Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on energy and nitrogen metabolism and serum metabolites and hormones in West African Dwarf goats on different food intake levels

  • J. T. P. van Dam (a1), D. van der Heide (a2), W. van der Hel (a1), T. S. G. A. M. van den Ingh (a3), M. W. A. Verstegen (a4), T. Wensing (a5) and D. Zwart (a1)...

Abstract

Effects of Trypanosoma vivax infection on nitrogen and energy metabolism and serum hormones and metabolites were measured using 24 castrated West African Dwarf bucks. In order to discriminate between the effect of infection and the effect of food intake level on energy and nitrogen balance, food quantity restriction was applied for isonutritional comparison; a number of the animals were not infected and served as controls. Daily dry-matter (DM) intake was measured, and energy and nitrogen balance for a 7-day period in weeks 2, 4 and 6 after infection. Weekly blood sampling for analysis of hormones and metabolites was carried out.

Infected animals had a lower DM intake, compared with control animals, viz. 38·6 (s.e. 3·2) and 16·1 (s.e. 2·0) g/kg M0·75 per day, respectively (P < 0·001). Intake of gross energy and nitrogen followed the same pattern.

Metabolizability was not changed by infection and averaged 0·44. Heat production was increased by infection with an average of 33 kJ/kg M0·75 per day. Energy and nitrogen retention were negative for all groups; infection reduced energy retention and, during week 2 and 4 after infection, also nitrogen retention. The required metabolizable energy (ME) intake for maintenance was increased in infected animals (406 and 335 kJ/kg M0·75 per day for infected and control goats respectively), based on linear regression of energy retention on ME intake. The efficiency with which energy mobilization from body stores was substituted by dietary ME was estimated at 0·809 for both infected and control animals. The relationship between nitrogen retention and energy retention was not changed by infection. Therefore no indications were found for an increased catabolism of protein due to infection. Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine were reduced by infection; serum metabolites and insulin levels reflected the negative energy balance in infected animals.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abdullah, R. and Falconer, I. R. 1977. Responses of thyroid activity to feed restriction in the goat. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 30: 207215.
Abebe, G. and Eley, R. M. 1992. Trypanosome-induced hypothyroidism in cattle. British Veterinary Journal 148: 6370.
Adrichem, P. W. M. van and Vogt, J. E. 1993. The effect of isolation and separation on the metabolism of sheep. Livestock Production Science 33: 151159.
Agricultural Research Council. 1980. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough.
Akinbamijo, O. O., Hamminga, B. J., Wensing, T., Brouwer, B. O., Tolkamp, B. J. and Zwart, D. 1992. The effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection in West African Dwarf goats on energy and nitrogen metabolism. Veterinary Quarterly 14: 95100.
Beisel, W. R. 1985. Nutrition and infection. In Nutritional biochemistry and metabolism with clinical applications (ed. Linder, M. C.). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Blaxter, K. L. and Boyne, A. W. 1982. Fasting and maintenance metabolism of sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 99: 611620.
Bowers, C. L., Friend, T. H., Grissom, K. K. and Lay, D. C. 1993. Confinement of lambs (Ovis aries) in metabolism stalls increased adrenal function, thyroxine and motivation for movement. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 36: 149158.
Brouwer, E. 1965. Report of sub-committee on constants and factors. In Energy Metabolism (ed. Blaxter, K. L.), European Association of Animal Production, publ. no. 11, pp. 441443, pp. 369–394. Academic Press, London.
Dam, J. T. P. van, Hel, W. van der, Hofs, P. and Zwart, D. 1996a. The relation between feed intake responses to successive trypanosome infections of trypanotolerant West African Dwarf goats. In Dam, J. T. P. van The interaction between nutrition and metabolism in West African Dwarf goats infected with trypanosomes. Ph.D. thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.
Dam, J. T. P. van, Schrama, J. W., Hel, W. van der, Verstegen, M. W. A. and Zwart, D. 1996b. Heat production, body temperature and body posture in West African Dwarf goats, infected with Trypanosoma vivax. Veterinary Quarterly 18: 5559.
Food and Agriculture Organization. 1988. Le bétail trypanotolérant en Afriaue occidentale et centrale, vol. 3 — Bilan d'une décennie. Étude FAO Production et santé animates 20/3. FAO, Rome.
Forbes, J. M. 1995. Voluntary food intake and diet selection in farm animals. CAB International, Oxfordshire.
Hel, W. van der, Heetkamp, M. J. W., Gorssen, J., Schrama, J. W. and Dam, J. T. P. van. 1993. Continuous measurement of body temperature of (farm) animals by a telemetric system in relation to heat production. In Biotelemetry XII (ed. Mancini, P., Fioretti, S., Cristalli, C. and Bedini, R.). Proceedings of the twelfth international symposium on biotelemetry, 1992. Ancona, Italy.
Ingh, T. S. G. A. M. van den, Zwart, D., Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M van and Schotman, A. J. H. 1976a. Clinico-pathological and pathomorphological observations in Trypanosoma vivax infection in cattle. Veterinary Parasitology 2: 237250.
Ingh, T. S. G. A. M. van den, Zwart, D., Schotman, A. J. H., Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M. van and Veenendaal, G. H. 1976b. The pathology and pathogenesis of Trypanosoma vivax infection in the goat. Research in Veterinary Science 21: 264270.
International Livestock Centre for Africa. 1986. The African Trypanotolerant Livestock Network. Indications from results 1983–1985. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa.
International Organization for Standardization. 1991. ISO Catalogues, Zurich.
Ketelaars, J. J. M. H. and Tolkamp, B. J. 1991. Toward a new theory of feed intake regulation in ruminants. Ph.D. thesis, Agricultural University of Wageningen.
Leeflang, P., Buys, J. and Blotkamp, C. 1976. Studies on Trypanosoma vivax: infectivity and serial maintenance of natural bovine isolates in mice. International Journal for Parasitology 6: 413417.
Morrison, W. I., Murray, M. and Akol, G. W. O. 1985. Immune responses of cattle to African trypanosomes. In Immunology and pathogenesis of trypanosomiasis (ed. Tizard, I.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Mutayoba, B. M. and Gombe, S. 1989. Effect of African trypanosomiasis on plasma cortisol and thyroxine concentration in goats. Research in Veterinary Science 47: 315318.
National Research Council. 1981. Nutrient requirements of domestic animals, no. 15, Nutrient requirements ofgoats: dairy and meat goats in temperate and tropical countries. National Academy Press, Washington.
Olthoff, J. C., Dickerson, G. E. and Nienaber, J. A. 1989. Energy utilization in mature ewes from seven breeds with diverse production potentials. Journal of Animal Science 67: 25502564.
Osaer, S., Goossens, B., Clifford, D. J., Kora, S. and Kassama, M. 1994. A comparison of the susceptibility of Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats to experimental infection with two different strains of Trypanosoma congolense. Veterinary Parasitology 51: 191204
Payne, J. M. 1989. Metabolic and nutritional diseases of cattle. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1990. SAS/STAT® user's guide, version 6, 4th ed., vol. 2. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Top, A. M. van den, Klooster, A. T. van 't, Wensing, T., Wentink, G. H. and Beynen, A. C. 1995. Liver triacylglycerol concentrations around parturition in goats with either pre-partum restricted or free access to feed. Veterinary Quarterly 17: 5459.
Trail, J. C. M., d'Ieteren, G. D. M., Feron, A., Kakiese, O., Mulungo, M. and Pelo, M. 1991. Effect of trypanosome infection, control of parasitaemia and control of anaemia development on productivity of N'Dama cattle. Acta Tropica 48: 3745.
Veenhuizen, J. J., Drackley, J. K., Richard, M. J., Sanderson, T. P., Miller, L. D. and Young, J. W. 1991. Metabolic changes in blood and liver during development and early treatment of experimental fatty liver and ketosis in cows. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 42384253.
Verstegen, M. W. A., Hel, W. van der, Brandsma, H. A., Henken, A. M. and Bransen, A. M. 1987. The Wageningen respiration unit for animal production research; a description of the equipment and its possibilities. In Energy metabolism in farm animals. Effects of housing, stress and disease(ed. Verstegen, M. W. A. and Henken, A. M.). Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Verstegen, M. W. A., Zwart, D., Hel, W. van der, Brouwer, B. O. and Wensing, T. 1991. Effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on energy and nitrogen metabolism of West African Dwarf goats. Journal of Animal Science 69: 16671677.
Wassink, G. J., Momoh, J. S., Zwart, D. and Wensing, T. 1993. The relationship between decrease in feed intake and infection with Trypanosoma congolense and T. vivax in West African Dwarf goats. Veterinary Quarterly 15: 59.
Zemmelink, G., Tolkamp, B. J. and Ogink, N. W. M. 1991. Energy requirements for maintenance and gain of West African Dwarf goats. Small Ruminant Research 5: 205215.
Zwart, D., Brouwer, B. O., Hel, W. van der, Akker, H. N. van den and Verstegen, M. W. A. 1991. Effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on body temperature, feed intake and metabolic rate of West African Dwarf goats. Journal of Animal Science 69: 37803788.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed