Skip to main content Accessibility help

Mammogenesis and first lactation milk yields of identical-twin heifers following pre-pubertal administration of bovine growth hormone

  • L. D. Sandles (a1), C. J. Peel (a1) and P. D. Temple-Smith (a2)


The effects of long-term administration of bovine growth hormone (GH) on pre-pubertal mammogenesis and subsequent milk production were examined in pasture-fed dairy heifers. Purified bovine GH (specific activity 0·78 i.u. per mg) was administered daily for 21 weeks (0·6 mg GH per kg M 0·75) to one member of each of 12 sets of twins from 3·5 (range 2·5 to 4-5) months of age. GH administration resulted in a significantly smaller mammary gland compared with control heifers at slaughter at the end of treatment (717 v. 839 g; P < 005 (no. = 4)) and increased the proportion of mammary fat pad containing parenchyma (461 v. 383 g/kg; P < 0·01). Mammary parenchymal dry, fat-free tissue was increased in the GH-treated group (25·8 v. 22·5 g; P < 0·05), and fat-pad adipose tissue was reduced (323 v. 435 g; P < 005), compared with the control group. Morphometric analysis of the mammary gland revealed an increase in the volume fraction of connective tissue (P < 0·1) and a tendency toward less fat in GH-treated heifers compared with control heifers. Estimates of the composition of the whole gland confirmed that GH treatment reduced total mammary fat (372 v. 496 g; P < 0·05). At calving, udder volume was greater in the heifers treated with GH compared with the untreated group (14·8 v. 11·2 1; P < 0·05 (no. = 4)). However, there were no differences in the mean daily yields of milk or milk components between groups.



Hide All
Anderson, R. R. 1975. Mammary gland growth in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 41: 118123.
Bauman, D. E., Eppard, P. J., Degeeter, M. J. and Lanza, G. M. 1985. Responses of high producing dairy cows to long-term treatment with pituitary and recombinant-growth hormone. Journal of Dairy Science 68: 13521362.
Cowie, A. T., Tindal, J. S. and Yokoyama, A. 1966. The induction of mammary growth in the hypophysectomized goat. Journal of Endocrinology 34: 185195.
Davis, S. R., Hughson, G. A. and Bryant, A. M. 1983. Differences in the extent of mammary development between Jersey cows of high or low genetic merit. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 43: 7172.
Harrison, R. D., Reynolds, I. P. and Little, W. 1983. A quantitative analysis of mammary glands of dairy heifers reared at different rates of live-weight gain. Journal of Dairy Research 50: 405412.
Herington, A. C., Jacobs, L. S. and Daughaday, W. H. 1974. Radioreceptor and radioimmunoassay quantitation of human growth hormone in acromegalic serum: overestimation by immunoassay and systematic differences between antisera. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 39: 256261.
Johnsson, I. D., Hart, I. C. and Turvey, A. 1986. Pre-pubertal mammogenesis in the sheep. 3. The effects of restricted feeding or daily administration of bovine growth hormone and bromocriptine on mammary growth and morphology. Animal Production 42: 5363.
Little, W. and Kay, R. M. 1979. The effects of rapid rearing and early calving on the subsequent performance of dairy heifers. Animal Production 29: 131142.
Lyons, W. R. 1958. Hormonal synergism in mammary growth. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 149: 303325.
Martin, R. F., Donohue, D. C. and Finch, L. R. 1972. New analytical procedure for the estimation of DNA with p-nitrophenylhydrazine. Biochemistry 47: 562574.
Martin, R. F. and Hodgson, G. S. 1973. Estimation of DNA, RNA and125I- and 3H-labelled DNA in the same sample. Analytical Biochemistry 52: 462469.
Muir, L. A., Wien, S., Duquette, P. F., Rickes, E. L. and Cordes, E. H. 1983. Effects of exogenous growth hormone and diethylstilbestrol on growth and carcass composition of growing lambs. Journal of Animal Science 56: 13151323.
Peel, C. J., Bauman, D. E., Gorewit, R. C. and Snifff, N. C. J. 1981. Effect of exogenous growth hormone on lactational performance in high yielding dairy cows. Journal of Nutrition 111: 16621671.
Peel, C. J., Fronk, T. J., Bauman, D. E. and Gorewit, R. C. 1983. Effects of exogenous growth hormone in early and late lactation on lactational performance of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 66: 776782.
Peel, C. J., Sandles, L. D., Quelch, K. J. and Herington, A. C. 1985. The effects of long-term administration of bovine growth hormone on the lactational performance of identical-twin dairy cows. Animal Production 41: 135142.
Pritchard, D. E., Hafs, H. D., Tucker, H. A., Boyd, L. J., Purchas, R. W. and Huber, J. T. 1972. Growth, mammary, reproductive, and pituitary hormone characteristics of Holstein heifers fed extra grain and melengestrol acetate. Journal of Dairy Science 55: 9951004.
Reichert, L. E. Jr 1975. Purification of anterior pituitary hormones (ovine, bovine, rat and rabbit). In Methods of Enzymology. Vol. 37. Hormone Action. Part B. Peplide Hormones (ed. O'Malley, B. W. and Hardman, J. G.). pp. 360380. Academic Press, New York.
Sandles, L. D. and Peel, C. J. 1987. Growth and carcass composition of pre-pubertal dairy heifers treated with bovine growth hormone. Animal Production 44: 2127.
Schultz, L. H. 1969. Relationship of rearing rate of dairy heifers to mature performance. Journal of Dairy Science 52: 13211329.
Sejrsen, K. 1978. Mammary development and milk yield in relation to growth rate in dairy and dual-purpose heifers. Acta Agricullurae Scandinavica 28: 4146.
Sejrsen, K., Foldager, J., Sorensen, M. T., Akers, R. M. and Bauman, D. E. 1986. Effect of exogenous bovine somatotropin mammary development in heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 69: 15281535.
Sejrsen, K., Huber, J. T. and Tucker, H. A. 1983. Influence of amount fed on hormone concentrations and their relationship to mammary growth in heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 66: 845855.
Sinha, Y. N. and Tucker, H. A. 1969. Mammary development and pituitary prolactin levels of heifers from birth through puberty and during the estrus cycle. Journal of Dairy Science 52: 507512.
Swanson, E. W. 1967. Optimum growth patterns for dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 50: 244252.
Wagner, J. F. and Veenhuizen, E. L. 1978. Growth performance, carcass composition and plasma hormone levels in wether lambs when treated with growth hormone and thyroprotein. Journal of Animal Science 47: Suppl. 1, p. 397 (Abstr.).
Weibel, E. R. 1979. Stereological Methods. Vol. 1. Practical Methods for Biological Morphometry. Academic Press, London.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Mammogenesis and first lactation milk yields of identical-twin heifers following pre-pubertal administration of bovine growth hormone

  • L. D. Sandles (a1), C. J. Peel (a1) and P. D. Temple-Smith (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.