Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Perspective on BVDV control programs

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 June 2015

M. Daniel Givens
Affiliation:
217 Veterinary Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Alabama 36849, USA
Benjamin W. Newcomer
Affiliation:
217 Veterinary Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Alabama 36849, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Programs for control and eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are often considered prudent when the expense of a control program within a specified time frame effectively prevents loss due to disease and the expense of control does not exceed the costs associated with infection. In some geographic areas, concerns about animal welfare or desires to reduce antibiotic usage may motivate BVDV control even when control programs are associated with a lack of financial return on investment. In other geographic areas, concerns about financial return on investment may be the key motivating factor in considering implementation of BVDV control programs. Past experiences indicate that systematic, well-coordinated control programs have a clear potential for success, while voluntary control programs in cultures of distributed decision-making often result in notable initial progress that ultimately ends in dissolution of efforts. Segmentation of the cattle industry into cow–calf producers, stocker/backgrounders, and feedlot operators amplifies the distribution of decision-making regarding control programs and may result in control measures for one industry segment that are associated with significant costs and limited rewards. Though the host range of BVDV extends well beyond cattle, multiple eradication programs that focus only on testing and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle have proven to be effective in various countries. While some individuals consider education of producers to be sufficient to stimulate eradication of BVDV, research surrounding the adoption of innovative health care procedures suggests that the process of adopting BVDV control programs has a social element. Collegial interactions and discussions may be crucial in facilitating the systematic implementation necessary to optimize the long-term success of control programs. Compulsory control programs may be considered efficient and effective in some regions; however, in a nation where individual identification of cattle remains voluntary, the likelihood of effective compulsion to control BVDV within a farm or ranch appears to be very unlikely. While currently available diagnostic tests are sufficient to support BVDV eradication via systematic, well-coordinated programs, the development of a diagnostic procedure to safely and consistently detect the gestation of a PI fetus after 5 months of gestation would be a valuable research breakthrough. This desired testing modality would allow diagnosis of PI calves, while the dam continues to provide biocontainment of the infected fetus. This development could speed the progress of control programs in achieving the goal of BVDV control and eventual eradication.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Amiridis, GS, Billinis, C, Papanikolaou, T, Psychas, V and Kanteres, D (2004). Postparturient outbreak of fatal bovine viral diarrhoea in imported pregnant heifers on a dairy farm in Greece. Veterinary Record 154: 698699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bachofen, C, Grant, DM, Willoughby, K, Zadoks, RN, Dagleish, MP and Russell, GC (2014). Experimental infection of rabbits with bovine viral diarrhoea virus by a natural route of exposure. Veterinary Research 45: 34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barrett, D, More, S, Graham, D, O'flaherty, J, Doherty, M and Gunn, M (2012). Considerations on BVD eradication for the Irish livestock industry. In: XXVII World Buiatrics Congress Proceedings Lisbon, Portugal, p. 20.Google Scholar
Booker, CW, Abutarbush, SM, Morley, PS, Guichon, PT, Wildman, BK, Jim, GK, Schunicht, OC, Pittman, TJ, Perrett, T, Ellis, JA, Appleyard, G and Haines, DM (2008). The effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus infections on health and performance of feedlot cattle. Canadian Veterinary Journal 49: 253260.Google ScholarPubMed
Brownlie, J, Hooper, LB, Thompson, I and Collins, ME (1998). Maternal recognition of foetal infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV)–the bovine pestivirus. Clinical and Diagnostic Virology 10: 141150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Callan, RJ, Schnackel, JA, Van Campen, H, Mortimer, RG, Cavender, JA and Williams, ES (2002). Percutaneous collection of fetal fluids for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220: 13481352.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Darweesh, MF, Rajput, MK, Braun, LJ, Ridpath, JF, Neill, JD and Chase, CC (2014). Characterization of the cytopathic BVDV strains isolated from 13 mucosal disease cases arising in a cattle herd. Virus Research 195: 141147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elam, NA, Thomson, DU and Gleghorn, JF (2008). Effects of long- or short-term exposure to a calf identified as persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus on feedlot performance of freshly weaned, transport-stressed beef heifers. Journal of Animal Science 86: 19171924.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fulton, RW, Hessman, B, Johnson, BJ, Ridpath, JF, Saliki, JT, Burge, LJ, Sjeklocha, D, Confer, AW, Funk, RA and Payton, ME (2006a). Evaluation of diagnostic tests used for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus and prevalence of subtypes 1a, 1b, and 2a in persistently infected cattle entering a feedlot. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 228: 578584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fulton, RW, Whitley, EM, Johnson, BJ, Kapil, S, Ridpath, JF, Burge, LJ, Cook, BJ and Confer, AW (2006b). Bovine viral diarrhea virus persistent infections in beef breeding herds: utilization of immunohistochemistry and antigen captive ELISA on ear notches. In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Conference of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, p. 33.Google Scholar
Galyean, ML, Ponce, C and Schutz, J (2011). The Future of Beef Production in North America. Animal Frontiers 1: 2936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grooms, DL, Brock, KV, Bolin, SR, Grotelueschen, DM and Cortese, VS (2014). Effect of constant exposure to cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus on morbidity and mortality rates and performance of feedlot cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 244: 212224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hessman, BE, Fulton, RW, Sjeklocha, DB, Murphy, TA, Ridpath, JF and Payton, ME (2009). Evaluation of economic effects and the health and performance of the general cattle population after exposure to cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a starter feedlot. American Journal of Veterinary Research 70: 7385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houe, H (1999). Epidemiological features and economical importance of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections. Veterinary Microbiology 64: 89107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Houe, H, Baker, JC, Maes, RK, Wuryastuti, H, Wasito, R, Ruegg, PL and Lloyd, JW (1995). Prevalence of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in 20 dairy herds in two counties in central Michigan and comparison of prevalence of antibody-positive cattle among herds with different infection and vaccination status. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostics Investigation 7: 321326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lanyon, S and Reichel, M (2014). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (‘pestivirus’) in Australia: to control or not to control? Australian Veterinary Journal 92: 277282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larson, RL, Pierce, VL, Grotelueschen, DM and Wittum, TE (2002). Economic evaluation of beef cowherd screening for cattle persistently-infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Bovine Practitioner 36: 106112.Google Scholar
Lawrence, J and McClure, C (2007). A summary of test results from large-scale BVDV antigen ELISA testing performed in a private laboratory setting. In: Proceedings of the AAVLD 50th Annual Conference, Reno, NV, p. 60.Google Scholar
Lindberg, A, Niskanen, R, Gustafsson, H, Bengtsson, B, Baule, C, Belak, S and Alenius, S (2002). Prenatal diagnosis of persistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection by detection of viral RNA in fetal fluids. Veterinary Journal 164: 151155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loneragan, GH, Thomson, DU, Montgomery, DL, Harms, PA, Mason, GL and Van Campen, H (2000). Epidemiological investigations of feedlot cattle persistently infected with BVDV. In: Proceedings of the 81st Annual Meeting of the Conf. of Research Workers in Animal Diseases p. Abstract #32.Google Scholar
Loneragan, GH, Thomson, DU, Montgomery, DL, Mason, GL and Larson, RL (2005). Prevalence, outcome, and health consequences associated with persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in feedlot cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 226: 595601.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McBride, WD and Mathews, K (eds) (2011). The diverse structure and organization of U.S. beef cow-calf farms. In: Economic Information Bulletin No. (EIB-73) U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington D.C., United States, pp. 148.Google Scholar
McGrann, J (2010). The United States Beef Cattle Industry: Production, Structure and Trends. Leister, K. (ed.), pp. 121.Google Scholar
National Agricultural Statistics Service (2014). July 1 Cattle Inventory Down 3 Percent from 2012. In: United States Department of Agriculture Report, pp. 15.Google Scholar
O'Connor, AM, Sorden, SD and Apley, MD (2005). Association between the existence of calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and commingling on pen morbidity in feedlot cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66: 21302134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodning, SP, Givens, MD, Marley, MS, Zhang, Y, Riddell, KP, Galik, PK, Hathcock, TL, Gard, JA, Prevatt, JW and Owsley, WF (2012). Reproductive and economic impact following controlled introduction of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus into a naive group of heifers. Theriogenology 78: 15081516.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stephenson, MK (2008). Prevalence of stocker calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in the southeast determined using immunohistochemistry on skin biopsies. In: Auburn University Thesis, pp. 143.Google Scholar
United States Department of Agriculture (2010). Beef 2007–08, Prevalence and control of bovine viral diarrhea virus on U.S. cow–calf operations. USDA:APHIS:VS, CEAH 563: 163.Google Scholar
Van Campen, H, Ridpath, J, Williams, E, Cavender, J, Edwards, J, Smith, S and Sawyer, H (2001). Isolation of bovine viral diarrhea virus from a free-ranging mule deer in Wyoming. Journal of Wildlife Disease 37: 306311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walz, PH, Grooms, DL, Passler, T, Ridpath, JF, Tremblay, R, Step, DL, Callan, RJ and Givens, MD (2010). Control of bovine viral diarrhea virus in ruminants. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2010: 476486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wittum, TE, Grotelueschen, DM, Brock, KV, Kvasnicka, WG, Floyd, JG, Kelling, CL and Odde, KG (2001). Persistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in US beef herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 49: 8394.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 16
Total number of PDF views: 242 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-6mlss Total loading time: 0.273 Render date: 2021-01-16T06:54:06.517Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Sat Jan 16 2021 06:51:46 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": true, "languageSwitch": true, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Perspective on BVDV control programs
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Perspective on BVDV control programs
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Perspective on BVDV control programs
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *