Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Environmental parameters necessary to define comfort for pigs, cattle and sheep in livestock transporters

  • J. M. Randall (a1)

Abstract

Most livestock are transported at least once during their lifetime. Environmental conditions inside the transporter are critically dependent on many factors which can be controlled by well designed and carefully operated ventilation systems. Heat, moisture and carbon dioxide production of cattle, pigs and sheep are fitted to simple models as bases for ventilation design criteria. These assume that the animals are not well fed immediately before or during transport and that maintenance metabolic heat production applies. Interactions between temperature and humidity during transport are important at temperatures above 24°C.

Ventilation slots along the sides of transporters can be occluded by the bodies of the stock themselves. Relevant dimensions of pigs, cattle and sheep related to body weight are provided as additional design parameters. Stocking density interacts critically with other aspects of transport and normally recommended values are shown to be inconsistent. Space requirements should be based on species and body weight, provided that the ventilation capacity is satisfactory.

Proposed European regulations on the transport of livestock provide general guidelines for the provision of ventilation, but no means of achieving these requirements. This paper draws together detailed criteria for establishing acceptable space, thermal, psychrometric and gaseous conditions on transporters for pigs, cattle and sheep. Application of these quantitative criteria will assist shippers and regulating authorities in providing more suitable environmental conditions than are frequently achieved at present.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Agriculture Canada. 1984. Recommended code of practice for care and handling of pigs. Publication 1771/E. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa.
Albright, L. D. 1990. Environment control for animals and plants. ASAE textbook number 4. The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan.
Alexander, G. 1974. Heat loss from sheep. In Heat loss from animals and man (ed Monteith, J. L. and Mount, L. E.), pp. 173203. Butterworths, London.
American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 1987. Dimensions of livestock and poultry. In Data and standards handbook, pp. 391398. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan.
Baxter, S. H. 1969. The environmental complex in livestock housing. Scottish Farm Buildings Investigation Unit, Aberdeen.
Blaxter, K. L. 1977. Environmental factors and their influence on the nutrition of farm livestock. In Nutrition and the climatic environment (eds. Haresign, W., Swan, H. and Lewis, D.), pp. 116. Butterworths, London.
Bruce, J. M. 1981. Ventilation and temperature control criteria for pigs. In Environmental aspects of housing for animal production (ed. Clark, J. A.), pp. 197216. Butterworths, London.
Bruce, J. M. and Clark, J. J. 1979. Models of heat production and critical temperature for growing pigs. Animal Production 28: 353369.
Commission Internationale du Genie Rural. 1984. Climatizatkvi of animal houses. Report of working group, CIGR, Scottish Farm Buildings Investigation Unit, Aberdeen.
DIN 18910. 1974. Klima im geschlossenen Stall, 1. Ockt. 1974 (Climate in closed livestock buildings), German Standard.
EEC Council Regulation. 1989. Proposal for a Council Regulation (EEC) on the protection of animals during transport. Official Journal of the European Communities 32: 3647. COM(89) 322, 89/C214/06.
Esmay, M. L. 1982. Principles of animal environment — textbook edition. AVI Publishing Company, Connecticut.
Esmay, M. L. and Dixon, J. E. 1986. Environmental control for agricultural buildings. AVI Publishing Company, Connecticut.
Farm Animal Welfare Council. 1991. Report on the European Commission Proposals on the Transport of Animals. FAWC, Tolworth.
Grandin, T. 1982. Transportation of domestic animals. Proceedings of the symposium on management of food producing animals. Purdue University, West Lafeyette, Indiana.
Guise, H. J., Penny, R. H. C, Weeding, C. M. and Hunter, E. J. 1991. Recent studies in pig transport and lairage. Pig Veterinary Journal 26: 7884.
Health and Safety Executive. 1990. Occupational exposure limits 1990. Guidance note EH 40/90. Health and Safety Executive, HMSO, London.
Holmes, C. W. and Close, W. H. 1977. The influence of climatic variables on energy metabolism and associated aspects of productivity in the pig. In Nutrition and the climatic environment (ed. Haresign, W., Swan, H. and Lewis, D.), pp. 5173. Butterworths, London.
Larner, P. I. 1989. Survey and examination of maximum density of sheep loaded for international transport. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Dover.
McArthur, A. J. 1987. Thermal interaction between animal and microclimate: a comprehensive model. Journal of Tiieoretical Biology 126: 203238.
McArthur, A. J. 1991. Thermal interaction between animal and microclimate: specification “Standard Environmental Temperature” for animals outdoors. Journal of Theoretical Biology 148: 331343.
McLean, J. A. 1969. The environmental needs of farm animals and their heat output. Journal of the Institution of Heating and Ventilation Engineers 37: 201203.
Meat and Livestock Commission. 1986. Handling pigs from farm to slaughterhouse. Marketing and meat trade technical bulletin no. 74. Meat and Livestock Commission, Milton Keynes.
Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food. 1990. Codes of recommendations for the welfare of livestock, Pigs. PB0075. MAFF, London.
Müller, W. 1981. The problem of ensuring adequate ventilation during sea transport of livestock. Schlachten und Vermarkten 80: (3) 8791. [Translation no. 9 by D. R. Bunn, AFRC Engineering, Silsoe.]
Müller, W. 1985. Ventilation requirements during air transport of animals. Proceedings of the eleventh international conference. pp. 2931. Animal Air Transportation Association Inc., Tampa, Florida.
Müller, W. 1987. Proposals for the calculation of ventilation rates during the carriage of cattle at sea. In Animal transport by sea, a collection of papers prepared for the Anitrans Conference (ed. Deere, Derek).
Müller, W. and Baumuller, J. 1978. Ventilation requirements of farm animals during air transport. Report No. 2. Maximum permitted loads according to the ventilation requirements of different types of animal. Translation no. 7, AFRC Engineering, Silsoe.
Nordstrom, G. A. and McQuitty, J. B. 1975. Response of calves to atmospheric hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Annual meeting of the Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, paper no.75-272. pp. 126.
Nordstrom, G. A. and McQuitty, J. B. 1976. Manure gases in the animal environment — a literature review (with particular reference to cattle housing). Research bulletin 76-1, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Alberta, pp. 180.
Petherick, J. C. 1983. A note on the allometric relationships in Large White × Landrace pigs. Animal Production 36: 497500.
Petherick, J. C. and Baxter, S. H. 1981. Modelling the static spacial requirements of livestock. Proceedings of Commission Internationale du Genie Rural seminar on modelling, design and evaluation of agricultural buildings, Scottish Farm Buildings Investigation Unit, Aberdeen, pp. 7582.
Randall, J. M. 1977. A handbook on the design of a ventilation system for livestock buildings using step control and automatic vents. National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, report no. 28, pp. 147.
Randall, J. M. 1983. Humidity and water vapour transfer in finishing piggeries. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 28: 451461.
Sharpies, T. J. and Dumelow, J. 1988. Design data for sheep housing. Farm Buildings and Engineering 5: (2), 2123.
Sharpies, T. J. and Dumelow, J. 1990. Prediction of body dimensions of Mule and Scottish Blackface ewes from measurement of body weight. Animal Production 50: 491495.
Wathes, C. M., Jones, C. D. R. and Webster, A. J. F. 1983. Ventilation, air hygiene and animal health. Veterinary Record 113: 554559.
Watts, M. E. T. 1982. Bulk transportation of farm animals by air and vehicular ferries. In Transport of animals intended for breeding, production and slaughter (ed. Moss, R.), pp. 147165. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.
Webster, A. J. F. 1974. Heat loss from cattle with particular emphasis on the effects of cold. In Heat loss from animals and man (ed. Monteith, J. L. and Mount, L. E.), pp. 205231. Butterworths, London.
Webster, A. J. F. 1981. Optimal housing criteria for ruminants. In Environmental aspects of housing for animal production (ed. Clark, J. A.), pp. 217232. Butterworths, London.

Keywords

Environmental parameters necessary to define comfort for pigs, cattle and sheep in livestock transporters

  • J. M. Randall (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed