Arendt, J., Symons, A. M., English, J., Poulton, A. L. and Tobler, I. 1988. How does melatonin control seasonal reproductive cycles? Reproduction and Nutrition Developments 28: 387–397.
Bergiannaki, J., Paparrigopoulos, T. J. and Stefanis, C. N. 1996. Seasonal pattern of melatonin excretion in humans: relationship to daylength variation rate and geomagnetic field fluctuations. Experientia 15: 253–258.
Broom, D. M. and Johnson, K. G. 1993. Stress and animal welfare, p. 97. Chapman and Hall, London.
Campling, R. C. and Morgan, C. A. 1981. The eating behaviour of housed cows — a review. Dairy Science Abstracts 43: 57–63.
Critser, J. K., Block, T. M., Kirkpatrick, B. W., Lindstrom, M. J. and Hauser, E. R. 1988. The effect of photoperiod on diurnal rhythms of serum gonadotrophins, prolactin and melatonin in ovariectomized heifers. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 5: 23–34.
El Shaer, H. M., Omed, H. M., Chamberlain, A. G. and Axford, R. F. E. 1987. Use of faecal organisms for the in vitro determination of digestibility, journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 109: 257–259.
Gorman, M. R. 1995. Seasonal adaptations of Siberian hamsters. I. Accelerated gonadal and somatic development in increasing versus static long day lengths. Biology of Reproduction 53: 110–115.
Gorman, M. R. and Zucker, I. 1995. Seasonal adaptations of Siberian hamsters. II. Pattern of change in daylength controls annual testicular and body weight rhythms. Biology of Reproduction 53: 116–125.
Lawes Agricultural Trust. 1980. Genstat V, mark 4.03. Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Hertfordshire.
Lay, Jr. D. C., Friend, T. H., Randel, R. D., Jenkins, D. C., Neuendorff, D. A., Kapp, G. P. and Bushong, D. M. 1996. Adrenocorticotropic hormone dose response and some physiological effects of transportation on pregnant Brahman cattle. Journal ofAnimal Science 74: 1806–1811.
Leining, K. B., Tucker, H. A. and Kesner, J. S. 1980. Growth hormone, glucocorticoid and thyroxine response to duration, intensity and wavelength of light in prepubertal bulls. Journal ofAnimal Science 51: 932–942.
Linzell, J. L. 1973. Innate seasonal oscillations in the rate of milk secretion in goats. Journal ofPhysiology 230: 225–233.
Lowman, B. E., Scott, N. A. and Sommerville, S. H. 1976. Condition scoring of cattle. Bulletin no. 6, East of Scotland College of Agriculture, Animal Production Advisory Department.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food/Agricultural Development and Advisory Service. 1986. The analysis of agricultural materials, third edition. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food/Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland/Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland. 1975. Energy allowances and feeding systems for ruminants. Technical bulletin no. 33. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
Mirbahar, K. B., Davies, J. I., Lomas, C., Axford, R. F. E. and Grail, B. 1994. Determination of salivary IgA as an indicator of stress in farm animals. Proceedings of the 14th Pakistan Congress of Zoology, p. 10 (abstr.).
Mossberg, I. and Jönsson, H. 1996. The influence of day length and temperature on food intake and growth rate of bulls given concentrate or grass silage ad libitum in two housing systems. Animal Science 62: 233–240.
Nelson, R. J. and Blom, J. M. 1994. Photoperiodic effects on tumor development and immune function. Journal of Biological Rhythms 9: 233–249.
Ng, T. B. and Wong, C. M. 1986. Effects of pineal indoles and arginine vasotocin on lipolysis and lipogenesis in isolated adipocytes. Journal ofPineal Research 3: 55–66.
Omed, H., Axford, R. F. E., Chamberlain, A. G. C. and Givens, D. I. 1989. Development of a method for the in vitro estimation of digestibility of forage in ruminants. In New techniques in cattle production (ed. Phillips, C. J. C.), p. 227Butterworths, London.
Parrott, R. F. and Misson, B. H. 1989. Changes in pig salivary cortisol response to transport stimulation, food and water deprivation, and mixing. British Veterinary Journal 145: 501–505.
Perret, M. and Schilling, A. 1993. Response to short photoperiod and spontaneous sexual recrudescence in the lesser mouse lemur: role of olfactory bulb removal. Journal of Endocrinology 137: 511–518.
Petitclerc, D., Chapin, L. T. and Tucker, H. A. 1984. Carcass composition and mammary development responses to photoperiod and phase of nutrition in Holstein heifers. Journal ofAnimal Science 58: 913–919.
Phillips, C. J. C. 1992. Environmental factors influencing the production and welfare of farm animals: photoperiod. In Farm animals and the environment (ed. Phillips, C. J. C. and Piggins, D.), pp. 49–65. CAB International, Oxford.
Phillips, C. J. C. and Arab, T. M. 1998. The preference of individually-penned cattle to conduct certain behaviours in the light or the dark. Applied Animal Behaviour Science In press.
Phillips, C. J. C. and Hecheimi, K. 1989. The effect of forage supplementation, herbage height and season on the ingestive behaviour of dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 24: 203–216.
Phillips, C. J. C., Johnson, P. N. and Arab, T. M. 1997. The effect of supplementary light during winter on the growth, body composition and behaviour of steers and heifers. Animal Science 65: 173–181.
Phillips, C. J. C. and Leaver, J. D. 1986. The effect of forage supplementation on the behaviour of grazing dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 16: 233–247.
Phillips, C. J. C. and Schofield, S. A. 1989. The effect of supplementary light on the production and behaviour of dairy cows. Animal Production 48: 293–303.
Piggins, D. 1992. Perception of the environment by farm animals: visual perception. In Farm animals and the environment (ed. Phillips, C. J. C. and Piggins, D.), pp. 131–158. CAB International, Oxford.
Schmidt, G. H. and Van Vleck, L. D. 1974. Principles of dairy science, p. 91. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.
Smith, A. 1988. Measurement of light intensity. Technical report no. 4, pp. 27–29. Dairy Research Unit, University College of North Wales, Bangor.
Stanisiewski, E. P., Mellenberger, R. W., Anderson, C. R. and Tucker, H. A. 1985. Effect of photoperiod on milk yield and milk fat in commercial dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 68: 1134–1140.
Tarn, C. Y., Rosenkrans, C. F. Jr, Steelman, C. D., Brown, A. H. Jr and Johnson, Z. B. 1994. Plasma characteristics of beef cattle classified as resistant or susceptible to horn flies. Journal ofAnimal Science 72: 886–890.
Taylor, W. and Leaver, J. D. 1984. Systems of concentrate allocation for dairy cattle. 1. A comparison of three patterns of allocation for autumn-calving cows and heifers offered grass silage ad libitum. Animal Production 39: 315–324.
Terqui, H. A., Delouis, C. and Ortavant, R. 1984. Photoperiodism and hormones in sheep and goats. In Manipulation of growth in farm animals (ed. Roche, J. F. and O'Callaghan, D.), pp. 246–259. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.
Thomas, K. M. and Rodway, R. 1983. Effect of trenbolone acetate on adrenal function and hepatic enzyme activity in female rats. Journal of Endocrinology 98: 121–127.
Varner, M. A. and Johnson, B. H. 1983. Influence of adrenocorticotropin upon milk production, milk constitutents and endocrine measures of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 66: 458–465.
Wegner, T. N., Schuh, J. D., Nelson, F. E. and Stott, G. H. 1976. Effect of stress on blood leucocyte and milk somatic cell counts in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 59: 949–956.
Weiguo, L. and Phillips, C. J. C. 1991. The effects of supplementary light on the behaviour and performance of calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30: 27–34.
Yurkov, V. M. 1982. Influence of cowshed illumination on the resistance of cows to disease. Veterinariya 11: 22–24 (abstract no 2857, Veterinary Bulletin 53).
Yurkov, V. M. and Kartushin, S. S. 1984. Disease resistance of calves housed in buildings with monochromatic light. Veterinariya 3: 25–27 (abstract no. 4757, Veterinary Bulletin 54).
Zinn, S. A., Purchas, R. W., Chapin, L. T., Petitclerc, D., Merkel, R. A., Bergen, W. G. and Tucker, H. A. 1986. Effects of photoperiod on growth, carcass composition, prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in prepubertal and post-pubertal Holstein heifers. Journal of Animal Science 1804–1815.