Adoption of advanced breeding technologies and management practices (BTMP) in U.S. meat goat production and their impact were examined. Adopters generally had larger-scale operations, used rotational grazing and/or dry lot systems, and sold larger percentages of animals for breeding and show purposes. Farmer demographics and farm variables also influenced adoption. Complementarity of adoption was found—adopters of one BTMP tended to adopt other BTMPs. Measures of productivity and profitability were not affected by adoption. Goat breed, farmer experience, production system used, and specialization influenced productivity, and farm size had the greatest influence on enterprise profitability.