Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Do single or multiple deficit models predict the risk of dyslexia in Standard Indonesian?

  • ELISABETH BORLEFFS (a1), BERNARD A. J. JAP (a2), INDRI K. NASUTION (a3), FRANS ZWARTS (a1) and BEN A. M. MAASSEN (a1)...

Abstract

Although our understanding of reading acquisition has grown, the study of dyslexia in Standard Indonesian (SI) is still in its infancy. A recently developed assessment battery for young readers of SI was used to test the feasibility of Pennington et al.’s (2012) multiple-case approach to dyslexia in the highly transparent orthography of SI. Reading, spelling, phonological skills, and nonverbal IQ were assessed in 285 first, second, and third graders. Deficits in reading-related cognitive skills were classified and regression analyses were conducted to test the fit of single and multiple deficit models. Naming speed (NS) was the main predictor of reading and decoding fluency, followed by phonological awareness (PA), and verbal working memory (VWM). Accounting for 33% of the cases that satisfied both methods of individual prediction (i.e., classification of deficits and regression analysis), the hybrid model proved the best fit. None of the deficits in PA, NS, or VWM alone was sufficient to predict a risk of dyslexia in the present sample, nor was a deficit in PA necessary. Hence, there are multiple pathways to being at risk of dyslexia in SI, some involving single deficits, some multiple deficits, and some without deficits in PA, NS, or VWM.

Copyright

Corresponding author

ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Elisabeth Borleffs, c/o B. A. M. Maassen, Center for Language and Cognition Groningen (CLCG), University of Groningen, P.O. Box 716, 9700 AS Groningen, The Netherlands. Email: l.e.borleffs@rug.nl

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Elisabeth Borleffs and Bernard A. J. Jap have contributed equally as first authors to this manuscript.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Barca, L., Burani, C., Di Filippo, G., & Zoccolotti, P. (2006). Italian developmental dyslexia and proficient readers: Where are the differences? Brain and Language, 98, 347351.
Bekebrede, J., van der Leij, A., & Share, D. L. (2009). Dutch dyslexic adolescents: Phonological-core variable-orthographic differences. Reading and Writing, 22, 133165.
Bishop, D. V. M., & Snowling, M. J. (2004). Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment: Same or different? Psychological Bulletin, 130, 858886.
Boets, B., de Smedt, B., Cleuren, L., Vandewalle, E., Wouters, J., & Ghesquière, P. (2010). Towards a further characterization of phonological and literacy problems in Dutch-speaking children with dyslexia. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 531.
Boets, B., Wouters, J., van Wieringen, A., de Smedt, B., & Ghesquiere, P. (2008). Modelling relations between sensory processing, speech perception, orthographic and phonological ability, and literacy achievement. Brain and Language, 106, 2940.
Brus, B. T. H., & Voeten, M. J. M. (1979). Een-Minuut-Test. Berkhout: Nijmegen.
Caravolas, M., Lervåg, A., Defior, S., Seidlová-Málková, G., & Hulme, C. (2013). Different patterns, but equivalent predictors, of growth in reading in consistent and inconsistent orthographies. Psychological Science, 24, 13981407.
Caravolas, M., Lervåg, A., Mousikou, P., Efrim, C., Litavký, M., Onochie-Quintanilla, E., . . . Hulme, C. (2012). Common patterns of prediction of literacy development in different alphabetic orthographies. Psychological Science, 23, 678686.
Caravolas, M., Volín, J., & Hulme, C. (2005). Phoneme awareness is a key component of alphabetic literacy skills in consistent and inconsistent orthographies: Evidence from Czech and English children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 92, 107139.
Chaer, A. (2009). Fonologi Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Constantinidou, M., & Stainthorp, R. (2009). Phonological awareness and reading speed deficits in reading disabled Greek-speaking children. Educational Psychology, 29, 171186.
Dandache, S., Wouters, J., & Ghesquière, P. (2014). Development of reading and phonological skills of children at family risk for dyslexia: A longitudinal analysis from kindergarten to sixth grade. Dyslexia, 20, 305329.
Das, T., Padakannaya, P., Pugh, K. R., & Singh, N. C. (2011). Neuroimaging reveals dual routes to reading in simultaneous proficient readers of two orthographies. Neuroimage, 54, 14761487.
de Jong, P. F., & van der Leij, A. (1999). Specific contributions of phonological abilities to early reading acquisition: Results from a Dutch latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 450476.
de Jong, P. F., & van der Leij, A. (2003). Developmental changes in the manifestation of a phonological deficit in dyslexic children learning to read a regular orthography. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 2240.
Dewi, F. (2003). Membaca menulis (13th ed., Vol. 1). Semarang, Indonesia: Mandira.
Ehri, L. C. (2002). Reading processes, acquisition, and instructional implications. In Reid, G. & Wearmouth, J. (Eds.), Dyslexia and literacy: Theory and practice (pp. 167186). West Sussex, UK: Wiley.
Eklund, K., Torppa, M., Aro, M., Leppänen, P. H. T., & Lyytinen, H. (2015). Literacy skill development of children with familial risk for dyslexia through Grades 2, 3, and 8. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 126140.
Escribano, C. (2007). Evaluation of the double-deficit hypothesis subtype classification of readers in Spanish. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, 319330.
Furnes, B., & Samuelsson, S. (2010). Predicting reading and spelling difficulties in transparent and opaque orthographies: A comparison between Scandinavian and U.S./Australian children. Dyslexia, 16, 119142.
Furnes, B., & Samuelsson, S. (2011). Phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicting early development in reading and spelling: Results from a cross-linguistic longitudinal study. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 8595.
Georgiou, G. K., Parrila, R., & Papadopoulos, T. C. (2008). Predictors of word decoding and reading fluency across languages varying in orthographic consistency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 566580.
Gilger, J. W., Pennington, B. F., & Defries, J. C. (1991). Risk for reading disabilities as a function of parental history of learning problems: Data from three samples of families demonstrating genetic transmission. Reading and Writing, 3, 205217.
Gomez, C., & Reason, R. (2002). Cross-linguistic transfer of phonological skills: A Malaysian perspective. Dyslexia, 8, 2233.
Habib, M. (2000). The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia: An overview and working hypothesis. Brain, 123, 23732399.
Heikkilä, R., Torppa, M., Aro, M., Närhi, V., & Ahonen, T. (2016). Double-deficit hypothesis in a clinical sample: Extension beyond reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49, 546560.
Holopainen, L., Ahonen, T., & Lyytinen, H. (2001). Predicting delay in reading achievement in a highly transparent language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 401413.
Jap, B. A. J., Borleffs, E., & Maassen, B. A. M. (2017). Towards identifying dyslexia in Standard Indonesian: The development of a reading assessment battery. Reading and Writing, 30, 17291751.
Juul, H., Poulsen, M., & Elbro, C. (2014). Separating speed from accuracy in beginning reading development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 10961106.
Kairaluoma, L., Torppa, M., Westerholm, J., Ahonen, T., & Aro, M. (2013). The nature of and factors related to reading difficulties among adolescents in a transparent orthography. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17, 315332.
Kibby, M. Y., Marks, W., Morgan, S., & Long, C. J. (2004). Specific impairment in developmental reading disabilities: A working memory approach. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37, 349363.
Kortteinen, H., Närhia, V., & Ahonen, T. (2009). Does IQ matter in adolescents' reading disability? Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 257261.
Landerl, K., Ramus, F., Moll, K., Lyytinen, H., Leppanen, P. H. T., Lohvansuu, K., . . . Schulte-Körne, G. (2013). Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 686694.
Landerl, K., & Wimmer, H. (2008). Development of word reading fluency and spelling in a consistent orthography: An 8-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 150161.
Lee, L. W. (2008). Development and validation of a reading-related assessment battery in Malay for the purpose of dyslexia assessment. Annals of Dyslexia, 58, 3757.
Leinonen, S., Müller, K., Leppänen, P. H. T., Aro, M., Ahonen, T., & Lyytinen, H. (2001). Heterogeneity in adult dyslexic readers: Relating processing skills to the speed and accuracy of oral text reading. Reading and Writing, 14, 265296.
Lepola, J., Poskiparta, E., Laakkonen, E., & Niemi, P. (2005). Development of and relationship between phonological and motivational processes and naming speed in predicting word recognition in Grade 1. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9, 367399.
Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.) (2013). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (17th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com
Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 114.
Mann, V., & Wimmer, H. (2002). Phoneme awareness and pathways into literacy: A comparison of German and American children. Reading and Writing, 15, 653682.
Martens, V. E. G., & de Jong, P. F. (2006). The effect of word length on lexical decision in dyslexic and normal reading children. Brain and Language, 98, 140149.
Moll, K., Ramus, F., Bartling, J., Bruder, J., Kunze, S., Neuhoff, N., . . . Landerl, K. (2014). Cognitive mechanisms underlying reading and spelling development in five European orthographies. Learning and Instruction, 29, 6577.
Morfidi, E., van der Leij, A., de Jong, P. F., Scheltinga, F., & Bekebrede, J. (2007). Reading in two orthographies: A cross-linguistic study of Dutch average and poor readers who learn English as a second language. Reading and Writing, 20, 753784.
Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M. J., & Stevenson, J. (2004). Phonemes, rimes, vocabulary, and grammatical skills as foundations of early reading development: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 40, 665681.
Norton, E. S., & Wolf, M. (2012). Rapid automatized naming (RAN) and reading fluency: Implications for understanding and treatment of reading disabilities. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 427452.
Pennington, B. F. (2006). From single to multiple deficit models of developmental disorders. Cognition, 101, 385413.
Pennington, B. F., Cardoso-Martins, C., Green, P. A., & Lefly, D. L. (2001). Comparing the phonological and double deficit hypotheses for developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 14, 707755.
Pennington, B. F., & Lefly, D. L. (2001). Early reading development in children at family risk for dyslexia. Child Development, 72, 816833.
Pennington, B. F., Santerre-Lemmon, L., Rosenberg, J., MacDonald, B., Boada, R., Friend, A., . . . Olson, R. K. (2012). Individual prediction of dyslexia by single versus multiple deficit models. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 212224.
Peterson, R. L., & Pennington, B. F. (2015). Developmental dyslexia. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 283307.
Prentice, D. J. (1987). Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian). In Comrie, B. (Ed.), The world's major languages. London: Croom Helm.
Puolakanaho, A., Ahonen, T., Aro, M., Eklund, K., Leppänen, P. H. T., Poikkeus, A.-M., . . . Lyytinen, H. (2008). Developmental links of very early phonological and language skills to the second grade reading outcomes: Strong to accuracy but only minor to fluency. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 353370.
Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S. C., Day, B. L., Castellote, J. M., White, S., & Frith, U. (2003). Theories of developmental dyslexia: Insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126, 841865.
Reiter, A., Tucha, O., & Lange, K. W. (2004). Executive functions in children with dyslexia. Dyslexia, 11, 116131.
Seymour, P. H. K., Aro, M., & Erskine, J. M. (2003). Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology, 94, 143174.
Share, D. L. (2008). On the Anglocentricities of current reading research and practice: The perils of overreliance on a “outlier” orthography. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 584615. DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.134.4.584
Shaywitz, S. E. (1998). Dyslexia. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 307312.
Sneddon, J. (2003). The Indonesian language: Its history and role in modern society. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales.
Sprenger-Charolles, L., Colé, P., Lacert, P., & Serniclaes, W. (2000). On subtypes of developmental dyslexia: Evidence from processing time and accuracy scores. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 88104.
Sunseth, K., & Bowers, P. G. (2002). Rapid naming and phonemic awareness: Contributions to reading, spelling, and orthographic knowledge. Scientific Studies of Reading, 6, 401429.
Tilanus, E. A. T., Segers, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2013). Diagnostic profiles of children with developmental dyslexia in a transparent orthography. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 41944202.
Tilanus, E. A., Segers, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2016). Responsiveness to intervention in children with dyslexia. Dyslexia, 22, 214232.
Torppa, M., Parrila, R., Niemi, P., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Poikkeus, A.-M., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2013). The double deficit hypothesis in the transparent Finnish orthography: A longitudinal study from kindergarten to Grade 2. Reading and Writing, 26, 13531380.
Tressoldi, P. E., Stella, G., & Faggella, M. (2001). The development of reading speed in Italians with dyslexia: A longitudinal study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 414417.
Vaessen, A., Bertrand, D., Tóth, D., Csépe, V., Faísca, L., Reis, A., & Blomert, L. (2010). Cognitive development of fluent word reading does not qualitatively differ between transparent and opaque orthographies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 827842.
Vaessen, A., & Blomert, L. (2010). Long-term cognitive dynamics of fluent reading development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 105, 213231.
Vaessen, A., Gerretsen, P., & Blomert, L. (2009). Naming speed problems do not reflect a second independent core deficit in dyslexia: Double-deficits explored. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103, 202221.
van Bergen, E., de Jong, P. F., Plakas, A., Maassen, B., & van der Leij, A. (2012). Child and parental literacy levels within families with a history of dyslexia. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 2836.
van den Bos, K. P. (2003). Snel Serieel Benoemen; Experimentele versie. Groningen: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
van der Leij, A., van Bergen, E., van Zuijen, T., de Jong, P., Maurits, N., & Maassen, B. (2013). Precursors of dyslexia: An overview of the longitudinal Dutch Dyslexia Program study. Dyslexia, 19, 191213.
Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 240.
Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 192212.
Wechsler, D. (1974). Wechsler intelligence scale for children, revised: WISC-R; manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Wimmer, H. (1993). Characteristics of developmental dyslexia in a regular writing system. Applied Psycholinguistics, 14, 133.
Wimmer, H., Mayringer, H., & Landerl, L. (2000). The double-deficit hypothesis and difficulties in learning to read a regular orthography. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 668680.
Winskel, H. (2013). Reading and writing in Southeast Asian languages. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 97, 437442.
Winskel, H., & Widjaja, V. (2007). Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and literacy development in Indonesian beginner readers and spellers. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 2343.
Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (1999). The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 415438.
Ziegler, J. C., Bertrand, D., Tóth, D., Csépe, V., Reis, A., Faísca, L., . . . Blomert, L. (2010). Orthographic depth and its impact on universal predictors of reading: A cross-language investigation. Psychological Science, 21, 551559.
Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 329.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Do single or multiple deficit models predict the risk of dyslexia in Standard Indonesian?

  • ELISABETH BORLEFFS (a1), BERNARD A. J. JAP (a2), INDRI K. NASUTION (a3), FRANS ZWARTS (a1) and BEN A. M. MAASSEN (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.