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Seditious Sectaries or “Sober and Useful Inhabitants”? Changing Conceptions of the Quakers in Early Modern Britain

  • Richard L. Greaves

Extract

On 1 June 1683, ten proprietors of East Jersey gathered in London for one of their periodic meetings to discuss colonial business. Of the ten, nine were Quakers, including Robert Barclay, Gawen Lawrie, and Edward Byllynge. The tenth, who served as the group’s treasurer, was the London attorney Robert West.’ Unknown to the Friends with whom he met was West’s involvement in the Rye House plotting, the first details of which Sir Leoline Jenkins, secretary of state, learned about eleven days later. On the 19th, the government began its crackdown on the conspirators, in part by issuing an order to search West’s chamber in the Temple. Three days later, West, now in custody, began providing the authorities a detailed account of the conspiracy to murder the king and James duke of York. Among those he implicated were other non-Quaker proprietors of East Jersey, including the barrister Nathaniel Wade and the attorney John Ayloffe, both of whom were involved in the assassination plot. As the authorities pursued the investigation, they learned of plans for a general uprising, at the heart of which were James duke of Monmouth and Lord William Russell.

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1 Library of the Religious Society of Friends, Minute Book of the Lord Proprietors of New Jersey, 1664–1683, entry for 1 July 1683 (hereafter cited as LF).

2 Nottingham University Library, MSS PwV 95, fols. 235, 237 (hereafter cited as NUL); British Library, Additional MSS 41,803, fol. 57r-v (hereafter cited as BL, Add. MSS). For a full history of the plotting see Richard L. Greaves, Secrets of the Kingdom: British Radicals from the Popish Plot to the Revolution of 1688–1689 (Stanford, 1992), chs. 3–6.

3 BL, Add. MSS 38,847, fols. 89v, 97r, lllv, 113v, 115r, 117r, 120r; Copies of the Informations and Original Papers Relating to the Proof of the Horrid Conspiracy Against the Late King, His Present Majesty, and the Government, 3rd ed. (London, 1685), pp. 42–43, 66; Public Record Office, State Papers 29/436/100; 29/437/105.1 (hereafter cited as PRO, SP).

4 Copies of the Informations, pp. 49, 52–53; Greaves, Secrets of the Kingdom, chs. 3–5.

5 Grey, Ford Lord, The Secret History of the Rye-House Plot: and of Monmouth’s Rebellion (London, 1754), p. 16 ; PRO, SP 29/420/38, 58.1, 72.1, 82; Cheshire Record Office, MS DDX7/1; Edinburgh University Library, MSS La.1.332, fol. 7 (hereafter cited as EUL); BL, Egerton MSS 2543, fol. 251r; Greaves, Secrets of the Kingdom, p. 418.

6 LF, Minute Book of the Lord Proprietors of New Jersey, 1664–1683, entry for 4 July 1682.

7 Reay, Barry, The Quakers and the English Revolution (London, 1985), p. 81.

8 Ingle, H. Larry, First Among Friends: George Fox and the Creation of Quakerism (New York, 1994), p. 190.

9 Reay, Quakers, p. 121; Kunze, Bonnelyn Young, Margaret Fell and the Rise of Quakerism (Stanford, 1994), p. 231 ; Bauman, Richard, Let Your Words Be Few: Symbolism of Speaking and Silence Among Seventeenth-Century Quakers (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 138, 146 . Emphasis on the internal focus is also espoused by Hugh Barbour, The Quakers in Puritan England (New Haven, 1964), p. 236.

10 Horle, Craig W., The Quakers and the English Legal System 1660–1688 (Philadelphia, 1988), p. 18 ; Greaves, Richard L., “Shattered Expectations? George Fox, the Quakers, and the Restoration State, 1660–1685,” Albion 24 (Summer 1992): 23759.

11 J[ohn] P[ennyman], ad cal. Bishop, George, To Thee Charls Stuart King of England (Bristol, 1660), p. 6. For a sampling of other 1660 advice see The Copies of Several Letters, Which Were Delivered to the King (London, 1660); George Fox the Younger, A Noble Salutation (London, 1660); Margaret Fell and Samuel Fisher to Charles II, LF, Spence MSS, 3:97; Fell to Charles II, Spence MSS, 3:98, 104, 110; [Edward Burrough], A Visitation and Presentation of Love (London, 1660).

12 PRO, SP 29/75/86.

13 LF, Thirnbeck MSS, no. 5. See also LF, Swarthmore MSS, vol. 1, fols. 48r, 58r, 152r, 386r; LF, Spence MSS, 3:6.

14 Fox, George, The Journal of George Fox, ed. Penney, Norman, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1911), 2: 172.

15 PRO, SP 29/100/106 (quoted); George Fox, The Christian Judges, So Called, Their Words Judged (n.p., 1676), p. 10. Cf. Calendar of the Clarendon State Papers Preserved in the Bodleian Library, vol. 5: 1660–1726, ed. F. J. Routledge (Oxford, 1970), p. 578; Cumbria Record Office (Kendal), MSS WD/Ry, box 35, Samuel Sandes to Daniel Fleming (late 1670s?).

16 LF, Barclay MSS, 2:165.

17 PRO, SP 29/91/7; John Chandler, A True Relation of the Unjust Proceedings, Verdict (So Called) & Sentence of the Court of Sessions, at Margarets Hill in Southwark (n.p., 1662), p. 13 (quoted). Cf. Mary Howgill, The Vision of the Lord of Hosts (n.p., 1662), p. 7; Historical Manuscripts Commission 25, Le Fleming, p. 32 (hereafter cited as HMC); PRO, SP 29/441/74.

18 PRO, SP 29/406/220 (quoted); 29/419/67; Somerset Record Office, MSS DD/SFR 10/4, fol. 1r (hereafter cited as SRO); HMC 25, Le Fleming, p. 44; HMC 55, Various Collections, 1: 19.

19 Intelligencer 31 (18 April 1664), p. 251; LF, Swarthmore MSS, vol. 1, fol. 24r; vol. 3, fol. 122r; PRO, SP 29/56/134; 29/97/5; George Fox, Christian Liberty Commended, and Persecution Condemned (n.p., 1675), p. 10 (quoted).

20 HMC 78, Hastings, 2: 154; Besse, Joseph, A Collection of the Sufferings of the People Called Quakers, 2 vols. (London, 1753), 2: 476. See Bauman, Let Your Words Be Few, pp. 87–92.

21 PRO, SP 29/277/29, 95; 29/278/76.1, 158 (quoted), 163; The Newes 18 (31 December 1663), p. 137; Gilbert Burnet, History of His Own Time (London, 1838), p. 184; Dorset Record Office, MSS NQl/Al (entry for 28 March 1683); HMC 55, Various Collections, 1; 19; HMC 25, Le Fleming, p. 44; NUL, MSS PwV 95, fol. 305.

22 PRO, SP 29/276/82.

23 Calendar of State Papers, Venetian, 1669–70, p. 215; Gazette 478 (13-16 June 1670); PRO, SP 29/277/14 (quoted); 29/281/97 (quoted).

24 PRO, SP 29/34/68; 29/83/60; 29/109/54; 29/260/136 (quoted).

25 PRO, SP 29/77/50 (quoted); 29/78/6; 29/92/2.

26 Bodleian, Carte MSS 47, fol. 359v; PRO, SP 29/98/63 (quoted); 29/99/7; 29/101/16 (quoted). Cf. Calendar of State Papers, Venetian, 1664–66, p. 73.

27 HMC 25, Le Fleming, p. 37; PRO, SP 29/168/43, 70 (quoted); 29/174/58; 29/175/87; 29/190/30; 29/371/143; 29/441/1; Barry Reay, “Quakerism and Society,” in Radical Religion in the English Revolution (Oxford, 1984), p. 164.

28 Dr. Williams’s Library, Baxter MSS 59.1.9; [Thomas Tenison], An Argument for Union (London, 1683), p. 4 (quoted).

29 SirLeicester, Peter, Charges to the Grand Jury at Quarter Sessions, 1660–1677, ed. Halcrow, Elizabeth M., Chetham Society, 3rd ser., vol. 5 (Manchester, 1953), p. 44 ; PRO, SP 29/263/2; [George Vernon], A Letter to a Friend Concerning Some of Dr. Owens Principles and Practices (London, 1670), p. 51.

30 Greaves, Richard L., Dublin’s Merchant-Quaker: Anthony Sharp and the Community of Friends, 1643–1707 (Stanford, 1998), pp. 20409.

31 Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, 1660–62, p. 549; PRO, SP 29/100/107.

32 PRO, SP 29/62/9; 29/88/28 (quoted); 29/99/128; 29/105/15.1; 29/116/12.2; 29/250/65; Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1671, p. 325 (hereafter cited as CSPD).

33 PRO, SP 29/415/142. Cf. SP 29/413/61.

34 HMC 71, Finch, 1:101; HMC 25, he Fleming, p. 30; HMC 33, Lonsdale, p. 93; PRO, SP 29/103/2; 29/107/25; 29/110/24; 29/112/134 (quoted); 29/136/69; 29/196/52; 29/241/3.

35 The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, 1661–64, pp. 368, 616, 626 (hereafter cited as RPCS); RPCS, 1665–69, pp. 36, 312–13; RPCS, 1669–72, pp. 30–31; Bodleian, Carte MSS 45, fol. 467r; PRO, SP 29/86/87; 29/90/86; 29/103/148; 29/134/14; 29/278/22; 29/280/124; 29/378/165; The Newes 102 (29 December 1664), p. 838.

36 RPCS, 1665–69, pp. 312–13; RPCS, 1669–72, pp. 441–42 (quoted); PRO, SP 29/277/174; Bodleian, Carte MSS 45, fol. 467r.

37 PRO, SP 29/378/166 (quoted); CSPD, 1672, p. 543 (quoted); British Library, Stowe MSS 186, fol. 21r (quoted), (hereafter cited as BL).

38 A Short Relation of Some Part of the Sad Sufferings, and Cruel Havock and Spoil, Inflicted on the Persons and Estates of the People of God, in Scorn Called Quakers (n.p., 1670), pp. 7–9, 30, 32, 39–41; PRO, SP 29/63/70; 29/100/37; 29/103/75; LF, Barclay MSS, 1:89; Whiting, John, Persecution Expos’d, in Some Memoirs Relating to the Sufferings of John Whiting (London, 1715), p. 3 (cf. pp. 61, 63, 66–67, 71, 76, 78, 86, 92–93); Dorset Record Office, MSS NQ1/V2 (documents 2 & 3); Impartial Protestant Mercury 82 (31 January-3 February 1682).

39 [Fox, George], Our Covenant with God (London, 1660); William Caton, in Copies of Several Letters, p. 46; Fell, Margaret, A Declaration and an Information from Us the People of God Called Quakers, to the Present Governors, the King and Both Houses of Parliament, and All Whom It May Concern (London, 1660), pp. 78 ; Fox the Younger, Noble Salutation, p. 19 (quoted).

40 [Fox, George et al.], A Declaration from the Harmles & Innocent People of God, Called Quakers, Against All Plotters and Fighters in the World ([London], 1661), pp. 4, 8 ; Fox, Journal, 2: 12 (quoted); Ellwood, Thomas, The History of the Life of Thomas Ellwood, ed. Crump, C. G. (London, n.d.), p. 55 ; Reay, Quakers, pp. 105–06; Kingdomes Intelligencer (7-14 January 1661), p. 32. For Venner’s rebellion see Greaves, Richard L., Deliver Us from Evil: The Radical Underground in Britain, 1660–1663 (New York, 1986), pp. 5057.

41 LF, Swarthmore MSS, vol. 3, fol. 182r.

42 Greaves, Deliver Us from Evil, pp. 190–91, 200–01.

43 Fox, Journal, 2: 39–40, 43, 46, 55; LF, Abraham MSS, no. 7; PRO, SP 29/91/7.1 (quoted).

44 LF, Swarthmore MSS, vol. 3, fol. 154r; LF, Barclay MSS, 1: 92 (quoted).

45 LF, Swarthmore MSS, vol. 3, fol. 105r.

46 LF, Barclay MSS, 1:93.

47 Greaves, “Shattered Expectations,” pp. 256–59.

48 Fell, Declaration, p. 7 (quoted); George Fox, in Copies of Several Letters, pp. 4, 6–7; F[ox], G[eorge], A Word in the Behalf of the King (London, 1660), p. 4 ; Fox to the World, LF, Swarthmore MSS, vol. 7, fol. 129v; Smith, William, A Short Testimony on the Behalf of Truths Innocency (London, 1660), p. 6 ; [Burrough], Visitation, pp. 10–11.

49 Fox, et al., Declaration, pp. 1–5 (quoted at p. 5).

50 [Burrough], Visitation, p. 14. Cf. Fell, Declaration, p. 3; LF, Swarthmore MSS, vol. 4, no. 187; Burrough, Edward, A Standard Lifted Up, and an Ensigne Held Forth, to All Nations (London, 1658), pp. 1314, 30, 32 ; B[urrough], E[dward], A Declaration to All the World of Our Faith, and What We Believe Who Are Called Quakers (London, 1660), p. 5.

51 SRO, MSS DD/SFR 10/3 (document 24); LF, Swarthmore MSS, vol. 7, fol. 169r; PRO, SP 29/292/27.

52 The extent of Quaker trade with outsiders in this period has not been ascertained. According to a critic identified only as N. H., Friends would sell to anyone but buy “only of their own Tribe.” N. H., The Compleat Tradesman, 3rd ed. (London, 1684), p. 34. Charles Leslie made essentially the same complaint. [Leslie], The Snake in the Grass, 3rd ed. (London, 1698), p. 82. Penn, however, was critical of the 1670 Conventicle Act because he thought its unstated intent was to restrict trade with nonconformists. P[enn], W[illiam], The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience Once More Briefly Debated & Defended ([London], 1670), p. 30. In Dublin, Friends such as Anthony Sharp were members of the weavers’ guild, and the Quaker Samuel Clarridge belonged to the merchants’ guild and ultimately to the weavers’ company as well. All would have traded actively with non-Quakers. Greaves, Dublin’s Merchant-Quaker, pp. 68–95.

53 LF, Spence MSS, vol. 3, no. 100; Burrough, Edward, The Case of Free Liberty of Conscience in the Exercise of Faith and Religion, Presented unto the King and Both Houses of Parliament (London, 1661), pp. 1112 ; William Caton, The Testimony of a Cloud of Witnesses, Who in Their Generation Have Testified Against That Horrible Evil of Forcing of Conscience, and Persecution About Matters of Religion (n.p., 1662), pp. 50–51; Thomas Green, To Both Houses of Parliament, Sitting at Westminster (n.p., 1662); PRO, SP 29/105/115. See also Crook, John, An Apology for the Quakers (London, 1662), p. 4.

54 See Krey, Gary S. De, “The First Restoration Crisis: Conscience and Coercion in London, 1667–73,” Albion 25 (Winter 1993): 56580 ; Greaves, Richard L., “Great Scott! The Restoration in Turmoil, or, Restoration Crises and the Emergence of Party,” Albion (Winter 1993): 60811 ; Greaves, , “‘Let Truth Be Free’: John Bunyan and the Restoration Crisis of 1667–1673,” Albion 28 (Winter 1996): 587605.

55 Ellwood, Life, p. 169 (quoted); anon., Short Relation of…Sad Sufferings, pp. 74, 76; PRO, SP 29/287/69A (quoted). See also SRO, MSS DD/SFR 10/4, fol. 70r.

56 [Penn, William], Christian Liberty as It Was Soberly Desired in a Letter to Certain Forreign States ([London], 1674), p. 6 (quoted); P[enn], Great Case, p. 12.

57 P[enn], Great Case, pp. 27–28; Penn, William, England’s Present Interest Discover’d with Honour to the Prince and Safety to the People ([London], 1675), p. 34 ; [Penn, William], One Project for the Good of England [London, 1679], p. 5.

58 [Penn], One Project, p. 5.

59 Ibid.

60 Penn, England’s Present Interest, pp. 42–45 (quoted at p. 42).

61 For all these men see Biographical Dictionary of British Radicals in the Seventeenth Century, ed. Richard L. Greaves and Robert Zaller, 3 vols. (Brighton, Sussex, 1982–84), s.vv. (hereafter cited as BDBR).

62 [Owen, John], Indulgence and Toleration Considered (London, 1667), pp. 8 (quoted), 23, 31 ; [Owen, John], Truth and Innocence Vindicated (London, 1669), pp. 7481 ; [Bethel, Slingsby], Et à dracone: or. Some Reflections upon a Discourse (London, 1668), pp. 917 ; anon, ., A Few Sober Queries upon the Late Proclamation, for Enforcing the Laws Against Conventicles (London, 1668), p. 3 ; BL, Add. MSS 41,813, fol. 174r (of Nicholas Locke); Jones, James, A Plea for Liberty of Conscience (London, 1684), p. 4. Cf. A True and Impartial Narrative of Some Illegal and Arbitrary Proceedings…in and near the Town of Bedford (n.p., 1670), p. 3.

63 [Owen, John], A Peace-Offering in an Apology and Humble Plea for Indulgence and Liberty of Conscience (London, 1667), pp. 3334 ; [Bethel], Et à dracone, p. 9 (quoted); [SirWolseley, Charles], Liberty of Conscience upon Its True and Proper Grounds Asserted & Vindicated (London, 1668), pp. 89 ; anon., A Few Sober Queries, p. 5.

64 [Wolseley], Liberty of Conscience, pp. 9–10 (quoted); [Owen], Truth and Innocence Vindicated, pp. 79–81; [Annesley, Arthur, earl of Anglesey], The King’s Right of Indulgence in Spiritual Matters (London, 1688), pp. 78. Anglesey composed his work before 1685.

65 Owen, John, The Works of John Owen, ed. Goold, William H., 16 vols. (London, 1850–53), 13: 58384 (quoted); [Nicholas Lockyer], Some Seasonable and Serious Queries upon the Late Act Against Conventicles [London, 1670], p. 10; Bodleian, Carte MSS 81, fol. 305r-v. Wharton’s papers include a statement of Owen’s views; Carte MSS 81, fol. 331r-v.

66 PRO, SP 29/69/5; 29/99/9; 29/260/136 (misdated 1669); 29/421/161; BL, Egerton MSS 2539, fol. 305v.

67 PRO, SP 29/217/114 (quoted); impartial Protestant Mercury 84 (7-10 February 1682) (quoted); ibid., 106 (25-28 April 1682).

68 iKennet, White, An Historical Register and Chronicle of English Affairs (London, 1744), pp. 364, 371 ; HMC 31, Thirteenth Report, Appendix, part 4, p. 237; CSPD, 1660–61, p. 587; CSPD, 1661–62, p. 406; PRO, SP 29/67/39, 133; 29/68/75, 75.1; 29/69/33; 29/112/134.1; CSPD, 1664–65, p. 218; HMC 25, Le Fleming, p. 54.

69 Kennet, Historical Register, p. 764; PRO, SP 29/82/46; 29/90/23; 29/100/77; 29/103/105; Michael Watts, The Dissenters: From the Reformation to the French Revolution (Oxford, 1978), p. 244.

70 The Records of a Church of Christ in Bristol, 1640–1687, ed. Roger Hayden (Gateshead, Durham, 1974), pp. 284, 297, 310; PRO, SP 29/90/10.1; 29/92/83; 29/92/83.1, 3, 4; 29/92/91, 110; 29/110/42.

71 PRO, SP 29/134/102; 29/136/34; 29/161/39; 29/168/147; 29/245/20; 29/275/168, 168.2; BL, Add. MSS 23,133, fols. 34r-v, 42r-v.

72 Greaves, Richard L., God’s Other Children: Protestant Nonconformists and the Emergence of Denominational Churches in Ireland, 1660–1700 (Stanford, 1997), pp. 27184.

73 PRO, SP 44/62, p. 103 (quoted); SP 29/417/67; 29/419/67; CSPD, 1682, p. 584; Whiting, Persecution Expos’d, p. 103 (quoted).

74 LF, Morning Meeting Minutes, 1673–92, p. 7 (quoted); Dunn, Mary Maples, William Penn: Politics and Conscience (Princeton, 1967), pp. 2526, 3240 ; Lloyd, Arnold, Quaker Social History, 1669–1738 (London, 1950), pp. 9091 ; [Penn, William], Englands Great Interest in the Choice of This New Parliament [London, 1679], pp. 12 ; Scott, Jonathan, Algernon Sidney and the Restoration Crisis, 1677–1683 (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 12838, 15561 ; Lacey, Douglas R., Dissent and Parliamentary Politics in England, 1661–1689 (New Brunswick, N.J. 1969), p. 114.

75 Lacey, Dissent and Parliamentary Politics, pp. 113–14; Lloyd, Quaker Social History, p. 83; Whiting, C. E., Studies in English Puritanism from the Restoration to the Revolution, 1660–1688 (London, 1931), pp. 17576.

76 Pepys, Samuel, The Diary of Samuel Pepys, ed. Latham, Robert and Matthews, William, 11 vols. (Berkeley, 1970–1983), 8: 584 ; Horle, Craig W., The Quakers and the English Legal System, 1660–1688 (Philadelphia, 1988), pp. 86, 98 ; PRO, SP 29/391/23.

77 PRO, SP 29/293/133; Greaves, Richard L., Enemies Under His Feet: Radicals and Nonconformists in Britain, 1664–1677 (Stanford, 1990), pp. 15859 ; BDBR, s.v. Player, Sir Thomas; Sidney, Henry, Diary of the Times of Charles the Second, ed. Blencowe, R. W., 2 vols. (London, 1843), 2: 195 ; Dunn, William Penn, pp. 38–40; Jones, J. R., “A Representative of the Alternative Society of Restoration England?” in The World of William Penn, ed. Dunn, Richard S. and Dunn, Mary Maples (Philadelphia, 1986), p. 59.

78 BDBR, s.v. Barclay, Robert; Trueblood, D. Elton, Robert Barclay (New York, 1968), pp. 9698, 11517 ; Pomfret, John E., The Province of East New Jersey, 1609–1702: The Rebellious Proprietary (Princeton, 1962), pp. 134, 137, 242.

79 Pomfret, John E., Colonial New Jersey: A History (New York, 1973), pp. 31, 3637, 40 ; Pomfret, Province of East New Jersey, pp. 110–11, 130, 132, 134–35; Brief Account of the Province of East Jersey (1682); LF, Minute Book of the Lord Proprietors of New Jersey, 1664–1683, entry for 6 June 1682.

80 PRO, SP 29/425/49; 29/429/243.

81 Cambridge University, Pepys Library, Misc. MSS 7, fols. 489–91; BL, Harleian MSS 6845, fol. 282r.

82 PRO, SP 29/429/61; BL, Add. MSS 38,847, fols. 91v-92r, 97r-v; Cambridge University, Pepys Library, Misc. MSS 7, fol. 490; BL, Harleian MSS 6845, fol. 282r.

83 Copies of the Informations, p. 71; PRO, SP 29/427/111; BDBR, s.v. Waller, Edmond. For failing to disclose West’s plotting, Waller could have been charged with misprision of treason had the government so desired.

84 PRO, SP 29/420/58.1, 72.1, 82; Ferguson, Robert, “Concerning the Rye House Business,” in Robert Ferguson the Plotter or the Secret of the Rye-House Conspiracy and the Story of a Strange Career, by Ferguson, James (Edinburgh, 1887), pp. 41836 ; BL, Add. MSS 41,818, fol. 214r-v; Add. MSS 38,847, fols. 91v, 93r-94r; Cheshire Record Office, MS DDX7/1.

85 EUL, MSS La.1.332, fol. 7; Grey, Secret History, p. 65.

86 Ferguson, “Concerning the Rye House Business,” pp. 415–30; Grey, Secret History, pp. 1–5, 15–27, 29, 32, 40; Copies of the informations, p. 129; BL, Harleian MSS 6845, fol. 266r; PRO, SP 29/425/56, 69; 29/429/32; Greaves, Secrets of the Kingdom, p. 107.

87 NUL, MSS PwV 95, fol. 237; Letters, Illustrative of Public Affairs in Scotland, Addressed by Contemporary Statesmen to George, Earl of Aberdeen, Lord High Chancellor of Scotland. MDCLXXXI-MDCLXXXIV (Aberdeen, 1851), p. 130; Copies of the Informations, pp. 39–40; Dr. Williams’s Library, Roger Morrice, “Entr’ing Book, Being an Historical Register of Occurrences from April, Anno 1677 to April 1691,” 1: 402. Following his arrest, West sold his propriety in East Jersey to Thomas Cox, a London vintner. For West’s services to the proprietors, they rewarded him with a grant of 960 acres in 1692. Pomfret, Province of East New Jersey, p. 249.

88 Copies of the Informations, pp. 24–25 (quoted); PRO, SP 29/427/111.

89 PRO, SP 29/418/81.

90 CSPD, 1680–81, p. 564; PRO, SP 29/417/118, 151; 29/421/154; Impartial Protestant Mercury 65 (2-6 December 1681).

91 CSPD, 1680–81, p. 572; CSPD, 1682, p. 128; True Protestant Mercury 114 (4-8 February 1682); ibid., 125 (15-18 March 1682); ibid., 179 (20-23 September 1682); Impartial Protestant Mercury 96 (21-24 March 1682); ibid., 98 (28-31 March 1682); ibid., 108 (2-5 May 1682); PRO, SP 29/419/88.

92 PRO, SP 29/423/15 (quoted); 29/424/39, 84, 85. The magistrates at Norwich disputed the Quakers’ complaints. PRO, SP 29/424/172, 186.

93 PRO, SP 44/68, pp. 211–12 (quoted), 284–85.

94 NUL, MSS PwV 95, fol. 297; PRO, SP 29/434/11, 11.1; 29/436/4.

95 PRO, SP 29/422/110, 151; 29/434/12 (quoted).

96 Two Quakers were accused of complicity in the Rye House plot: the London surgeon Nathaniel Browne, who was interrogated and released on bail, and an unnamed (former) major. Greaves, “Shattered Expectations,” p. 255 and the references cited there.

97 SRO, MSS DD/SFR 10/2, fol. 46r; DD/SFR 10/4, fols. 118v-119r, 121r (quoted); Braithwaite, William C., The Second Period of Quakerism, ed. Cadbury, Henry J. (York, 1979), p. 113 ; F[ox], G[eorge], To the Chief Magistrate, Rulers, Ministers, Justices of the Peace, and Other Officers ([London], 1684); PRO, SP 29/436/144. Cf. George Fox, All Friends Everywhere: This Is the Word of the Lord (London, 1683), p. 3.

98 PRO, SP 44/71, pp. 186–87, 263; CSPD, 1686–87, p. 71.

99 Economic relations between Friends and non-Quakers were probably enhanced by the former’s insistence on strict standards of honesty and the maintenance of fair prices. This was offset to some extent by the Friends’ refusal to take oaths, making it riskier for a Quaker to extend credit or for outsiders to sell on credit to Friends. Greaves, Dublin’s Merchant-Quaker, pp. 196–97; Sacks, David Harris, The Widening Gate: Bristol and the Atlantic Economy, 1450–1700 (Berkeley, 1991), pp. 31820.

100 LF, Minutes of the Morning Meeting, p. 79 (quoted); [Leslie], The Snake in the Grass, p. 362; Tolles, Frederick B., Meeting House and Counting House: The Quaker Merchants of Colonial Philadelphia, 1682–1763 (Chapel Hill, 1948), p. 48 ; Price, Jacob M., “The Great Quaker Business Families of Eighteenth-Century London: The Rise and Fall of a Sectarian Patriciate,” in The World of William Penn, ed. Dunn, and Dunn, , pp. 36399 ; Hyde, Charles K., Technological Change and the British Iron Industry, 1700–1870 (Princeton, 1977), p. 16.

101 Greaves, Dublin’s Merchant-Quaker, p. 167.

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