Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effects of Land Tenure and Property Rights on Farm Households’ Willingness to Accept Incentives to Invest in Measures to Combat Land Degradation in Nigeria

  • Adebayo Musediku Shittu, Mojisola Olanike Kehinde, Maria Gbemisola Ogunnaike and Funminiyi Peter Oyawole


Influence of land tenure and property rights (LTPRs) on farmers’ willingness to accept (WTA) incentives to embrace climate-smart agriculture (CSA) to combat land degradation was examined with choice experiment data collected from 1,138 farmers drawn across 16 States in Nigeria. Data analysis within random-effect and mixed logit framework revealed the existence of strong linkages between the payment vehicle, LTPRs and farmers’ CSA preferences. While farmers who were dependent on leased and/or communal lands expressed implicit dislike for CSA-related investments, the majority with freehold titles, particularly those with registered titles, expressed positive WTA incentives to embrace CSA and combat land degradation.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effects of Land Tenure and Property Rights on Farm Households’ Willingness to Accept Incentives to Invest in Measures to Combat Land Degradation in Nigeria
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effects of Land Tenure and Property Rights on Farm Households’ Willingness to Accept Incentives to Invest in Measures to Combat Land Degradation in Nigeria
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effects of Land Tenure and Property Rights on Farm Households’ Willingness to Accept Incentives to Invest in Measures to Combat Land Degradation in Nigeria
      Available formats


This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence: Adebayo Musediku Shittu Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm ManagementFederal University of AgricultureAbeokuta ■ P.M.B. 2240Abeokuta ■ Ogun StateNigeria. Phone: +2348058871650, Email:


Hide All
Alfnes, F., Guttormsen, A., Steine, G., and Kolstad, K.. 2006. Consumers' Willingness to Pay for the Color of Salmon: A Choice Experiment with Real Economic Incentives. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 88(4): 10501061.
Akerele, D., Shittu, A.M., Ogunmola, O.O., Adekanmbi, A.A., and Adekunle, C.P.. 2017. “Do Household Idiosyncratic and Farm Characteristics Influence Movers and Stayers?Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 94(2): 185199.
Arslan, A., Cavatassi, R., Alfani, F., Mccarthy, N., Lipper, L., and Kokwe, M.. 2017. “Diversification Under Climate Variability as Part of a CSA Strategy in Rural Zambia.” The Journal of Development Studies 54(3): 124.
Asfaw, S., McCarthy, N., Lipper, L., Arslan, A., Cattaneo, A., and Kachulu, M.. 2014. “Climate Variability, Adaptation Strategies and Food Security in Malawi.” ESA Working Paper No. 14-08. FAO, Rome.
Asrat, S., Yesuf, M., Carlsson, F., and Wale, E.. 2009. “Farmers’ Preferences for Crop Variety Traits: Lessons for On-Farm Conservation and Technology Adoption.” Ecological Economics 69(12): 23942401.
Barrientos, A. 2012. “Social Transfers and Growth: What Do We Know? What Do We Need to Find Out?World Development 40(1): 1120.
Brabant, P. 2008. “A global land degradation assessment and mapping method: A standard guideline proposal.” Les Dossiers Thématiques du CSFD. 8(64). Montpelier, France: Comité Scientifique Français de la Désertification Agropolis International.
Branca, G., Lipper, L., McCarthy, N., and Jolejole, M.C.. 2013. Food security, climate change, and sustainable land management: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 33(4): 635650.
Casey, J.F., Kahna, J.R., and Rivasb, A.A.F.. 2008. “Willingness to Accept Compensation for the Environmental Risks of Oil Transport on the Amazon: A Choice Modeling Experiment.” Ecological Economics 67(4): 552559.
de Bekker-Grob, E.W., Donkers, B., Jonker, M.F., and Stolk, E.A.. 2015. “Sample Size Requirements for Discrete-Choice Experiments in Healthcare: A Practical Guide.” The Patient – Patient-Centered Outcomes Research 8(5): 373384.
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 2010. Climate-Smart Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing for Food Security, Adaptation and Mitigation. Rome: FAO.
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 2013. Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Rome, FAO. Available at
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 2016. Save and Grow in Practice Maize Rice Wheat: A Guide to Sustainable Cereal Production. Rome, FAO.
Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.G., and Buchner, A.. 2007. “G*Power 3: A Flexible Statistical Power Analysis Program for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences.” Behavior Research Methods 39(2): 175191.
Greene, W.H. 2003. Econometric Analysis (5th ed.) New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Hanemann, W.M., Loomis, J.B., and Kanninen, B.. 1991. “Statistical Efficiency of Double Bounded Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 73(4): 12551263.
Hauser, S., and Norgrove, L.. 2013. “Slash-and-Burn Agriculture, Effects of.” In Levin, S.A., ed., Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (2nd ed.). Waltham: Academic Press, 551562. Available at
Hjelmgren, J., and Anell, A.. 2007. “Population Preferences and Choice of Primary Care Models: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Sweden.” Health Policy 83(2–3): 314322.
Hole, A.R. 2007a. “Fitting Mixed Logit Models by Using Maximum Simulated Likelihood.” Stata Journal 7(14): 388401.
Hole, A.R. 2007b. “A Comparison of Approaches to Estimating Confidence Intervals for Willingness to Pay Measures.” Health Economics 16(8): 827840. Available at
Honohan, P., and King, M.. 2009. “Cause and Effect of Financial Access: Cross-Country Evidence from the FinScope Surveys.” In Cull, R., Demirgüç-Kunt, A., and Morduch, J., eds. Banking the World: Empirical Foundations of Financial Inclusion, 4584. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007. Synthesis Report: Summary for Policymakers. Geneva: IPCC. Available at
Khatri-Chhetri, A., Aggarwal, P.K., Joshi, P.K., and Vyas, S.. 2017. “Farmers’ Prioritization of Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) Technologies.” Agricultural Systems 151: 84191.
Kiage, L.M. 2013. “Perspectives on the Assumed Causes of Land Degradation in the Rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa.” Progress in Physical Geography 37(5): 664684.
Kjaer, T. 2005. A Review of the Discrete Choice Experiment—with Emphasis on its Application in Health Care. Health Economics, Odense: University of Southern Denmark.
Kleinman, P.J.A., Pimentel, D., and Bryant, R.B.. 1995. “The Ecological Sustainability of Slash-and-Burn Agriculture.” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 52(2–3): 235249. Available at
Kosoy, N., Martinez-Tuna, M., Muradian, R., and Martinez-Alier, J.. 2007. “Payments for Environmental Services in Watersheds: Insights from a Comparison Study of Three Cases in Central America.” Ecological Economics 61(2–3): 446455.
Lal, R. 2001. “Soil Degradation by Erosion.” Land Degradation and Development 4(12a): 519539.
Lancaster, K.J. 1966. “A New Approach to Consumer Theory.” The Journal of Political Economy 74(2): 132157.
Laws of the Federation of Nigeria. 2004. Land Use Act, Chapter 5, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria. Available at
Le, B.L., Tamene, L., and Vlek, P.L.G.. 2012. “Multi-Pronged Assessment of Land Degradation in West Africa to Assess the Importance of Atmospheric Fertilization in Masking the Processes Involved.” Global and Planetary Change 92–93(2012): 7181.
Lobell, D.B., Burke, M.B., and Tebaldi, C.. 2008. “Prioritizing Climate Change Adaptation Needs for Food Security in 2030.” Science 319(5863): 607610.
Luce, R.D. 1959. Individual Choice Behavior: A Theoretical Analysis. New York: Wiley.
McCarthy, N., and Brubaker, J.. 2014. Climate-Smart Agriculture & Resource Tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Conceptual Framework. Rome. Available at
McFadden, D. 1974. “Conditional Logit Analysis of Qualitative Choice Behavior in Frontiers in Econometrics.” In Zarembka, P., ed., New York: Academic Press, 105–142.
McFadden, D., and Train, 2000. “Mixed MNL Models of Discrete Response.” Journal of Applied Economics 15(5): 447470.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Muchena, F.N. 2008. Indicators for Sustainable Land Management in Kenya's Context: GEF Land Degradation Focal Area Indicators. Nairobi: ETC—East Africa.
Nana-Sinkam, S. 1995. “Food Self-Sufficiency as a Strategic Option for Africa.” In Onimode, B. and Synge, R., eds., Issues in African Development: Essays in Honour of Adebayo Adedeji at 65. Igbo Life and Culture Series 1. Oyo, Nigeria: Heinemann Educational Books (Nigeria) Plc and African Centre for Development and Strategic Studies.
Nguyen, N.V. 2011. Sustainable Intensification of Rice Production for Food Security in the Near Future—A Summary Report. Rome: FAO. Available at
Nyongesa, J.M., Bett, H.K., Lagat, J.K., and Ayuya, O.I.. 2016. “Estimating Farmers’ Stated Willingness to Accept Pay for Ecosystem Services: Case of Lake Naivasha Watershed Payment for Ecosystem Services Scheme-Kenya.” Ecological Processes 5(15): 115.
Obayelu, A.E., Okuneye, P.A., Shittu, A.M., Afolami, C.A., and Dipeolu, A.O.. 2016. “Determinants and the Perceived Effects of Adoption of Selected Improved Food Crop Technologies by Smallholder Farmers Along the Value Chain in Nigeria.” Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development, 110(1): 155172.
Pagiola, S., Ramírez, E., Gobbi, J., Haan, C., Ibrahim, M., Murgueitio, E., and Ruíz, J.P.. 2007. “Paying for the Environmental Services of Silvopastoral Practices in Nicaragua.” Ecological Economics 64(2007): 374385.
Philip, D., Nkoya, E., Pender, J., and Oni, O.A.. 2009. Constraints to Increasing Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria: A Review. Nigeria Strategy Support Program Background Paper 6. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC. Available at
Reynolds, J.F., Smith, D.M.S., Lambin, E.F., Turner, B.L. II, Mortimore, M., Batterbury, S.P.J., Downing, T.E., Dowlatabadi, H., Fernandez, R.J., Herrick, J.E., Huber-Sannwald, E., Jiang, H., Leemans, R., Lynam, T., Maestre, F.T., Ayarza, M., and Walker, B.. 2007. “Global Desertification: Building a Science for Dryland Development.” Science 316(5826): 847851.
Sachs, J., McArthur, J.W., Schmidt-Traub, G., Kruk, M., Bahadur, C., Faye, M., and McCord, G.. 2004. Ending Africa's Poverty Trap. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2004(1).
Stern, N. (2007). The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schulz, N., Breustedt, G., and Latacz-Lohmann, U.. 2014. “Assessing Farmers’ WTA Greening: Insights from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Germany.” Journal of Agricultural Economics 65(1): 2648.
St Clair, S.B., and Lynch, J.P.. 2010. “The Opening of Pandora's Box: Climate Change Impacts on Soil Fertility and Crop Nutrition in Developing Countries.” Plant and Soil 335(1): 101115.
Train, K. 1998. “Recreation Demand Models with Taste Differences Over People.” Land Economics 74(2): 230239.
Train, K. 2003. Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation. UK: Cambridge University Press.
World Bank and ECOFYS. 2016. Carbon Pricing Watch 2016. (May), Washington, DC.
World Meteorological Organization 2005. Climate and Land Degradation. WMO-No. 989. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization.
Zander, K.K., Parkes, R., Straton, A., and Garnett, S.T.. 2013. “Water Ecosystem Services in Northern Australia—How Much Are They Worth and Who Should Pay for Their Provision?PLoS ONE 8(5): e64411.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed