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Design characteristics and aesthetics in evolutionary design of architectural forms directed by fuzzy evaluation

  • Agnieszka Mars (a1), Ewa Grabska (a1), Grażyna Ślusarczyk (a1) and Barbara Strug (a1)


This paper deals with design characteristics-oriented approach to architectural design based on the combination of three methods – recognition, generation, and evaluation. Design characteristics are understood as a set of specific features which constitute a discriminant of a class of architectural forms. The Biederman recognition-by-components theory is used to recognize the design structure. An evolutionary algorithm, which serves as a generative tool, is driven by the fuzzy evaluation based on Birkhoff's aesthetic measure. Phenotypes of architectural objects are seen as configurations of Biederman's basic components essential for visual perception. Genotypes of these objects are represented by graphs with bonds, where nodes represent object components, node bonds represent component surfaces, while graph edges represent relations between surfaces. Graph evolutionary operators, that is, crossover and mutation, are defined in such a way that they preserve characteristic features seen as design requirements specified for designed objects. The fitness function is determined by the fuzzy evaluation of designs based on Birkhoff's aesthetic measure for polygons adapted for three-dimensional solids. The approach is illustrated by examples of designing objects with the use of a fuzzy evaluation mechanism, which takes into account both aesthetic criteria and the degree to which design requirements corresponding to object characteristic features are satisfied.


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Author for correspondence: Agnieszka Mars, E-mail:


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Design characteristics and aesthetics in evolutionary design of architectural forms directed by fuzzy evaluation

  • Agnieszka Mars (a1), Ewa Grabska (a1), Grażyna Ślusarczyk (a1) and Barbara Strug (a1)


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