Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Spatial variations in the winter heat flux at SHEBA: estimates from snow-ice interface temperatures

  • Matthew Sturm (a1), Jon Holmgren (a1) and Donald K. Perovich (a2)

Abstract

The temperature of the snow-ice interface was measured every 2.4 h throughout winter 1997/98 at 30 locations near the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) camp in the Beaufort Sea. Measurements were obtained from young ice, ridges, refrozen melt ponds and ice hummocks. Average snow depths at these locations were 567 cm, while mean interface temperatures ranged from −8° to −25°C, with minimums varying from −12° to −39°C. Interface temperatures were linearly related to snow depth, with increasing scatter at greater depths. The conductive heat flux during the winter, Fc , was estimated for each location using air and interface temperatures, snow depths and measured snow thermal conductivities. Fc was integrated to determine total heat loss for the winter at each site. Losses varied by a factor of four, with variations over short distances (10 m) as large as the variations between ice floes. Spot measurements along traverse lines confirm that large variations in interface temperature are common, and imply that small-scale spatial variability in the conductive flux is widespread. A comparison of the dependence of Fc on snow depth and ice thickness based on our observations with the dependence predicted by a one-dimensional theoretical model suggests that spatial heterogeneity may be an important issue to consider when estimating the heat flux over large aggregate areas. We suggest that the small-scale variability in the conductive flux arises because the combined snow and ice geometry can produce significant horizontal conduction of heat.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Spatial variations in the winter heat flux at SHEBA: estimates from snow-ice interface temperatures
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Spatial variations in the winter heat flux at SHEBA: estimates from snow-ice interface temperatures
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Spatial variations in the winter heat flux at SHEBA: estimates from snow-ice interface temperatures
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abel’s, G. 1893. Beobachtungen der taglichen Periode der Temperatur im Schnee und Bestimmung des Warmeleitungsvermogens des Schnees als Funktion seiner Dichtigkeit. Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. Repertorium für Meteorologle, l6(1), 153.
Claffey, K. J., Andreas, E. L., Perovich, D. K., Fairall, C.W., Guest, P. S. and Persson, P. O. G.. 1999. Surface temperature measurements at SHEBA. In Fifth Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 10−15 January 1999, Dallas, Texas. Proceedings. Boston, MA, American Meteorological Society, 327331.
Doronin, Yu. P. and Kheisin, D. Ye.. 1977. Sea tee. New Delhi, Amerind Publishing Co.
Guest, P. S. and Davidson, K. L.. 1994. Factors affecting variations of snow surface temperature and air temperature over sea ice in winter. In Johannessen, O. M., Muench, R. D. and Overland, J.E., eds. The polar ocean, and their role in shaping the global envioronment: the Nansen Centennial volume. Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 435−442. (Geophysical Monograph 85.)
Hanson, A. 1980. The snow cover of sea ice during the Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment, 1975 to 1976. Ant. Alp. Res., 12(2), 215−226.
Ingram, W.J., Wilson, C. A. and Mitchell, J.F.B.. 1989. Modeling climate change: an assessment of sea ice and surface albedo feedbacks. J. Geophys. Res.,94(D6), 8609−8622.
Ledley, T. S. 1991. Snow on sea ice: competing effects in shaping climate. J. Geophys. Res.,96(B9), l7,195l7,208.
Manabe, S., Stouffer, R.J., Spelman, M.J. and Bryan, K.. 1991. Transient response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to gradual changes of atmospheric CO2 . Part I: Annual mean response. J. Climate,, 785−818.
Maykut, G. A. 1978. Energy exchange over young sea ice in the central Arctic. J. Geophys. Res., 83(G7), 36463658.
Maykut, G. A. and Untersteiner, N.. 1971. Some results from a time-dependent thermodynamic model of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 76(6), 1550−1575.
Nyberg, A. 1938. Temperature measurements in an air layer close to a snow surface. Geogr. Ann., 20(3–4), 234−275.
Perovich, D. K. and 8 others. 1999a. SHEBA: snow and ice studies. Hanover, NH, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CD-ROM.
Perovich, D K. and 22 others. 1999b. Year on ice gives climate insights. EOS, 80(41), 481,485−486.
Perovich, DK. and Elder, B.C.. 2001. Temporal evolution of Arctic sea-ice temperature. Ann. Glacial., 33 (see paper in this volume)
Rind, D., Healy, R., Parkinson, C. and Martinson, D.. 1995. The role of sea ice in 2 × CO2 climate model sensitivity Part I: The total influence of sea-ice thickness and extent. J. Climate, 8(3), 449−463.
Sturm, M., Morris, K. and Massom, R.. 1998. The winter snow cover of the West Antarctic pack ice: its spatial and temporal variability, In Jeffries, M. O., ed. Antarctic sea ice: physical processes, interactions and variability. Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 1−18. (Antarctic Research Series 74.)
Sturm, M., Perovich, D K. and Holmgren, J.. In press a. Thermal conductivity and heat transfer through the snow on the ice of the Beaufort Sea. J. Geophys. Res.
Sturm, M., Holmgren, J. and Perovich, D. K.. In press b. The winter snow cover on the sea ice of the Arctic Ocean at SHEBA: temporal evolution and spatial variability. J. Geophys. Res.
Untersteiner, N. 1961. On the mass and heat budget of Arctic sea ice. Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol., Ser. A, 12(2), 151−182.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annals of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0260-3055
  • EISSN: 1727-5644
  • URL: /core/journals/annals-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed