Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Implicit and explicit knowledge of inflectional morphology

  • JOHN ROGERS (a1), ANDREA RÉVÉSZ (a2) and PATRICK REBUSCHAT (a3)

Abstract

This study set out to test the degree to which second language inflectional morphology can be acquired as a result of incidental exposure and whether the resulting knowledge is implicit (unconscious) or explicit (conscious) in nature. Participants were exposed to an artificial language system based on Czech morphology under incidental learning conditions. In the testing phase, a grammaticality judgment test was utilized to assess learning. In addition, subjective measures of awareness and retrospective verbal reports were used to measure whether the acquired knowledge was conscious or not. The results of the experiment indicate that participants can rapidly develop knowledge of second language inflectional morphology under incidental learning conditions in the absence of verbalizable rule knowledge.

Copyright

Corresponding author

ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE John Rogers, Foundation Program Department of English, Qatar University, PO Box 2713, Doha, Qatar. E-mail: rogers@qu.edu.qa

References

Hide All
Alanen, R. (1995). Input enhancement and rule presentation in second language acquisition. In Schmidt, R. (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning and teaching (pp. 259302). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Andringa, S., & Rebuschat, P. (Eds.) (2015). New directions in implicit and explicit language learning [special issue]. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 37.
Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2014). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version1.0–7 [Computer software]. Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4
Bialystok, E. (1982). On the relationship between knowing and using forms. Applied Linguistics, 3, 181206.
Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Handbook 1. The cognitive domain. New York: David McKay.
Brooks, P. J., & Kempe, V. (2013). Individual differences in adult foreign language learning: The mediating effect of metalinguistic awareness. Memory and Cognition, 41, 281296.
Brooks, P. J., Kempe, V., & Donachie, A. (2011). Second language learning benefits from similarity in word endings: Evidence from Russian. Language Learning, 61, 11421172.
Brooks, P. J., Kempe, V., & Sionov, A. (2006). The role of learner and input variables in learning inflectional morphology. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 185209.
Cedrus Corporation. (2012). SuperLab Version 4.5 [Computer software]. San Pedro, CA: Author.
Clahsen, H., Felser, C., Neubauer, K., Sato, M., & Silva, R. (2010). Morphological structure in native and nonnative language processing. Language Learning, 60, 2143.
Cobb, T. (2012). Web Vocabprofile. Retrieved November 14, 2012, from http://www.lextutor.ca/vp/
Cunnings, I. (2012). An overview of mixed-effects statistical models for second language researchers. Second Language Research, 28, 369382.
de Graaf, R. (1997). The eXperanto experiment: Effects of explicit instruction on second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 249297.
DeKeyser, R. M. (1995). Learning second language grammar rules. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 379410.
DeKeyser, R. M. (1997). Beyond explicit rule learning: Automatizing second language morphosyntax. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 195221.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2003). Implicit and explicit learning. In Doughty, C. & Long, M. (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 313348). Oxford: Blackwell.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2005). What makes learning second‐language grammar difficult? A review of issues. Language Learning, 55, 125.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2009). Cognitive–psychological processes in second language learning. In Long, M. & Doughty, C. (Eds.), Handbook of second language teaching (pp. 119138). Oxford: Blackwell.
Dienes, Z. (2004). Assumptions of subjective measures of unconscious mental states: Higher order thoughts and bias. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 11, 2545.
Dienes, Z. (2008). Subjective measures of unconscious knowledge. Progress in Brain Research, 168, 4964.
Dienes, Z. (2010). Measuring the conscious status of knowledge. In Miranda, L. A. P. & Madariaga, A. I. (Eds.), Advances in cognitive science: Learning, evolution and social action (pp. 113128). Bilbao, Spain: University of the Basque Country Press.
Dienes, Z. (2013). Conscious versus unconscious learning of structure. In Rebuschat, P. & Williams, J. N. (Eds.), Statistical learning and language acquisition (pp. 337364). Berlin: De Gruyter.
Dienes, Z., Altmann, G., Kwan, L., & Goode, A. (1995). Unconscious knowledge of artificial grammars is applied strategically. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 13221338.
Dienes, Z., & Scott, R. (2005). Measuring unconscious knowledge: Distinguishing structural knowledge and judgment knowledge. Psychological Research, 69, 338351.
Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The psychology of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, N. C. (2002). Frequency effects in language acquisition: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 143188.
Ellis, N. C. (2005). At the interface: Dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 305352.
Ellis, N. C. (2006a). Selective attention and transfer phenomena in L2 acquisition: Contingency, cue competition, salience, interference, overshadowing, blocking, and perceptual learning. Applied Linguistics, 27, 164194.
Ellis, N. C. (2006b). Language acquisition as rational contingency learning. Applied Linguistics, 27, 124.
Ellis, N. C. (2008). Implicit and explicit knowledge about language. In Cenoz, J. & Hornberger, N. H. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education: Vol. 6. Knowledge about language (pp. 119132). New York: Springer.
Ellis, N. C. (2011). Implicit and explicit SLA and their interface. In Sanz, C. & Leow, R. (Eds.), Implicit and explicit language learning: Conditions, processes, and knowledge in SLA & bilingualism (pp. 3547). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Ellis, N. C., & Sagarra, N. (2010a). The bounds of adult language acquisition: Blocking and learned attention. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 553580.
Ellis, N. C., & Sagarra, N. (2010b). Learned attention effects in L2 temporal reference: The first hour and the next eight semesters. Language Learning, 60, 85108.
Ellis, N. C., & Sagarra, N. (2011). Learned attention in adult language acquisition: A replication and generalization study and meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 589624.
Ellis, N. C., & Schmidt, R. (1997). Morphology and longer-distance dependencies: Laboratory research illuminating the A in SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 145171.
Ellis, N. C., & Schmidt, R. (1998). Rules or associations in the acquisition of morphology? The frequency by regularity interaction in human and PDP learning of morphosyntax. Language and Cognitive Processes, 13, 307336.
Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 141171.
Gor, K. (2010). Beyond the obvious: Do second language learners process inflectional morphology? Language Learning, 60, 120.
Grey, S., Williams, J. N., & Rebuschat, P. (2014). Incidental exposure and L3 learning of morphosyntax. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36, 134.
Grey, S., Williams, J. N., & Rebuschat, P. (2015). Individual differences in incidental vocabulary learning: Phonological working memory, learning styles, and personality. Learning and Individual Differences, 38, 4453.
Grier, J. B. (1971). Nonparametric indexes for sensitivity and bias: Computing formulas. Psychological Bulletin, 75, 424429.
Hama, M., & Leow, R. P. (2010). Learning without awareness revisited. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 465491.
Hamrick, P. (2013). Development of conscious knowledge during early incidental learning of L2 syntax. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University.
Hamrick, P., & Rebuschat, P. (2012). How implicit is statistical learning? In Rebuschat, P. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Statistical learning and language acquisition (pp. 365382). Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
Hamrick, P., & Rebuschat, P. (2013). Frequency effects, learning conditions, and the development of implicit and explicit lexical knowledge. In Connor-Linton, J. & Amoroso, L. (Eds.), Measured language: Quantitative approaches to acquisition, assessment, processing, and variation. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Hinz, J., Krause, C., Rast, R., Shoemaker, E., & Watorek, M. (2013). Initial processing of morphological marking in nonnative language acquisition: Evidence from French and German learners of Polish. Roberts, In L., Ewert, A., Pawlak, M., & Wrembel, M. (Eds.), EUROSLA yearbook 13 (pp. 139175). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hopp, H. (2013). The development of L2 morphology. Second Language Research, 29, 36.
Hulstijn, J. H. (1997). Second language acquisition research in the laboratory: Possibilities and limitations. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 131143.
Hulstijn, J. H. (2003). Incidental and intentional learning. In Doughty, C. J. & Long, M. H. (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 349381). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Hulstijn, J. H. (2007). Psycholinguistic perspectives on second language acquisition. In Cummins, J. & Davison, C. (Eds.), The international handbook on English language teaching: Vol. 2. Current trends and issues (pp. 701713). Norwell, MA: Springer.
Hulstijn, J. H. (2013). Incidental learning in second language acquisition. In Chapelle, C. A. (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics. Oxford: Wiley–Blackwell.
Hulstijn, J. H., & Ellis, R. (Eds.) (2005). Implicit and explicit second-language learning [special issue]. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27.
Hulstijn, J. H., Young, R. F., Ortega, L., Bigelow, M., DeKeyser, R., Ellis, N. C., et al. (2014). Bridging the gap: Cognitive and social approaches to research in second language learning and teaching. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36, 361421. doi:10.1017/S0272263114000035
Jaeger, T. F. (2008). Categorical data analysis: Away from ANOVAs (transformation or not) and towards logit mixed models. Journal of Memory and Language, 59, 434446.
Jiang, N. (2004). Morphological insensitivity in second language processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 603634.
Jiang, N. (2007). Selective integration of linguistic knowledge in adult second language learning. Language Learning, 57, 133.
Keenan, J. M., & MacWhinney, B. (1987). Understanding the relationship between comprehension and production. In Dechert, H. W. & Raupach, M (Eds.), Psycholinguistic models of production (pp. 149155). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Kempe, V., & Brooks, P. J. (2008). Second language learning of complex inflectional systems. Language Learning, 58, 703746.
Kempe, V., Brooks, P. J., & Kharkhurin, A. (2010). Cognitive predictors of generalization of Russian grammatical gender categories. Language Learning, 60, 127153.
Kempe, V., & MacWhinney, B. (1998). The acquisition of case-marking by adult learners of Russian and German. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 543587.
Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2010). Not so fast: A discussion of L2 morpheme processing and acquisition. Language Learning, 60, 221230.
Leow, R. P. (2002). Models, attention, and awareness in SLA: A response to Simard and Wong's (2001) “Alertness, orientation, and detection: The conceptualization of attentional functions.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 113119.
Leow, R. P. (2015). Implicit learning in SLA: Of processes and products. Rebuschat, In P. (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 4765). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Leow, R. P., & Hama, M. K. (2013). Implicit learning in SLA and the issue of internal validity: A response to Leung and Williams' “The implicit learning of mappings between forms and contextually derived meanings.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 545557.
Leung, J. H. C., & Williams, J. N. (2011). The implicit learning of mappings between forms and contextually derived meanings. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 3355.
Leung, J. H. C., & Williams, J. N. (2012). Constraints on implicit learning of grammatical form–meaning connections. Language Learning, 62, 634662.
Leung, J. H. C., & Williams, J. N. (2014). Crosslinguistic differences in implicit language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36, 733755.
Macmillan, N., & Creelman, C. (2005). Detection theory: A user's guide. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Marsden, E. J., Williams, J., & Liu, X. (2013). Learning novel morphology: The role of meaning and orientation of attention at initial exposure. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 619654.
Peters, A. (1985). Language segmentation: Operating principles for the perception and analysis of language. In Slobin, D. (Ed.), The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition (Vol. 2, pp. 10291067). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rast, R. (2008). Foreign language input: Initial processing. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Rast, R. (2010). The use of prior linguistic knowledge in the early stages of L3 acquisition. IRAL, International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 48, 159183.
R Core Team. (2014). R: A language and environment for statistical computing [Computer software]. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved January 20, 2015, from http://www.R-project.org/
Reber, A. S. (1967). Implicit learning of artificial grammars. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 855863.
Reber, A. S. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. London: Clarendon Press.
Rebuschat, P. (2008). Implicit learning of natural language syntax. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cambridge.
Rebuschat, P. (2013). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge in second language research. Language Learning, 63, 595626.
Rebuschat, P. (Ed.). (2015). Implicit and explicit learning of languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Rebuschat, P., Hamrick, P., Riestenberg, K., Sachs, R., & Ziegler, N. (2015). Triangulating measures of awareness. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 37, 299334.
Rebuschat, P., Hamrick, P., Sachs, R., Riestenberg, K., & Ziegler, N. (2013) Implicit and explicit knowledge of form–meaning connections: Evidence from subjective measures of awareness. In Bergsleithner, J., Frota, S., & Yoshioka, J. K. (Eds.), Noticing: L2 studies and essays in honor of Dick Schmidt (pp. 255275). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Rebuschat, P., & Williams, J. N. (2012). Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 33, 829856.
Riefer, D. M., & Rouder, J. N. (1992). A multinomial modeling analysis of the mnemonic benefits of bizarre imagery. Memory & Cognition, 20, 601611.
Robinson, P. (1997). Generalizability and automaticity of second language learning under implicit, incidental, enhanced, and instructed conditions. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 223247.
Robinson, P. (2002). Effects of individual differences in intelligence, aptitude and working memory on adult incidental SLA: A replication and extension of Reber, Walkenfeld and Hernstadt, 1991. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 211266). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Robinson, P. (2005). Cognitive abilities, chunk-strength, and frequency effects in implicit artificial grammar and incidental L2 learning: Replications of Reber, Walkenfeld, and Hernstadt (1991) and Knowlton and Squire (1996) and their relevance for SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 235268.
Robinson, P. (2008). Attention and awareness. In Cenoz, J. & Hornberger, N. H. (Eds.), Knowledge about language: Encyclopedia of language and education (2nd ed., Vol. 6, pp. 110). New York: Springer.
Robinson, P. (2010). Implicit artificial grammar and incidental natural second language learning: How comparable are they? Language Learning, 60, 245263.
Robinson, P., Mackey, A., Gass, S., & Schmidt, R. (2012). Attention and awareness in second language acquisition. In Gass, S. & Mackey, A. (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 247267). New York: Routledge.
Rogers, J., Révész, A., & Rebuschat, P. (2015). Challenges in implicit learning research: Validating a novel artificial language. In Rebuschat, P. (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 273298). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129158.
Schmidt, R. (1993). Awareness and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 206226.
Schmidt, R. (1994a). Deconstructing consciousness in search of useful definitions for applied linguistics. AILA Review—Revue de l'AILA, 11, 1126.
Schmidt, R. (1994b). Implicit learning and the cognitive unconscious: Of artificial grammars and SLA. In Ellis, N. (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 165209). London: Academic Press.
Schmidt, R. W. (1995). Consciousness and foreign language learning: A tutorial on the role of attention and awareness in learning. In Schmidt, R. (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp. 163). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 332). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schmidt, R. (2010). Attention, awareness, and individual differences in language learning. In Chan, W. M., Chi, S., Cin, K. N., Instanto, J., Nagami, M., Sew, J. W., et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of CLaSIC 2010 (pp. 721–37). Singapore: National University of Singapore, Centre for Language Studies.
Serafini, E. (2013). Cognitive and psychological factors in the long-term development of implicit and explicit second language knowledge in adult learners of Spanish at increasing proficiency. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Georgetown University.
Shanks, D. R., & St.John, M. F. (1994). Characteristics of dissociable human learning system. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 367447.
Slobin, D. (1985). Crosslinguistic evidence for the language-making capacity. In Slobin, D. (Ed.), The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition (Vol. 2, pp. 11571256). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Stanislaw, H., & Todorov, N. (1999). Calculation of signal detection theory measures. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 31, 137149.
Tagarelli, K., Borges Mota, M., & Rebuschat, P. (2011). The role of working memory in the implicit and explicit learning of languages. In Carlson, L., Hölscher, C., & Shipley, T. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 20612066). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
White, L. (2009). Grammatical theory: Interfaces and L2 knowledge. In Ritchie, W. & Bhatia, T. (Eds.), The new handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 4968). Leeds: Emerald Group Publishing.
Williams, J. N. (2004). Implicit learning of form-meaning connections. In Williams, J., VanPatten, B., Rott, S., & Overstreet, M. (Eds.), Form-meaning connections in second language acquisition (pp. 203218). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Williams, J. N. (2005). Learning without awareness. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 269304.
Williams, J. N. (2009). Implicit learning in second language acquisition. In Ritchie, W. & Bhatia, T. K. (Eds.), The new handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 319344). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.
Williams, J., & Kuribara, C. (2008). Comparing a nativist and emergentist approach to the initial stage of SLA: An investigation of Japanese scrambling. Lingua, 118, 522553.
Williams, J., & Rebuschat, P. (2012). Statistical learning and syntax: What can be learned, and what difference does meaning make. In Rebuschat, P. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Statistical learning and language acquisition (pp. 237264). Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
Zhang, J., & Mueller, S. T. (2005). A note on ROC analysis and nonparametric estimate of sensitivity. Psychometrika, 70, 203212.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed