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Environmental parameters necessary to define comfort for pigs, cattle and sheep in livestock transporters

  • J. M. Randall (a1)


Most livestock are transported at least once during their lifetime. Environmental conditions inside the transporter are critically dependent on many factors which can be controlled by well designed and carefully operated ventilation systems. Heat, moisture and carbon dioxide production of cattle, pigs and sheep are fitted to simple models as bases for ventilation design criteria. These assume that the animals are not well fed immediately before or during transport and that maintenance metabolic heat production applies. Interactions between temperature and humidity during transport are important at temperatures above 24°C.

Ventilation slots along the sides of transporters can be occluded by the bodies of the stock themselves. Relevant dimensions of pigs, cattle and sheep related to body weight are provided as additional design parameters. Stocking density interacts critically with other aspects of transport and normally recommended values are shown to be inconsistent. Space requirements should be based on species and body weight, provided that the ventilation capacity is satisfactory.

Proposed European regulations on the transport of livestock provide general guidelines for the provision of ventilation, but no means of achieving these requirements. This paper draws together detailed criteria for establishing acceptable space, thermal, psychrometric and gaseous conditions on transporters for pigs, cattle and sheep. Application of these quantitative criteria will assist shippers and regulating authorities in providing more suitable environmental conditions than are frequently achieved at present.



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Environmental parameters necessary to define comfort for pigs, cattle and sheep in livestock transporters

  • J. M. Randall (a1)


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