Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Behaviour of dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients during experimental sea-ice formation

  • Virginia Giannelli (a1), David N. Thomas (a1), Christian Haas (a2), Gerhard Kattner (a2), Hilary Kennedy (a1) and Gerhard S. Dieckmann (a2)...

Abstract

It is well established that during sea-ice formation, crystals aggregate into a solid matrix, and dissolved sea-water constituents, including inorganic nutrients, are rejected from the ice matrix. However, the behaviour of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during ice formation and growth has not been studied to date. DOM is the primary energetic substrate for microbial heterotrophic activity in sea water and sea ice, and therefore it is at the base of the trophic fluxes within the microbial food web. The aim of our study was to compare the behaviour of DOM and inorganic nutrients during formation and growth of sea ice. Experiments were conducted in a large indoor ice-tank facility (Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Germany) at −15°C. Three 1 m3 tanks, to which synthetic sea water, nutrients and dissolved organic compounds (diatom-extracted DOM) had been added, were sampled over a period of 5 days during sea-ice formation. Samples were collected throughout the experiment from water underlying the ice, and at the end from the ice as well. Brine was obtained from the ice by centrifuging ice cores. Inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) were substantially enriched in brine in comparison to water and ice phases, consistent with the processes of ice formation and brine rejection. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also enriched in brine but was more variable and enriched in comparison to a dilution line. No difference in bacteria numbers was observed between water, ice and brine. No bacteria growth was measured, and this therefore had no influence on the measurable DOC levels. We conclude that the incorporation of dissolved organic compounds in newly forming ice is conservative. However, since the proportions of DOC in the brine were partially higher than those of the inorganic nutrients, concentrating effects of DOC in brine might be different compared to salts.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Behaviour of dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients during experimental sea-ice formation
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Behaviour of dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients during experimental sea-ice formation
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Behaviour of dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients during experimental sea-ice formation
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Assur, A. 1960. Composition of sea ice and its tensile strength. CRREL Res. Rep. 44.
Baines, S. B. and Pace, M. L.. 1991. The production of dissolved organic matter by phytoplankton and its importance to bacteria: patterns across marine and freshwater systems. Lirnnol. Oceanogr, 36(6), 1078−1090.
Bunch, J. N. and Harland, R. C.. 1990. Bacterial production in the bottom surface of sea ice in the Canadian subarctic. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 47(10), 1986−1995.
Clarke, D. B. and Ackley, S. E 1984. Sea ice structure and biological activity in the Antarctic marginal ice zone. J. Geophys. Res., 89(C2), 2087−2095.
Cota, G. F. and 7 others. 1987. Nutrient fluxes during extended blooms of Arctic ice algae. J. Geophys. Res., 92(C2), 1951−1962.
Cox, G. F. N. and Weeks, W. F. 1983. Equations for determining the gas and brine volumes in sea-ice samples. J. Glacial, 29(102), 306−316.
Dieckmann, G. S., Lange, M. A., Ackley, S. F. and Jennings, J. C. Jr. 1991. The nutrient status in sea ice of the Weddell Sea during winter: effects of sea ice texture and algae. Polar Biol, 11(7), 449−456.
Evers, K.-U. and Jochmann, P.. 1993. An advanced technique to improve the mechanical properties of model ice developed at the HSVA ice tank. In POAC ’93 The 12th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, 17−20 August 1993, Hamburg. Proceedings. Vol. 2 Hamburg, Department of Ice and Environmental Technology. Hamburg Ship Model Basin, 877−888.
Garrison, D. L., Close, A. R. and Gordon, L. I.. 1990. Nutrient concentrations in Antarctic pack ice during the austral winter. CRREL Monogr. 90−1, 92−96.
Grossmann, S. 1994. Bacterial activity in sea ice and open water of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: a microautoradiographic study. Microbial Ecolosy, 28(1), 1−18.
Grossmann, S. and Gleitz, M.. 1993. Microbial response to experimental sea-ice formation: implications for the establishment of Antarctic sea-ice communities. J. Exp Mar. Biol. Ecol, 173(2), 273−289.
Haas, C. and 10 others. 1999. Multidisciplinary ice tank study shedding new light on sea ice growth processes. EOS, 80(43), 507,509, 513.
Helmke, E. and Weyland, H.. 1995. Bacteria in sea ice and underlying water of the eastern Weddell Sea in midwinter. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 117(1−3), 269−287.
Hygum, B. H., Petersen, J.W and Sondergaard, M.. 1997. Dissolved organic carbon released by zooplankton grazing activity. A high quality substrate pool for bacteria. J. Plankton Res., 19(1), 97−111.
Kattner, G. and Becker, H.. 1991. Nutrients and organic nitrogenous compounds in the marginal ice zone of Fram Strait. J. Mar. Syst., 2(3−4), 385−394.
Kottmeier, S.T. and Sullivan, C.W. 1990. Bacterial biomass and production in pack ice of Antarctic marginal ice edge zones. Deep-Sea Res., 37(8), 1311−1330.
Leppäranta, M. and Manninen, T.. Unpublished. The brine and gas content of sea ice, with attention to low salinities and high temperatures. Helsinki, Finnish Institute of Marine Research. (Internal Report 2.)
Palmisano, A. C. and Garrison, D. L.. 1993. Microorganisms in Antarctic sea ice. In Friedmann, E. I., ed. Antarctic microbiology. New York, etc, Wiley-Liss Inc., 167−218.
Porter, K. G. and Feig, Y. S.. 1980. The use of DAPI for identifying and counting aquatic microflora. Limnol. Oceanogr., 25(5), 943−948.
Qian, J. and Mopper, K.. 1996. Automated high-performance, high-temperature combustion total carbon analyzer. Anal. Chem., 68(18), 3090−3097.
Smith, R. E. H., Gosselin, M., Kudoh, S., Robineau, B. and Taguchi, S.. 1997. DOC and its relationship to algae in bottom ice communities. J. Mar. Syst.,11(1-2),7180.
Thingstaad, T F. and Martinussen, I.. 1991. Are bacteria active in the cold pelagic ecosystem of the Barents Sea? Polar Res., 10(1), 255−266.
Thomas, D. N., Lara, R. J., Eicken, H., Kattner, G. and Skoog, A.. 1995. Dissolved organic matter in Arctic multi-year sea ice during winter: major components and relationship to ice characteristics. Polar Biol., 15(7), 477−483.
Thomas, D. N. and 7 others. 1998. Biological soup within decaying summer sea ice in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica. In Lizotte, M. P. and Arrigo, K. R., eds. Antarctic sea ice: biological processes, interactions and variability Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 161−171. (Antarctic Research Series 73.)
Thomas, D. N. and 6 others. 2001a. Dissolved organic matter in Antarctic sea ice. Ann. Glaciol., 33 (see paper in this volume).
Thomas, D. N., Kennedy, H., Kattner, G., Gerdes, D., Gough, C. and Dieckmann, G. S.. 2001b. Biogeochemisty of platelet ice: influence on particle flux under land fast sea ice during summer at Drescher Inlet, Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biol. 24(7), 486−496.
Weeks, W. E. and Ackley, S. F.. 1982. The growth, structure, and properties of sea ice. CRRELMonogr. 82−1.
Weissenberger, J. and Grossmann, S.. 1998. Experimental formation of sea ice: importance of water circulation and wave action for incorporation of phytoplankton and bacteria. Polar Biol, 20(3), 178−188.
Weissenberger, J., Dieckmann, G., Gradinger, R. and Spindler, M.. 1992. Sea ice: a cast technique to examine and analyze brine pockets and channel structure. Limnol. Oceanogr., 37(1), 179−183.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed