Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684bc48f8b-n95np Total loading time: 3.608 Render date: 2021-04-13T10:22:32.041Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

TEXTILES AND THE MAYA ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD

Gender, power, and status in Classic Period Caracol, Belize

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 April 2008

Arlen F. Chase
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
Diane Z. Chase
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
Elayne Zorn
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
Wendy Teeter
Affiliation:
Fowler Museum at UCLA, Box 951549, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Textiles formed a major part of any ancient Mesoamerican economy. Based on ethnohistory and iconography, the Maya were great producers of cloth for both internal and external use. However, the archaeological identification of textile production is difficult in any tropical area because of issues of preservation. This paper examines the evidence for the production and distribution of cloth that is found in the pre-Columbian Maya area and then focuses on archaeological data relative to textiles from the ancient Maya city of Caracol, Belize. Archaeology at Caracol has been carried out annually from 1985 to the present and has resulted in the collection of data that permits insight into the economic production and social distribution of cloth at the site. This is accomplished through examining the contexts and distributions of spindle whorls, bone needles, bone pins and hairpins, bone awls, and limestone bars. All of these artifacts can be related to weaving, netting, or cloth in some way. Importantly, perforated ceramic disks are not included in this grouping because of contextual information from the archaeological record that these artifacts likely functioned as backings for ear assemblages. Spindle whorls are the artifacts most clearly associated with textile production and 57 of these have been recovered at Caracol, 38 of them in 20 different burials. Several of these interments are of high-status women placed in the most important architectural constructions at the site. The contextual placement of these burials stresses not only the link between women and weaving, but also the high status associated with such an activity, thus signaling the importance of cloth and spinning in ancient Maya society. The prevalence of female interments in the major ritual buildings at Caracol also reflects the importance of women to Maya social structure during the Classic period (a.d. 250–900), pointing to difficulties in hieroglyphically based interpretations of ancient Maya social organization and suggesting that the traditional focus on males in the sociopolitical organization of the Classic Maya is incorrect.

Type
Special Section: Recent Archaeological Research on Mesoamerican Textile Production
Copyright
Copyright ©Cambridge University Press 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Anawalt, Patricia 2000 Textile Research from the Mesoamerican Perspective. In Beyond Cloth and Cordage: Archaeological Textile Research in the Americas, edited by Drooker, Penelope B. and Webster, Laurie D., pp. 205228. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Andrews, E. Wyllys IV 1970 Balankanche: Throne of the Jaguar Priest. Middle American Research Institute Publication 32. Tulane University Press, New Orleans.Google Scholar
Ardren, Traci (editor) 2002 Ancient Maya Women. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.Google Scholar
Asturias de Barrios, Linda 1985 Comalapa: Native Dress and its Significance. Ixchel Museum, Guatemala City.Google Scholar
Barber, Elizabeth J. W. 1991 Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
Bassie-Sweet, Karen 2002 Corn Dieties and the Male/Female Principle. In Ancient Maya Gender Identity and Relations, edited by Gustafson, Lowell S. and Trevelyan, Amelia M., pp. 169190. Bergin and Garvey, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
Beaudry-Corbett, Marilyn, and McCafferty, Sharisse 2002 Spindle Whorls: Household Specialization at Ceren. In Ancient Maya Women, edited by Ardren, Traci, pp. 5267. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.Google Scholar
Bell, Ellen E. 2002 Engendering a Dynasty: A Royal Woman in the Margarita Tomb, Copan. In Ancient Maya Women, edited by Ardren, Traci, pp. 89104. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.Google Scholar
Berdan, Frances F. 1987 The Economics of Aztec Luxury Trade and Tribute. In The Aztec Templo Mayor, edited by Boone, Elizabeth H., pp. 161183. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Bird, Junius B. 1979 Fibers and Spinning Procedures in the Andean Area. In The Junius B. Bird Pre-Columbian Textile Conference, 1973, edited by Rowe, Ann Pollard, Benson, Elizabeth P., and Schaffer, Anne-Louise, pp. 1317. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Bolles, John S. 1977 Las Monjas: A Major Pre-Mexican Architectural Complex at Chichen Itza. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. 1991 Weaving and Cooking: Women's Production in Aztec Mexico. In Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, edited by Gero, Joan M. and Conkey, Margaret W., pp. 224251. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. 1996 The Quality of Tribute Cloth: The Place of Evidence in Archaeological Argument. American Antiquity 61:453462.Google Scholar
Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. 2001 Asking about Aztec Gender: The Historical and Archaeological Evidence. In Gender in Pre-Hispanic America, edited by Klein, Cecelia F., pp. 5785. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Brumfiel, Elizabeth M., and Hodge, Mary G. 1996 Interaction in the Basin of Mexico: The Case of Postclassic Xaltocan. In Arqueologia Mesoamericana: Homenaje a William T. Sanders, vol. 1, edited by Mastache, Alba Guadalupe, Parson, Jeffrey R., Santley, Robert S., and Puche, Mari Carmen Serra, pp. 417437. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Chase, Arlen F. 2004 Polities, Politics, and Social Dynamics: “Contextualizing” the Archaeology of the Belize Valley and Caracol. In The Archaeology of the Belize Valley: Half a Century Later, edited by Garber, James F., pp. 320334, University Press of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
Chase, Arlen F., and Chase, Diane Z. 1987 Investigations at the Classic Maya City of Caracol, Belize: 1985–1987. Monograph 3. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Chase, Arlen F., and Chase, Diane Z. 1994 Details in the Archaeology of Caracol, Belize: An Introduction. In Studies in the Archaeology of Caracol, Belize, edited by Chase, Diane Z. and Chase, Arlen F., pp. 111. Monograph 7. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Chase, Arlen F., and Chase, Diane Z. 1995 External Impetus, Internal Synthesis, and Standardization: E Group Assemblages and the Crystalization of Classic Maya Society in the Southern Lowlands. In The Emergence of Lowland Maya Civilization: The Transition from the Preclassic to Early Classic, edited by Grube, Nikolai, pp. 87101. Monograph No. 8. Acta Mesoamericana, Berlin.Google Scholar
Chase, Arlen F., and Chase, Diane Z. 1996a The Organization and Composition of Classic Lowland Maya Society: The View from Caracol, Belize. In Eighth Palenque Round Table, 1993, edited by Robertson, Merle G., Macri, Martha J. and McHargue, Jan, pp. 213222. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Chase, Arlen F., and Chase, Diane Z. 1996b A Mighty Maya Nation: How Caracol Built an Empire by Cultivating its “Middle Class.” Archaeology 49(5):6672.Google Scholar
Chase, Arlen F., and Chase, Diane Z. 2001a The Royal Court of Caracol, Belize: Its Palaces and People. In Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya, edited by Inomata, Takeshi and Houston, Stephen D., pp. 102137. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
Chase, Arlen F., and Chase, Diane Z. 2001b Ancient Maya Causeways and Site Organization at Caracol, Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica 12(2):273281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chase, Arlen F., and Chase, Diane Z. 2005 The Early Classic Period at Caracol, Belize: Transitions, Complexity, and Methodological Issues in Maya Archaeology. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 2:1738.Google Scholar
Chase, Diane Z. 1991 Lifeline to the Gods: Ritual Bloodletting at Santa Rita Corozal. In Sixth Palenque Round Table, 1986, edited by Robertson, Merle G. and Fields, Virginia M., pp. 8996. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Chase, Diane Z. 1994 Human Osteology, Pathology, and Demography as Represented in the Burials of Caracol, Belize. In Studies in the Archaeology of Caracol, Belize, edited by Chase, Diane Z. and Chase, Arlen F., pp. 123138. Monograph 7. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Chase, Diane Z. 2001 Albergando a los muertos en Caracol, Belice. Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya 6:925.Google Scholar
Chase, Diane Z., and Chase, Arlen F. 1985 Offerings to the Gods: Maya Archaeology at Santa Rita Corozal. University of Central Florida, Orlando.Google Scholar
Chase, Diane Z., and Chase, Arlen F. 1988 A Postclassic Perspective: Excavations at the Maya Site of Santa Rita Corozal, Belize. Monograph 4. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Chase, Diane Z., and Chase, Arlen F. 1996 Maya Multiples: Individuals, Entries, and Tombs in Structure A34 of Caracol, Belize. Latin American Antiquity 7(1):6179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chase, Diane Z., and Chase, Arlen F. 1998 The Architectural Context of Caches, Burials, and Other Ritual Activities for the Classic Period Maya (as Reflected at Caracol, Belize). In Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture, edited by Houston, Stephen D., pp. 299332. Dumbarton Oaks Research Collection and Library, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Chase, Diane Z., and Chase, Arlen F. 2004 Archaeological Perspectives on Classic Maya Social Organization from Caracol, Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica 15:111119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chase, Diane Z., and Chase, Arlen F. 2005 The Early Classic Period at Santa Rita Corozal: Issues of Hierarchy, Heterarchy, and Stratification in Northern Belize. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 2:111129.Google Scholar
Chase, Diane Z., and Chase, Arlen F. 2006 The Dawn of Maya Civilization: Preclassic Archaeology from Santa Rita Corozal. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 3:85100.Google Scholar
Ciaramella, Mary A. 1999 Weavers in the Codices. Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing 44. Center for Maya Research, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Claassen, Cheryl, and Joyce, Rosemary A. (editors) 1997 Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Coe, William R. 1990 Excavations in the Great Plaza, North Terrace, and North Acropolis of Tikal. Tikal Report 14. University Museum Monograph 61, 6 vols. University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Coggins, Clemency Chase, and Shane, Orrin C. III 1984 Cenote of Sacrifice: Maya Treasures from the Sacred Well at Chichen Itza. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
Conkey, Margaret W., and Spector, Janet D. 1984 Archaology and the Study of Gender. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, edited by Schiffer, Michael B., pp. 138. Academic Press: New York.Google Scholar
Digby, Adrian 1964 Maya Jades. British Museum, London.Google Scholar
Durán, Fray Diego 1964 The Aztecs: The History of the Indies of New Spain, translated by Hayden, Doris and Horcasitas, FernandoOrion Press, New York.Google Scholar
Evans, Susan Toby 2001 Aztec Noble Courts: Men, Women, and Children. In Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya: Volume 1: Theory, Comparison, and Synthesis, edited by Inomata, Takeshi and Houston, Stephen D., pp. 237273. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
Farriss, Nancy M. 1984 Maya Society under Colonial Rule: The Collective Enterprise of Survival. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
Geller, Pamela L. 2005 Skeletal Analysis and Theoretical Complications. World Archaeology 37(4):597609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Good, Irene 2001 Archaeological Textiles: A Review of Current Research. Annual Review of Anthropology 30:209226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guamán Poma de Ayala, Felipe 1980 (1615) El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno. Siglo XXI/IEP, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Gustafson, Lowell S. and Trevelyan, Amelia M. (editor) 2002 Ancient Maya Gender Identity and Relations. Bergin and Garvey, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
Hamann, Byron 1997 Weaving and the Iconography of Prestige: The Royal Gender Symbolism of Lord 5 Flower's/Lady 4 Rabbit's Family. In Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica, edited by Claassen, Cheryl and Joyce, Rosemary A., pp. 153172. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Haviland, William A. 1967 Stature at Tikal, Guatemala: Implications for Ancient Maya Demography and Social Organization.” American Antiquity 32:316325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haviland, William A. 1992 Status and Power in Classic Maya Society: The View from Tikal. American Anthropologist 94(4):937940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haviland, William A. 1997 The Rise and Fall of Sexual Inequality: Death and Gender at Tikal, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica 8:112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendrickson, Carol 1995 Weaving Identities: Construction and Dress in a Highland Guatemala Town. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
Hendon, Julia 1996 Archaeological Approaches to the Organization of Domestic Labor: Household Practice and Domestic Relations.” Annual Review of Anthropology 25:4561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendon, Julia 1997 Women's Work, Women's Space, and Women's Status among the Classic-Period Maya Elite of the Copan Valley, Honduras. In Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica, edited by Claassen, Cheryl and Joyce, Rosemary A., pp. 3346. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Hendon, Julia 1999 Spinning and Weaving in Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica: The Technology and Social Relations of Textile Production. In Mayan Clothing and Weaving through the Ages, edited by de Arathoon, Barbara Knoke, Gonzalez, Nacie L., and Willemsen Devlin, John M., pp. 716. Museo Ixchel del Traje Indigena de Guatemala, Guatemala City.Google Scholar
Hollimon, Sandra E. 1997 The Third Gender in Native California: Two-Spirit Undertakers among the Chumash and Their Neighbors.” In Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica, edited by Claassen, Cheryl and Joyce, Rosemary A., pp. 173188. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Hopkins, Nicholas A. 1988 Classic Mayan Kinship Systems: Epigraphic and Ethnographic Evidence for Patrilineality. Estudios de Cultura Maya 17:87121.Google Scholar
Inomata, Takeshi, and Stiver, Laura R. 1998 Floor Assemblages from Burned Structures at Aguateca, Guatemala: A Study of Classic Maya Households. Journal of Field Archaeology 25:431452.Google Scholar
Joyce, Rosemary A. 1992 Images of Gender and Labor Organization in Classic Maya Society. In Exploring Gender through Archaeology, edited by Claassen, Cheryl, pp. 6370. Prehistory Press, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
Joyce, Rosemary A. 1993 Women's Work: Images of Production and Reproduction in Prehispanic Southern Central America. Current Anthropology 34:255274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joyce, Rosemary A. 1994 On Engendering Monte Alban Tomb 7. Current Anthropology 35:284287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joyce, Rosemary A. 2000 Gender and Power in Prehispanic Mesoamerica. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
Joyce, Rosemary A. 2001 Negotiating Sex and Gender in Classic Maya Society. In Gender in Pre-Hispanic America, edited by Klein, Cecelia F., pp. 109141. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Joyce, Rosemary A., and Claassen, Cheryl 1997 Women in the Ancient Americas: Archaeologists, Gender, and the Making of Prehistory. In Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica, edited by Claassen, Cheryl and Joyce, Rosemary A., pp. 114. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Kidder, Alfred V. 1943 Spindle Whorls from Chichen Itza, Yucatan. Notes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnology 1(16):9299.Google Scholar
Kidder, Alfred V. 1947 The Artifacts of Uaxactun, Guatemala. Carnegie Institution Publication 576. Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC.Google Scholar
King, Mary Elizabeth 1979 The Prehistoric Textile Industry of Mesoamerica. In The Junius B. Bird Pre-Columbian Textile Conference, edited by Rowe, Ann Pollard, Benson, Elizabeth P., and Schaffer, Anne-Louise, pp. 265278. Textile Museum and Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Looper, Mathew G. 2002 Women-Men (and Men-Women): Classic Maya Rulers and the Third Gender. In Ancient Maya Women, edited by Ardren, Traci, pp. 171202. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.Google Scholar
Lothrop, Joy Mahler 1992 Textiles. In Artifacts from the Cenote of Sacrifice, Chichen Itza, Yucatan, edited by Coggins, Clemency C., pp. 3390. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 10, No.3. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Marcus, Joyce 1974 The Iconography of Power among the Classic Maya. World Archaeology 6:8394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, Simon, and Grube, Nikolai 2000 Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens: Deciphering the Dynasties of the Ancient Maya. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
Mayen de Castellanos, Guisela 1986 Tzute y Jerarquia en Solola. Ixchel Museum, Guatemala City.Google Scholar
McCafferty, Sharisse D., and McCafferty, Geoffrey D. 1991 Spinning and Weaving as Female Gender Identity in Postclassic Mexico. In Textile Traditions of Mesoamerica and the Andes: An Anthology, edited by Schevill, Margot Blum, Berlo, Janet C., and Dwyer, Edward B., pp. 1944. Garland Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
McCafferty, Sharisse D., and McCafferty, Geoffrey D. 1994 Engendering Tomb 7 at Monte Alban: Respinning an Old Yarn. Current Anthropology 35(2):143166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCafferty, Sharisse D., and McCafferty, Geoffrey D. 2000 Textile Production in Postclassic Cholula. Ancient Mesoamerica 11:3954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mejía de Rodas, Idelma, and de Polanco, Rosario Miralbes 1989 Change in Colotenango: Costume, Migration, and Hierarchy. Museo Ixchel, Guatemala City.Google Scholar
Merwin, Raymond E., and Vaillant, George C. 1932 The Ruins of Holmul, Guatemala. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 3, No. 2. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Miller, Jeffery 1974 Notes on a Stelae Pair Probably from Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico. In Primera Mesa Redonda de Palenque, Part I, edited by Robertson, Merle G., pp. 4961. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, Pebble Beach, CA.Google Scholar
Miller, Mary, and Taube, Karl 1993 The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
Moholy-Nagy, Hattula 2007 Utilitarian Artifacts and Unworked Material. Tikal Report 27, Part B. University Museum Monographs, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Morehart, Christopher T., Awe, Jaime J., Mirro, Michael J., Owen, Vanessa A., and Helmke, Christophe G. 2004 Ancient Textile Remains from Barton Creek Cave, Cayo District, Belize.” Mexicon 26:5056.Google Scholar
Morris, Walter F., and Foxx, Jeffrey J. 1987 Living Maya. Harry Abrams, New York.Google Scholar
Moseley, Michael E. 1992 The Inca and Their Ancestors. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
Nichols, Deborah L., McLaughlin, Mary Jane, and Benton, Maura 2000 Production Intensification and Regional Specialization: Maguey Fibers and Textiles in the Aztec City-State of Otumba. Ancient Mesoamerica 11:267291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norr, Lynette 1987 The Excavation of a Postclassic House in Tetla. In Ancient Chalcatzingo, edited by Grove, David C., pp. 400408. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
Parsons, Mary H. 1972 Spindle Whorls from the Teotihuacan Valley. In Miscellaneous Studies in Mexican Prehistory, edited by Spence, Michael W., Parsons, Jeffrey R., and Parsons, Mary H., pp. 4580. Museum of Anthropology Paper 45. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
Parsons, Mary H. 1975 The Distribution of Late Postclassic Spindle Whorls in the Valley of Mexico. American Antiquity 40:207215.Google Scholar
Proskouriakoff, Tatiana 1962 The Artifacts of Mayapan. In Mayapan, Yucatan, Mexico, edited by Pollock, H.E.D., Roys, Ralph L., Smith, A. Ledyard, and Proskouriakoff, Tatiana, pp. 321515. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 619. Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Quezada, Sergio 2001 Tributos, limosnas, y mantas en Yucatan, siglo XVI. Ancient Mesoamerica 12:7378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ricketson, Oliver G. Jr. 1929 Excavations at Baking Pot, British Honduras. Carnegie Institution Publication 403, Contribution 1. Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Rowe, Ann Pollard 1981 A Century of Change in Guatemalan Textiles. Center for Inter-American Relations, New York.Google Scholar
Ruz Lhuillier, Alberto 1973 El Templo de las Inscripciones. Colección Cientifica Arqueología 7. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Schele, Linda, and Miller, Mary Ellen 1986 The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth.Google Scholar
Schevill, Margot Blum 1985 Evolution in Textile Design from the Highlands of Guatemala. University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
Schevill, Margot Blum (editor) 1997 The Maya Textile Tradition. Harry Abrams, New York.Google Scholar
Smith, A. Ledyard 1973 Uaxactun: A Pioneering Excavation in Guatemala. Addison-Wesley Module in Anthropology No. 40. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.Google Scholar
Smith, Michael E., and Hirth, Kenneth G. 1988 The Development of Prehispanic Cotton Spinning Technology in Western Morelos, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 15:349358.Google Scholar
Stark, Barbara L., Heller, Lynette, and Ohnersorgen, Michael A. 1998 People with Cloth: Mesoamerican Economic Change from the Perspective of Cotton in South-Central Veracruz. Latin American Antiquity 9:736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stockett, Miranda K. 2005 On the Importance of Difference: Re-envisioning Sex and Gender in Ancient Mesoamerica. World Archaeology 37:566578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuart, David 1998 “The Fire Enters His House”: Architecture and Ritual in Classic Maya Texts. In Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture, edited by Houston, Stephen D., pp. 373426. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Sullivan, Thelma D. 1982 Tlazolteotl-Ixcuina: The Great Spinner and Weaver. In The Art and Iconography of Late Post-Classic Central Mexico, edited by Boone, Elizabeth H., pp. 735. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Taschek, Jennifer T. 1994 The Artifacts of Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico: Shell, Polished Stone, Bone, Wood, and Ceramics. Middle American Research Institute Publication 50. Tulane University, New Orleans.Google Scholar
Teeter, Wendy Giddens 2001 Maya Diet in a Changing Urban Environment: Faunal Utilization at Caracol, Belize. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
Thompson, J. Eric S. 1931 Archaeological Investigations in the Southern Cayo District, British Honduras. Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, Vol. 17, No. 3. Field Museum, Chicago.Google Scholar
Thompson, J. Eric S. 1939 Excavations at San Jose, British Honduras. Carnegie Institution Publication 506. Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Thompson, J. Eric S. 1970 Maya History and Religion. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Tozzer, Alfred M. 1941 Landa's Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 18. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Vásquez, Rosaura, and Laporte, Juan Pedro 2005 Los entierros del Atlas arqueológico de Guatemala: Información arqueologica de los entierros 1 a 249.”. In Atlas Arqueologico de Guatemala, Reporte 19, edited by Laporte, J.P. and Mejía, H.E., pp. 368723. Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Guatemala City.Google Scholar
Voss, Barbara L. 2000 Feminisms, Queer Theories, and the Archaeological Study of Past Sexualities. World Archaeology 32:180192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Welsh, W.B.M. 1988 An Analysis of Classic Lowland Maya Burials. BAR International Series 409. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
Willey, Gordon R. 1972 The Artifacts of Altar de Sacrificios. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 64, No. 1. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Willey, Gordon R. 1973 The Altar de Sacrificos Excavations: General Summary and Conclusions. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 64, No. 3. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Willey, Gordon R. 1978 Excavations at Seibal, Department of Peten, Guatemala: Artifacts. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, 14, 1. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Willey, Gordon R. 1990 Excavations at Seibal, Department of Peten, Guatemala: General Summary and Conclusions. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 17, No. 4. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Willey, Gordon R., Bullard, William R. Jr., Glass, John B., and Gifford, James C. 1965 Prehistoric Maya Settlements in the Belize Valley. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 54. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Zorita, Alonso de 1963 (1565) Life and Labor in Ancient Mexico, translated by Keen, Benjamin. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.Google Scholar
Zorn, Elayne 2004 Weaving a Future: Tourism, Cloth, and Culture in an Andean Island. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 73
Total number of PDF views: 383 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 13th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

TEXTILES AND THE MAYA ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

TEXTILES AND THE MAYA ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

TEXTILES AND THE MAYA ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *