu, WT. et al. Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004 Nov;27(11):2741–51.
4. Lamson, DS. et al. The safety and efficacy of high-dose chromium. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Jun;7(3):218–35.
5. Sahin, K. et al. Effect of chromium on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rat. Metabolism. 2007 Sep;56(9):1233–40.
6. Wang, ZQ. et al. Chromium picolinate enhances skeletal muscle cellular insulin signaling in vivo in obese, insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. J Nutr. 2006 Feb;136(2):415–20.
7. Vincent, JB. The biochemistry of chromium. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4):715–8.
8. Porter, DJ. et al. Chromium: friend or foe? Arch Fam Med. 1999 Sep-Oct;8(5):386–90.
9. Kruse-Jarres, JD. et al. Trace elements in diabetes mellitus. Peculiarities and clinical validity of determinations in blood cells. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2000 Apr;14(1):21–7.
10. Anderson, RA. et al. Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Jun;41(6):1177–83.
11. Wells, IC. et al. A test for adequacy of chromium nutrition in humans--relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Apr 11;303(3):825–7.
12. Rajpathak, S. et al. Lower toenail chromium in men with diabetes and cardiovascular disease compared with healthy men. Diabetes Care. 2004 Sep;27(9):2211–6.
13. Stupar, J. et al. Longitudinal hair chromium profiles of elderly subjects with normal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2007 Jan;56(1):94104.
14. Kleefstra, N. et al. Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2007 May;30(5):1092–6.
15. Kleefstra, N. et al. Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with poorly controlled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in an obese Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2006 Mar;29(3):521–5.
16. Sherman, L. et al. Failure of trivalent chromium to improve hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 1968 May;17(5):439–42. No abstract available.
17. Bailey, MM. et al. Exposure of pregnant mice to chromium picolinate results in skeletal defects in their offspring. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2006 Jun;77(3):244–9.
18. Wani, S. et al. Acute tubular necrosis associated with chromium picolinate-containing dietary supplement. Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Mar;40(3):563–6.
19. Anderson, RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2000 Feb;26(1):22–7.
20. Anon. Introduction and Prototype Monograph for Chromium Picolinate Institute of Medicine and NRC, National Acadamies Press, Washington DC, 2004.

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