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Inventory, characterization and monitoring

  • M. Tixier-Boichard (a1) (a2), W. Ayalew (a3) and H. Jianlin (a4)

Summary

Inventory of species and breeds, their population sizes, geographic distribution and possibly their genetic diversity is generally undertaken as a first step in any national programme for the management of animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. The primary purpose of such an assessment is to document the current state of knowledge in terms of a population's ability to survive, reproduce, produce and provide services to farmers. Starting an inventory requires some knowledge of the inventory items and their characteristic attributes. Inventory and characterization are, therefore, complementary processes, in which the characterization step provides the baseline information as well as the criteria that will be used to establish and update the inventory. Characterization provides data on present and potential future uses of the animal genetic resources under consideration, and establishes their current state as distinct breed populations and their risk status. As use and management of animal genetic resources are dynamic processes, monitoring the status of a population has to be done on a regular basis. Thus, risk status indicators for use during the monitoring process need to be defined following the inventory and characterization steps.

This paper discusses methods and criteria currently available, from research and past experience, for inventory, characterization and monitoring of animal genetic resources, with the view to assist in the development of a more comprehensive framework. Particular consideration is given to emerging tools and technologies. The scope of the review includes all livestock species and their wild ancestors and wild related species. Examples focus on cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens.

L'inventaire des espèces et des races, la taille des populations, la distribution géographique et si possible leur diversité génétique, est en général le premier pas à accomplir dans un programme national pour la gestion des ressources génétiques animales pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture. Le principal objectif de ce genre d'évaluation est de documenter la situation actuelle en termes de connaissances sur la capacité de survivre et de se reproduire d'une population, ainsi que d'offrir des services aux éleveurs. Pour initier un inventaire il est nécessaire de disposer de certaines connaissances sur les points principaux et sur les attributions des caractéristiques. En outre, inventaire et caractérisation sont des procédures complémentaires étant donné que la caractérisation fourni l'information de base et les critères qui s'utiliseront pour établir et mettre à jour l'inventaire. Tenant compte que l'utilisation et la gestion des ressources génétiques animales sont des procédures dynamiques, le suivi d'une population doit être réalisé sur des bases concrètes. Pour cette raison, il est nécessaire de définir les indicateurs pour les situations de risque qui seront utilisés pendant le suivi tenant compte des différents points de l'inventaire et de la caractérisation.

L'article présente les méthodes et critères disponibles actuellement à partir de la recherche et des expériences passées pour classer, caractériser et suivre les ressources génétiques animales dans le but d'aider au développement d'un réseau plus efficace. Ont souligne en particulier les nouveaux outils et technologies. L'objectif de cette révision comprend toutes les espèces d'élevage ainsi que leurs ancêtres sauvages et les espèces sauvages voisines. Certains exemples se sont centré sur les bovins, ovins, caprins, porcins et volailles.

El inventario de las especies y razas, el tamaño de sus poblaciones, su distribución geográfica y posiblemente su diversidad genética es en general lo que se hace como primer paso en un programa nacional para la gestión de los recursos zoogenéticos para la alimentación y la agricultura. El principal propósito de este tipo de evaluación es documentar la situación actual en términos de conocimientos sobre la capacidad de sobrevivir y de reproducirse de una población, y de proveer y producir servicios para los ganaderos. Iniciar un inventario requiere algunos conocimientos sobre los puntos de un inventario y la atribución de sus características. Por lo tanto, inventario y caracterización son procesos complementarios en los que el paso de la caracterización proporciona la información de base así como los criterios que se utilizaran para establecer y poner al día el inventario. La caracterización proporciona datos sobre el uso actual y potencial futuro de los recursos zoogenéticos en estudio, y establece cual es el estado actual de cada población de razas y situación de riesgo. Teniendo en cuenta que la utilización y gestión de los recursos zoogenéticos son procesos dinámicos, el seguimiento de la situación de una población debe llevarse a cabo sobre bases regulares. Por lo tanto, se necesitan definir indicadores sobre situaciones de riesgo para su utilización durante el seguimiento en base a los puntos del inventario y de la caracterización.

El articulo discute métodos y criterios disponibles actualmente provenientes de la investigación y de experiencias pasadas para inventariar, caracterizar y monitorear los recursos zoogenéticos, con vistas a asistir al desarrollo de una red mas efectiva. Se da particular consideración a las nuevas herramientas y tecnologías. El objetivo de esta revisión incluye todas las especies ganaderas y sus antepasados salvajes así como especies salvajes relacionadas. Algunos ejemplos se han centrado en bovinos, ovinos, caprinos, porcinos y especies avícolas.

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References

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Keywords

Inventory, characterization and monitoring

  • M. Tixier-Boichard (a1) (a2), W. Ayalew (a3) and H. Jianlin (a4)

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