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Molecular typing of the major histocompatibility complex B microsatellite haplotypes in Cameroon chicken

  • B.A. Hako Touko (a1) (a2) (a3), C.T. Keambou (a2) (a4), J.-M. Han (a5), C. Bembidé (a2) (a6), Robert A. Skilton (a2), M. Ogugo (a7), Y. Manjeli (a3), S. Osama (a2), C.-Y. Cho (a7) and A. Djikeng (a2)...

Summary

The chicken major histocompatibility complex B (MHC-B) – a cluster of genes associated with natural disease resistance or susceptibility – has been investigated in experimental and inbred lines by serological typing. However, that method showed some weaknesses for its use on out breeds. This study aims to explore the genetic diversity of the MHC-B of Cameroon indigenous chicken through molecular typing with LEI0258 and MCW0371 microsatellite markers. MHC-B haplotypes of 290 chickens from four agro-ecological zones were identified and compared with published haplotypes. Alleles were analysed for genetic diversity and relationship among Cameroon chicken populations. Hypothetically new LEI0258 alleles and haplotypes were detected. Overall, polymorphism parameters were relatively high in the Cameroon western highlands. The analysis of molecular variance revealed great variability (80.00 percent) between individuals than among and within ecotypes. The inbreeding coefficients of overall populations (F IT), among population (F ST) and within population (F IS) were 0.26, 0.04 and 0.22, respectively, and all were highly significant (P < 0.001). A UPGMA tree based on Nei's D A genetic distances showed a clear distinction between Cameroon and out-groups and a structuring of within-country populations into three clusters. There is a great genetic diversity of the MHC-B in Cameroon native chicken and also a need of sequencing of the identified alleles for an accurate identification prior to their assessment for natural disease resistance and responsiveness to vaccination.

Le complexemajeur d'histocompatibilite B (CMH-B) de poule est un groupe de gènes impliquésdans la résistance aux maladies. Il a été typé chez les lignées consanguines de poule par la méthode sérologique. Cependant, l'application de cette méthode a montré des limites chez les populations naturelles non sélectionnées. Le but de cette étude est d’évaluer la diversité génétique du CMH-B de la poule locale du Cameroun à l'aide des marqueurs microsatellites LEI0258 et MCW0371. Les haplotypes B de 290 poulets échantillonnés dans 4 zones agroécologiques du Cameroun ont été identifiés et comparés aux haplotypes publiés. 42 allèles et des haplotypes hypothétiquement nouveaux du marqueur LEI0258 ont été détectés. En général, les paramètres du polymorphisme ont été plus élevés dans la zone des Hauts plateaux de l'Ouest. L'analyse de la variance moléculaire a révélé une plus grande variabilité (80.00 percent) entre les individus qu’à l'intérieur et entre les zones agroécologiques. Les coefficients de consanguinité dans la population (F IT), entre les sous-populations (F ST) et dans les sous- populations (F IS) ont été faibles et tous significatifs (P < 0.001). L'arbre phylogénétique base de des distances génétiques D A de Nei a mis en évidence une distinction claire entre les populations de poules du Cameroun et les exotique sainsi qu'une structuration des populations locales en 3 groupes. Cette étude a révélée une grande diversité génétique du CMH-B de la poule locale du Cameroun ainsi que la nécessité de séquencer les nouveaux haplotypes pour leur identification plus précise relative à leur évaluation pour la détermination de leurs fonctions immunitaires.

El complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad B de pollo (CMH-B) está vinculado a la respuesta inmunitaria. Ha sido bien estudiado en las líneas consanguíneas de pollo por el método de tipaje serológico. Sin embargo, la aplicación de este método a las poblaciones no seleccionadas de pollos ha demostrado serosos límites. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido de analizar el del CMH-B de la gallina local de Camerún por génotypage de 290 sujetos de 4 zonas agroecológicas del país, gracias a los marcadores micro-satélites LEI0258 y MCW0371. Alelos hipotéticamente nuevos han sido identificados, dentro de los cuales 4 recientemente puesto en evidencia en los altos bandejas del oeste Camerún para sus efectos sobre una producción elevada de anticuerpo contra la enfermedad de Newcastle. La variancia molecular de los efectos individuales ha sido superior (80.00 percent) a los efectos vinculados a la zona agro-ecológica. Los coeficientes de consanguinidad y de diferenciación han sido reducidos (débiles) pero significativos (P < 0.001) a los locus LEI0258 y MCW0371. El árbol filo genéticas basado sobre las distancias genéticas D A de Nei ha puesto en evidencia una discriminación limpia entre las gallinas locales de Camerún y las gallinas exóticas asiquen estructuración de los primeros en 3 sobre-poblaciones. Los resultados han confirmados la existencia de una gran diversidad genética del CMH-B en el seno de las poblaciones de gallina locales de Camerún sin embargo, sería necesaria secuenciar los alelos hipotéticamente nuevos para su identificación más preciso en visto de las pruebas relativos a su función dentro de las respuestas inmunitarias especificas a diversos patógenos.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: B.A. Hako Touko, Catholic University Institute of Buea (CUIB), Buea, Cameroon. email: htouko@cuib-cameroon.net/hakoarnaud@yahoo.fr

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Keywords

Molecular typing of the major histocompatibility complex B microsatellite haplotypes in Cameroon chicken

  • B.A. Hako Touko (a1) (a2) (a3), C.T. Keambou (a2) (a4), J.-M. Han (a5), C. Bembidé (a2) (a6), Robert A. Skilton (a2), M. Ogugo (a7), Y. Manjeli (a3), S. Osama (a2), C.-Y. Cho (a7) and A. Djikeng (a2)...

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