The effects of age atfirstcalving (2 v. 3 years) and the winter feeding management as yearlings (roughages v. roughages supplemented with meal) on conception rate, calving performance (survival and weights) and lifetime production were studied on 76 beef Shorthorn cows bora from 1956 to 1958 at the Lennoxville Research Station. Conception rates averaged 89 %, and were not influenced by treatments. Calf mortality from birth to weaning was 1·5 and 0·6% higher among the calves out of the cows which had calved first at 2 years old and cows not supplemented, respectively, but the differences were not significant. Calves born to cows calving first at 2 years were 0·8 and 7·7 kg (P>0·05) lighter at birth and weaning respectively than those born to cows calving first at 3 years of age. The effect of feeding regime of the cows as yearlings on the weights of calves at birth and at weaning was non-significant.
In cows calving annually up to 8 years of age in this trial the lifetime production of those calvingfirstat 2 years of age was greater by 40 kg than of those calving first at 3 years of age, although the advantage was greater in earlier years.