Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: cattle local breeds and types and their conservation status

  • O. Yilmaz (a1), O. Akin (a2), S. Metin Yener (a3), M. Ertugrul (a3) and R. T. Wilson (a4)...

Summary

Turkey's 10.6 million head of cattle comprise a rich array of native breeds and types but these are being increasingly eroded by the often indiscriminate use of exotic genotypes. The structure of agriculture is such that most farms are predominantly subsistence oriented, of small size, keep few animals and provide only minimal inputs. Native breeds have evolved to meet these conditions and are generally well adapted to the natural environment, inadequate and unbalanced nutrition and disease stress. In the last 80 years, there has been much modification of the natural gene pool and many distinct breed types are in danger of or have already suffered extinction. This paper describes some of the major remaining cattle genetic resources and their conservation status. Government is now aware of the danger of the impoverishment or loss of this important aspect of biodiversity and has established programmes for conservation and preservation of several native breeds. Government, research institutions and producers should work together to ensure that the local gene pool is preserved and can thus continue to contribute to biodiversity and sustainable livestock production.

En Turquie, les 10,6 millions de têtes de bétail comprennent une vaste gamme de races et de types indigènes qui, toutefois, subissent de plus en plus l’érosion en raison d'une utilisation souvent indiscriminée de génotypes exotiques. La structure de l'agriculture comporte que la plupart des fermes s'orientent principalement vers une agriculture de subsistance, sont de petite taille, élèvent peu d'animaux et ne fournissent que le minimum d'intrants. Les races indigènes ont évolué pour satisfaire ces conditions et sont convenablement adaptées au milieu naturel, à une nutrition inadéquate et déséquilibrée et aux stress provoqués par les maladies. Au cours des 80 dernières années, les modifications du pool de gènes naturel ont été nombreuses et plusieurs types de races distinctes sont en danger ou ont déjà disparu. Cet article décrit quelques-unes des principales ressources génétiques des bovins qui subsistent et leur état de conservation. Le gouvernement prend conscience à présent du danger de l'appauvrissement ou de la perte de cet aspect important de la biodiversité et a mis en place des programmes pour la conservation et la préservation de plusieurs races indigènes. Le gouvernement, les instituts de recherche et les producteurs devraient travailler conjointement pour assurer la préservation du pool de gènes local et sa contribution continue à la biodiversité et à une production animale durable.

Los 10,6 millones de cabezas de ganado de Turquía comprenden un amplio abanico de razas y tipos; sin embargo, éstos están sufriendo una mayor erosión por el uso indiscriminado de genotipos foráneos. La estructura de la agricultura es tal que la mayoría de las explotaciones están orientadas a la subsistencia, de pequeño tamaño, manteniendo muy pocos animales y llevando a cabo una inversión mínima. Las razas autóctonas se han desarrollado para satisfacer estas condiciones y, en general, están muy bien adaptadas al medio en que se desarrollan, a una alimentación pobre y desequilibrada y a diferentes enfermedades. A lo largo de los últimos 80 años se han producido grandes modificaciones del acervo genético, motivo por el cual muchas de estas razas se encuentran en peligro de extinción o han llegado a extinguirse. Este trabajo describe algunas de los principales recursos genéticos de los animales domésticos que quedan y su estado conservación. Actualmente el gobierno es consciente del peligro de empobrecimiento o de la pérdida de esta importante parte de la biodiversidad y, para ello, ha puesto en marcha programas de conservación y preservación de varias razas autóctonas. Tanto el gobierno como los centros de investigación, así como los productores, deben trabajar conjuntamente para asegurar que el acervo genético local se mantenga, y poder contribuir así al desarrollo de la biodiversidad y a la producción sostenible del ganado.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: R.T. Wilson, Bartridge Partners, Umberleigh, Devon EX37 9AS, UK. email: trevorbart@aol.com

References

Hide All
Aksoy, A.R., Kirmizibayrak, T. & Saatci, M. 2006. The effect of age on slaughter and carcass characteristics in male Zavot cattle. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 30: 527532.
Anon. 1987. Genetic resources in livestock breeding. In: Biological diversity in Turkey, pp. 3761. Ankara, Environmental Problems Foundation of Turkey.
Anon. 2004. Turkiye Yerli Ciftlik Hayvanlari Irk Karakterleri Yonetmeligi. Turk Standartlari Enstitusu. Yonetmelik No: 2004/39, Ankara (Regulation of Breed Characteristics of Turkish Native Livestock Turkish Standard Institute. Regulation Number: 2004/39, Ankara.
Anon. 2009. Turkiye Evcil Hayvan Genetik Kaynaklari Katalogu. Tarim ve Koyisleri Bakanligi, Tarimsal Arastirmalar Genel Mudurlugu, Ankara (Turkish Farm Animal Genetic Resources Catalogue. General Directorate of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Ankara.
Arat, S. 2010. In vitro conservation and preliminary molecular identification of some Turkish domestic animal genetic resources (TURKHAYGEN-I). Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute [Tubitak Mam GMBE (GEBI)], Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey.
Aslantas, O., Erdogan, S., Cantekina, I., Gulacti, I. & Evrendilek, G.A. 2006. Isolation and characterization of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 from Turkish cattle. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 106: 338342. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.08.005.
Cetinkaya, B., Ongor, H., Karahan, M., Kalender, H., Lorenzon, S. & Thiaucourt, F. 2003. Abattoir-based survey of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle in Turkey. Vet. Rec., 152: 254258. doi:10.1136/vr.152.9.254.
Duru, R. & De Cupere, B. 2003. Faunal remains from Neolithic Höyücek (SW-Turkey) and the presence of early domestic cattle in Anatolia. Paléorient, 29: 107120.
EAAP. 2007. List of breeds in EAAP-AGDB. (available at http://www.tiho-hannover.de/einricht/zucht/breedlst).
Ekerden, O.S. & Ozkutuk, K. 1990. Jersey cattle breeding in a state farm at Turkey. J. Anim. Breed. Genet., 107: 210220. doi: 10.1111/j.1439–0388.1990.tb00028.x.
Ertugrul, O. 1993. Some productive characteristics of South Anatolian Red (G.A.K.) cattle at Ceylanpinar State Farm. Lalahan Livest. Res. Inst. J., 33 (available at http://www.lalanhmae.gov.tr/english/konu_detay.asp?id=234).
Ertugrul, M., Akman, N., Askin, Y., Cengiz, F., Firatli, C., Turkoglu, M. & Yener, S. M. 1993. Hayvan Yetistirme (Yetistiricilik). (Animal breeding), Ankara, Baran Offset.
Ertugrul, M., Dellal, G., Elmaci, C., Akin, A.O., Pehlivan, E., Soysal, M.I. & Arat, S. 2010. Ciftlik Hayvanlari Genetik Kaynaklarinin Korunmasi ve Surdurulebilir Korunmasi. Turk Ziraat Muhendisligi VII. Teknik Kongresi (Conservation of Farm Animal Genetic Resources and Sustainable Use. Turkish Agricultural Engineering VII. Technical Congress) 11–15 January 2010. Ankara, Turkey.
FAO/UNEP. 2000. World watch list for domestic animal diversity, 3rd edition. edited by Scherf, B.D., Rome. (also available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/x8750e/x8750e00.htm).
FAO. 2010. FAOSTAT data. Rome (available at http://faostat.external.fao.org/default.jsp).
DAD-IS. 2010. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (http://www.fao.org/dadis/).
Felius, M. 1985. Genus Bos: cattle breeds of the world. Raleigh USA, MSD-AGVET.
Gurcan, E.S. 2011. Association between milk protein polymorphism and milk production traits in Black and White dairy cattle in Turkey. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10: 10441048.
Karakok, S.G. 2007. Small scale cattle farmers and their sustainability in lowland villages of Adana province, Turkey. Livestock Research for Rural Development, Vol. 19, Article #87 (also available at http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/6/kara19087.htm).
MARA/FAO. 2001. Agriculture in Turkey. Ankara, Guzelis Ltd (ISBN 975-8153-00-5).
Mason, I.L. 1996. A world dictionary of livestock breeds, types and varieties, 4th edition. Wallingford UK, CAB International.
Ozbeyaz, C., Yildiz, M.A. & Camdevsiren, H. 1999. Genetic relationships among cattle breeds in Turkey. Lalahan Livest. Res. Inst. J., 33 (available at http://www.lalanhmae.gov.tr/english/konu_detay.asp?id=240).
Ozluturk, A., Tuzemen, N., Yanar, M., Esenbuga, N. & Dursun, E. 2004. Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, Simmental and Eastern Anatolian Red sired mated to Eastern Anatolian Red dams. Meat Sci., 67: 463470.
Polat, U., Gencoglu, H. & Turkmen, I.I. 2009. The effects of partial replacement of corn silage on biochemical blood parameters in lactating primiparous dairy cows. Vet.Med., 54: 407411.
Save-Focus. 2005. Save-Focus Special Edition Balkan: Transboundary occurring breeds and breed groups of the Balkans. Safeguard for Agricultural Varieties in Europe: Konstanz, Germany (available at http://www.save-foundation.net/Publications/save_Focus_05_Balkan.pdf).
SIS. 2009. Agricultural structure (production, price, value), 2009. Ankara, State Institute of Statistics, Prime Ministry.
Temizel, E.M., Yesilbag, K., Batten, C., Senturk, S., Maan, N.S., Mertens, P.P.C. & Batmaz, H. 2009. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in cattle, Western Turkey. Emerg.Infect. Dis., 15: 317319. doi: 10.3201./eid1502.080572.
Unlu, N., Yanar, M., Esenbuga, N., Ozluturk, A., Yuksel, S. & Macit, M. 2008. Effect of days on feed on the performance and carcass characteristics of Eastern Anatolian Red young bulls. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 34: 163168.
Wilson, R.T. 2009. Fit for purpose – the right animal in the right place. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 41: 10811090.
Wilson, R.T., Yilmaz, O. & Ertugrul, M. 2011. The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: Pigs. Pig J., 66: 2630.
Yilmaz, O., Ertugrul, M. & Wilson, R.T. 2011a. The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: Water buffalo. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 44: 707714.
Yilmaz, O., Ertugrul, M. & Wilson, R.T. 2011b. The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: Camel. J. Camel Pract. Res., 18: 2124.
Yuksel, S., Yanar, M., Turgut, L., Ozluturk, A., Kopuzlu, I. & Sezgin, E. 2009. Feed efficiency and carcass and meat quality characteristics of bulls finished on diets containing varied proportions of wheat straw and wet sugar beet pulp. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 39: 313320.
Zeder, M.A. 2008. Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean basin: origins, diffusion, and impact. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 105: 1159711604.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed