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Measurements of Friction Coefficients of Snow blocks

  • G. Casassa (a1), H. Narita (a1) and N. Maeno (a1)

Abstract

Snow blocks were slid down natural snow slopes and filmed with a video camera. Friction coefficients were calculated from time-distance curves and the equation of motion. Dry-friction coefficients ranged from 0.57 to 0.84, and could be separated into Coulomb friction and a friction component proportional to the contact area of the blocks (adhesion). These values are greater than the values usually used in avalanche dynamics, but are consistent with previous coefficients obtained for snow blocks sliding over snow.

When uniform ploughing occurred and a shear layer developed along the track the apparent friction coefficients increased with velocity, and could be modelled by considering the kinematic viscosity of the snow. The values of kinematic viscosity ranged from 10−3 to 10−4 m2/s and agreed well with those values obtained by other researchers.

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References

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Bucher, E. Roch, A.. 1946 Reibungs– und Packungswiderstande bei raschen Schneebewegungen.Eidg. Inst. Schnee Lawinenforsch. Rapp.
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Japan National Railways 1961 Kinetic friction and sliding velocity of avalanches. J. Jpn. Soc. Snow ice, 23(5), 14. [In Japanese.]
Lang, T.E. Dent, J.D.. 1982 Review of surface friction,surface resistance, and flow of snow. Rev. Geophys. Space Plus., 20(1), 2137.
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Martinelli, M. Lang, T.E. Mears, A.I. 1980 Calculations of avalanche friction coefficients from field data. J. Glaciol., 26(94), 109119.
Nishimura, K. Maeno, N.. 1989 Contribution of viscous forces to avalanche dynamics. Ann Glaciol., 13, 202206.
Salm, B. 1966 Contribution to avalanche dynamics. International Association of Scientific Hydrology Publication 69 (Symposium at Davos 1965 — Avalanche and Physics of Snow), 199214.
Sommerhalder, E. 1972 Albenkverbau,in Lawinenschutz in der Schweiz–Bundnerwald [Avalanche protection in Switzerland]. Genossenschaft der Bundnerischen Holzproduzentan, 9, 155169. [English translation: Washington, DC,U.S. Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. (General Technical Report Rm–9, 1975).]

Measurements of Friction Coefficients of Snow blocks

  • G. Casassa (a1), H. Narita (a1) and N. Maeno (a1)

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