Agricultural Research Council. 1980. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal.
Arieli, A., Schrama, J. W., Hel, W. van der and Verstegen, M. W. A. 1995. Development of metabolic partitioning of energy in young calves. Journal of Dairy Science 78: 1154–1162.
Atkinson, P. J. 1992. Investigation of the effects of transport and lairage on hydration state and resting behaviour of calves for export. Veterinary Record 130: 413–416.
Blaxter, K. L. 1989. Energy metabolism in animals and man. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Brouwer, E. 1965. Report of sub-committee on constants and factors. In Energy metabolism (ed. Blaxter, K. L.), European Association for Animal Production publication no 11. pp. 441–443. Academic Press, London.
Crookshank, H. R., Elissalde, M. H., White, R. G., Clanton, D. C. and Smalley, H. E. 1979. Effect of transportation and handling of calves upon blood serum composition. Journal of Animal Science 48: 430–435.
Es, A. J. H. van, Nijkamp, H. J., Weerden, E. J. van and Hellemond, K. K. van. 1969. Energy, carbon and nitrogen balance experiments with veal calves. In Energy metabolism of farm animals (ed. Blaxter, K. L., Kielanowski, J. and Thorbek, G.), pp. 197–201. Oriel Press, Newcastle upon Tyne.
Fell, L. R., Wells, R. and Shutt, D. A. 1986. Stress in calves castrated surgically or by the application of rubber rings. Australian Veterinary Journal 69: 16–18.
Gonzalez-Jimenez, E. and Blaxter, K. L. 1962. The metabolism and thermal regulation of calves in the first month of life. British Journal of Nutrition 16: 199–212.
Holmes, C. W. and Davey, A. W. F. 1976. The energy metabolism of young Jersey and Friesian calves fed fresh milk. Animal Production 23: 43–53.
Janssens, C. J. J. G., Helmond, F. A. and Wiegant, V. M. 1994. Increased cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone in chronically stressed pigs: influence of housing conditions. Journal of Animal Science 72: 1771–1777.
Johnson, P. T. C. and Elliott, R. C. 1972a. Dietary energy intake and utilization by young Friesland calves. 2. Digestibility and metabolizable energy contents of whole milk and calves given these foods. Rhodesian Journal of Agricultural Research 10: 125–133.
Johnson, P. T. C. and Elliott, R. C. 1972b. Dietary energy intake and utilization by young Friesland calves. 3. The utilization by calves of energy in whole milk Rhodesian. Journal of Agricultural Research 10: 135–142.
Johnston, J. D. and Buckland, R. B. 1976. Response of male Holstein calves from seven sires to four management stresses as measured by plasma corticoid levels. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 56: 727–732.
Kent, J. E. and Ewbank, R. 1983. The effect of road transportation on the blood constituents and behaviour of calves. I. Six months old. British Veterinary Journal 139: 228–235.
Kent, J. E. and Ewbank, R. 1986a. The effect of road transportation on the blood constituents and behaviour of calves. II. One to three weeks old. British Veterinary Journal 142: 131–140.
Kent, J. E. and Ewbank, R. 1986b. The effect of road transportation on the blood constituents and behaviour of calves. III. Three months old. British Veterinary Journal 142: 326–335.
Meulenbroeks, J., Verstegen, M. W. A., Hel, W. van der, Korver, S. and Kleinhout, G. 1986. The effect of genotype and metabolizable energy intake on protein and fat gain in veal calves. Animal Production 43: 195–200.
Neergaard, L. 1980. Influence of specially extracted soya meal on nitrogen and energy metabolism in the preruminant calf. In Energy metabolism (ed. Mount, L. E.), pp. 43–47. Butterworths, London.
Pantrtt, R. F. and Misson, B. H. 1989. Changes in pig salivary cortisol in response to transport simulation, food and water deprivation, and mixing. British Veterinary Journal 145: 501–505.
Poczopko, P. 1981. The environmental physiology of juvenile animals. In Environmental aspects of housing for animal production (ed. Clark, J. A.), pp. 109–130. Butterworths, London.
Postema, H. J. 1985. Veterinary and zootechnical aspects of veal production. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Utrecht, Netherlands.
Richard, D. and Rivest, S. 1989. The role of exercise in thermogenesis and energy balance. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 67: 402–409.
Roy, J. H. B., Huffman, C. F. and Reineke, E. P. 1957. The basal metabolism of the newborn calf. British Journal of Nutrition 11: 373–381.
Schrama, J. W., Arieli, A., Brandsma, H. A., Luiting, P. and Verstegen, M. W. A. 1993a. Thermal requirements of young calves during standing and lying. Journal of Animal Science 71: 3285–3295.
Schrama, J. W., Arieli, A., Heetkamp, M. J. W. and Verstegen, M. W. A. 1992a. Responses of young calves to low ambient temperatures at two levels of feeding. Animal Production 55: 397–405.
Schrama, J. W., Arieli, A., Hel, W. van der and Verstegen, M. W. A. 1993b. Evidence of increasing thermal requirements in young, unadapted calves during 6 to 11 days of age. Journal of Animal Science 71: 1761–1766.
Schrama, J. W., Hel, W. van der, Arieli, A. and Verstegen, M. W. A. 1992b. Alteration of energy metabolism of calves fed below maintenance during 6 to 14 days of age. Journal of Animal Science 70: 2527–2532.
Schrama, J. W., Roefs, J. P. A., Gorssen, J., Heetkamp, M. J. W. and Verstegen, M. W. A. 1995. Alteration of heat production in young calves in relation to posture. Journal of Animal Science 73: 2254–2262.
Settlemire, C. T., Hibbs, J. W. and Conrad, H. R. 1964. Basal metabolic rate, pulse rate, respiration rate, and certain organ weights in relation to neonatal iron deficiency anemia in dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science 47: 875–878.
Shetty, P. S. 1990. Physiological mechanisms in the adaptive response of metabolic rates to energy restriction. Nutrition Research Reviews 3: 49–74.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1985. SAS user's guide: statistics, version 5 edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Toullec, R. and Guilloteau, P. 1989. Research into the digestive physiology of the milk-fed calf. In Nutrition and digestive physiology in monogastric farm animals (ed. Weerden, E. J. van and Huisman, J.), pp. 37–55. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Verstegen, M. W. A., Hel, W. van der, Brandsma, H. A., Henken, A. M. and Bransen, A. M. 1987. The Wageningen respiration unit for animal production research: a description of the equipment and its possibilities. In Energy metabolism in farm animals: effects of housing, stress and disease (ed. Verstegen, M. W. A. and Henken, A. M.), pp. 21–48. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht.
Webster, A. J. F., Saville, C., Church, B. M., Gnanasakthy, A. and Moss, R. 1985. Some effects of different rearing systems on health, cleanliness and injury in calves. British Veterinary Journal 141: 472–483.
Williams, P. E. V., Fallon, R. J., Brockway, J. M., Innes, G. M. and Brewer, A. C. 1986. The effect of frequency of feeding milk replacer to pre-ruminant calves on respiratory quotient and the efficiency of food utilization. Animal Production 43: 367.