Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is widely used in soil physics to determine water content. Existing equipment and methods ran be adapted to measurements of snow wetness. The main advantages compared to other methods are flexibility in constructing sensors, minimal influence on snow cover during measurements and sensors can be multiplexed. We developed sensors suitable for continuous and non-continuous measurements of snow wetness and density, measured the apparent permittivity in different snow densities and snow types, and compared the measurements to existing mixing formulas for mixtures of snow and air. In dry snow, density was measured from 110 to 470 kg m−3. The residual error is 14 kg m −3 and the 95% confidence interval of our model is 3 kg m−3. To measure snow density and wetness continuously suitable sensors have been constructed. Their small size and high surface area to weight ratio minimizes their movement in the snowpack, except when they are exposed to intense solar radiation. Results show that changes in dry-snow density of less than 5 kgm−3 can be detected. Infiltration of even small amounts of water clearly shows up in the permittivity. At the surface of the snowpack, problems occur due to the formation of air pockets around the sensors during long-term measurements.