Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The effects of dietary oil inclusion and oil source on apparent digestibility, faecal volatile fatty acid concentration and manure ammonia emission

  • A. B. G. Leek (a1), V. E. Beattie (a2) and J. V. O’Doherty (a1)

Abstract

An investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary oil inclusion increases ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) emission from the manure, due to a negative effect of either unsaturated or saturated oil on microbial activity in the intestine. Dietary oil was included at 45 g/kg, as either crude palm oil (PO), soya oil (SO) or a 50: 50 SO: PO blend (OB), to a basal barley-soya-wheat diet (control) at the expense of dextrose and maize starch. Diets were formulated to contain 13·2 MJ digestible energy per kg and 11·0 g/kg lysine. Four boars were assigned to each dietary treatment, and were transferred to metabolism crates (mean live weight, 74·0 (± 2·89) kg) following 14 days dietary acclimatization. Urine and faeces were collected separately over a 5-day digestibility/nitrogen (N) balance period and a 2-day manure collection period. Inclusion of dietary oil increased apparent digestibility of oil (P < 0·01) and decreased the apparent digestibility of dry matter (P < 0·01) and gross energy (P < 0·05). Dietary oil did not affect the apparent digestibility of nitrogen, acid-detergent fibre, neutral-detergent fibre or hemicellulose. Apparent digestibility of oil was lower when oil was included as PO compared with SO and OB (P < 0·001). The concentration of faecal volatile fatty acid (VFA) was similar in all treatments, although the acetic: propionic acid ratio was lower when oil was included as PO and OB compared with SO (P < 0·05). N balance, manure N concentration and NH3-N emission was not affected by oil inclusion or oil source. In conclusion, dietary oil inclusion reduced apparent dry matter and energy digestibilities, although no effect on fermentation was indicated by digestibility of fibre or faecal VFA content. Consequently, ammonia emission was not affected by dietary oil included at 45 g/kg.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. E-mail: john.vodoherty@ucd.ie

References

Hide All
Anonymous. 1985. The feedingstuffs (sampling and analysis) regulations. Statutory Instrument 1985, no. 1119. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1995. Official methods of analysis, 16th edition, AOAC, Washington DC.
Bakker, G. C. M., Jongbloed, R., Verstegen, M. W. A., Jongbloed, A. W. and Bosch, M. W. 1995. Nutrient apparent digestibility and the performance of growing fattening pigs as affected by incremental additions of fat to starch or non-starch polysaccharides. Animal Science 60: 325335.
Brenes, A., Guenter, W., Marquardt, R. R. and Rotter, B. A. 1993. Effect of ß-glucanase/pentosanase enzyme supplementation on the performance of chickens and laying hens fed wheat, barley, naked oats and rye diets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 73: 941951.
Brooks, C. C., Garner, G. B., Gehrke, C. W., Muhrer, M. E. and Pfander, W. H. 1954. The effect of added fat on the digestion of cellulose and protein by ovine rumen microorganisms. Journal of Animal Science 13: 758764.
Canh, T. T., Sutton, A. L., Aarnink, A. J. A., Verstegen, M. W. A., Schrama, J. W. and Bakker, G. C. M. 1998. Dietary carbohydrates alter the faecal composition and pH and the ammonia emission from slurry of growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 76: 18871895.
Christensen, K. and Thorbek, G. 1987. Methane excretion in the growing pig. British Journal of Nutrition 57: 355361.
Clanton, C. J., Nichols, D. A., Moser, R. L. and Ames, D. R. 1991. Swine manure characterization as affected by environmental temperature, dietary level intake, and dietary fat addition. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 34: 21642170.
Close, W. H. 1994. Feeding new genotypes: establishing amino acid/energy requirements. In Principals of pig science (ed. Cole, D. J. A. Wiseman, J. and Varley, M. A.), pp. 123140. Nottingham University Press, Loughborough.
Conway, E. J. 1957. Microdiffusion analysis and volumetric error. Crosby Lockwood and Son, London.
Dänicke, S., Simon, O., Jeroch, H. and Bedford, M. 1997. Interactions between dietary fat type and xylanase supplementation when rye-based diets are fed to broiler chickens. 2. Performance, nutrient digestibility and the fat-soluble vitamin status of livers. British Poultry Science 38: 546556.
Dänicke, S., Vahjem, W., Simon, O. and Jeroch, H. 1999. Effects fat type and xylanase supplementation to rye-based broiler diets on selected bacterial groups adhering to the intestinal epithelium, on transit time of the feed and on nutrient digestibility. Poultry Science 78: 12921299.
Derikx, P. J. L. and Aarnink, A. J. A. 1993. Reduction of ammonia emission from manure by application of liquid top layers. In Nitrogen flow in pig production and environmental consequences (ed. Verstegen, M. W. A. Hartog, L. A. den Kempen, G. J. M.van and Metz, J. H. M.), European Association for Animal Production publication no. 69, pp. 344349. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Fangmeier, A., Hadwinger-Fangmeier, A., Eerden, L. van der and Jaeger, H. L. 1994. Effects of atmospheric ammonia on vegetation – a review. Environmental Pollution 86: 4382.
Ferket, P. R., Heugten, E. van, Kempen, T. A. van and Angel, R. 2002. Nutritional strategies to reduce environmental emissions from non ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 80: (suppl. 2) E168E182.
Folch, J., Lees, M. and Sloane-Stanley, G. H. S. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226: 497509.
Freeman, C. P. 1983. Fat supplementation in animal production – monogastric animals. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 42: 351359.
Gill, C. 2003. Eco-friendly ingredients: palm oil and ethanol co-products for pigs. Feed International 24: 2425.
Greeley, M. G., Meade, R. J. and Hanson, L. E. 1964. Energy and protein intakes by growing swine. I. Effects on rate and efficiency of gain and on nutrient digestibility. Journal of Animal Science 23: 808818.
Hyde, B. P., Carton, O. T., O’Toole, P. and Misslebrook, T. H. 2003. A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture. Atmospheric Environment 37: 5562.
Jørgensen, H., Fernandez, J. A. and Just, A. 1985. The effect of dietary fat and mineral level on the site of absorption of some nutrients at different levels of crude fibre and crude protein. Proceedings of the third international seminar on digestive physiology in the pig, pp. 356363.
Jørgensen, H., Gabert, V. M., Hedemann, M. S. and Jensen, S. K. 2000. Digestion of fat does not differ in growing pigs fed diets containing fish oil, rapeseed oil or coconut oil. Journal of Nutrition 130: 852857.
Just, A. 1982. The net energy value of crude fat for growth in pigs. Livestock Production Science 9: 501509.
Kennelly, J. J. and Aherne, F. X. 1980. The effect of fibre in diets formulated to contain different levels of energy and protein on digestibility coefficients in swine. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 60: 717726.
Kidder, D. E. and Manners, M. J. 1978. Digestion in the pig. Scientechnica, Bristol.
Knarreborg, A., Simon, M. A., Engberg, R. M., Jensen, B. B. and Tannock, G. W. 2002. Effects of dietary fat source and subtherapeutic levels of antibiotic on the bacterial community in the ileum of broiler chickens at various stages. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68: 59185924.
Kreuzer, M. and Machmüller, A. 1993. Reduction of gaseous nitrogen emission from pig manure by increasing the level of bacterially fermentable carbohydrate. In Nitrogen flow in pig production and environmental consequences (ed. Verstegen, M. W. A., Hartog, L. A.den Kempen, G. J. M. van and Metz, J. H. M.), European Association for Animal Production publication no. 69, pp. 151156. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Kreuzer, M., Machmüller, A., Gredemann, M. M., Hanneken, H. and Wittmann, M. 1998. Reduction of gaseous nitrogen loss from pig manure using feeds rich in easily fermentable non-starch polysaccharides. Animal Feed Science and Technology 73: 119.
Lewis, F. J., McEvoy, J., Smith, S., Henry, R. W. and McCracken, K. J. 2001. The effect of different levels of fat inclusion and cereal type on digestibility parameters for growing pigs. In Digestive physiology of pigs (ed. Lindberg, J. E. and Ogle, B.), pp. 166168. Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Littell, R. C., Milliken, G. A., Stroup, W. W. and Wolfinger, R. D. 1996. SAS® Systems for mixed models, Statistical Analysis Systems Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Lowrey, R. S., Pond, W. G., Loosli, J. K. and Maner, J. H. 1962. Effect of dietary fat level on apparent nutrient digestibility by growing swine. Journal of Animal Science 21: 746750.
McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A., Greenhalgh, J. F. D. and Morgan, C. A. 1996. Animal nutrition, sixth edition. Longman, London.
Mallett, A. K., Rowland, I. R. and Wise, A. 1983. Influence of dietary fats on the rat caecal microflora. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 43: 7A (abstr.).
Ocampo, A., Dodds, P. F. and Lean, I. J. 2001. Effects of substitution of a carbohydrate source by highly polyunsaturated or partially saturated oil on the fatty acid composition of backfat tissues, marbling fat and vitamin E content of meat in growing-fattening pigs. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science, 2001, p. 72.
Ocampo, A. and Lean, I. J. 1999. Palm oil (Elaeis guimeemsis, Elaeis oleifera) an efficient and sustainable energy source in pig production. Pig News and Information 20: 89N96N.
Ocampo, A. and Lean, I. J. 2001. Effects of a high-fat diet based on palm, soybean or maize oil on growth performance and carcass characteristics in growing-fattening pigs. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science, 2001, p. 82.
O’Doherty, J. V., McGlynn, S. G. and Murphy, D. 2002. The influence of fibre level and fat supplementation in expander-processed diets on grower-finisher pig performance. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 82: 10361043.
Partridge, G. C. and Gill, B. P. 2001. New approaches with weaner pig diets. In Recent developments in pig nutrition 3 (ed. Garnsworthy, P. C. and Wiseman, J.), pp 205237. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham.
Patterson, D. C. 1991. Effect of concentration and blend of added fat in the diet on the performance of growing pigs. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 116: 111117.
Pitcairn, C. E. R., Skiba, U. M., Sutton, M. A., Fowler, D., Munro, R. and Kennedy, V. 2002. Defining the spatial impacts of poultry farm ammonia emissions on species composition of adjacent woodland groundflora using Ellenberg Nitrogen Index, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emission and foliar nitrogen as marker variables. Environmental Pollution 119: 921.
Powles, J., Wiseman, J., Cole, D. J. A. and Hardy, B. 1993. Effect of chemical structure of fats upon their digestible energy value when given to growing/finishing pigs. Animal Production 57: 137146.
Slover, H. T. and Lanza, E. 1979. Quantitative analysis of food fatty acids by capillary gas chromatography. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 56: 933943.
Stahly, T. S. 1984. Use of fats in diets for growing pigs. In Fats in animal nutrition (ed. Wiseman, J.), pp. 313331. Butterworths, London.
Stevenson, F. J. 1982. Nitrogen-organic forms. In Methods of soil analysis, part 2, chemical and microbiological properties, second edition (ed. Page, A. L. Miller, R. H. and Keeney, D. R.), pp. 625641. American Society of Agronomy Inc. and Soil Science Society of America Inc., Madison, WI.
Tabeling, R., Gregory, P. and Kamphues, J. 1999. Studies on the nutrient digestibility (pre-ceacal and total) in pancreatic duct-ligated pigs and the effects of enzyme substitution. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 82: 251263.
Terán, M. G. and Santos Ricalde, R. H. 2002. Utilisation of palm oil as source of energy in pig diets. Book of summaries of British Society of Animal Science meeting: Responding to the increasing global demand for animal products, 12-15 November 2002, Uday, Mexico, p. 167 (abstr. ).
United Nations Economic Commission on Europe. 1999. Protocol to the 1979 convention on longrange transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. UNECE, Geneva.
Van Nevel, C. J. 1991. Modification of rumen fermentation by the use of additives. In Rumen microbial metabolism and ruminant digestion (ed. Jouany, J. P.) INRA, Paris, France.
Van Soest, P. J. 1963. Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. II. A rapid method for the determination of fibre and lignin. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 46: 829834.
Wiseman, J., Powles, J. and Salvador, F. 1998. Comparison between pigs and poultry in the prediction of the dietary energy value of fats. Animal Feed Science and Technology 71: 1–9.
Zhu, J. 2000. A review of microbiology in swine manure odor control. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 78: 93106.

Keywords

The effects of dietary oil inclusion and oil source on apparent digestibility, faecal volatile fatty acid concentration and manure ammonia emission

  • A. B. G. Leek (a1), V. E. Beattie (a2) and J. V. O’Doherty (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed