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The M quadruplets: I. Probability of uniovular origin judged from qualitative traits

  • Gordon Allen (a1)

Summary

The M quadruplets have been regarded as monozygotic by all investigators who have studied them carefully. Previous authors have based their diagnosis on the description of the placenta, on early physical resemblances, and on qualitative features.

The addition of blood group tests to the criteria now tends to confirm the earlier conclusion. From an extension of methods devised for use in twins, it appears that the probability that these quadruplets originated from more than one zygote is less than one per cent. However, some quantitative differences, especially in finger prints, require a more elaborate analysis, and such an analysis will be presented and discussed in a second article.

RIASSUNTO

I Quadrigemini M sono stati considerati monozigotici da tutti quelli che li hanno studiati attentamente. Autori precedenti hanno basato la loro diagnosi sulla descrizione della placenta, sulla precoce somiglianza fisica e sui tratti qualitativi.

L'esame dei gruppi sanguigni, aggiunto a questi criteri, tende ora a confermare la precedente conclusione. Estendendo a questo caso l'applicazione dei metodi adottati per i gemelli, appare che la probabilità che questi quadrigemini derivino da più di uno zigote è minore all'1%. Tuttavia è necessaria una analisi più elaborata per quanto riguarda alcune differenze quantitative, soprattutto per le impronte digitali e tale analisi verrà presentata e discussa in un secondo articolo.

RÉSUMÉ

Les Quadruplés M ont été considérés mono-zygotiques par tous ceux qui les ont étudiés attentivement. Les auteurs précédents ont fait leur diagnose sur la base de la description de la placenta, sur la précoce ressemblance physique et sur les traits qualitatifs.

L'examen des groupes sanguins, ajouté à ces critères, confirme maintenant la conclusion précédente. L'application d'un ensemble de méthodes gémellaires démontre que la probabilité que ces quadruplés tiennent leur origine de plus qu'un seul zygote est moindre de 1%. Une analyse plus élaborée est cependant nécessaire pour ce qui concerne certaines différences quantitatives, surtout pour les empreintes digitales et cette analyse sera présentée et discutée dans une deuxième étude.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Die M Vierlinge waren bei alle die sie aufmerksam untersuchten wie EZ betrachtet. Bisher, haben andere Verfasser die Diagnose auf die Beschreibung der Plazenta, auf die physische Ähnlichkeit und auf die qualitativen Merkmale begründet.

Dieser Schluss ist auch durch die heutige Blutgruppen Untersuchung bestätigt. Zwillingsmethoden schauen dass es eine Wahrscheinlichkeit minder als 1% gibt, dass die Vierlinge nicht EZ sind. Doch ist es nötig eine breitere Analyse über einige quantitativen Unterschiede (besonders über die Fingerdrücke) zu machen und so eine Analyse wird in einem zweiten Artikel festgestellt und diskutiert.

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References

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The M quadruplets: I. Probability of uniovular origin judged from qualitative traits

  • Gordon Allen (a1)

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