Ablett, JR and Jones, R (2007) Resilience and well-being in palliative care staff. Psycho-Oncology 16, 733–740.
Abrahamson, K, Suitor, J and Pillemer, K (2009) Conflict between nursing home staff and residents’ families: does it increase burnout? Journal of Aging and Health 21, 895–912.
Anseel, F, Lievens, F, Schollaert, E and Choragwicka, B (2010) Response rates in organizational science, 1995–2008: a meta-analytic review and guidelines for survey researchers. Journal of Business and Psychology 25, 335–349.
Astrom, S, Nilsson, M, Norberg, A, Sandman, PO and Winblad, B (1991) Staff burnout in dementia care – relations to empathy and attitudes. International Journal of Nursing Studies 28, 65–75.
Baird, K and Kracen, AC (2006) Vicarious traumatization and secondary traumatic stress: a research synthesis. Counselling Psychology Quarterly 19, 181–188.
Bandura, A (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Beck, CT (2011) Secondary traumatic stress in nurses: a systematic review. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 25, 1–10.
Bowers, BJ, Esmond, S and Jacobson, N (2000) The relationship between staffing and quality in long-term care facilities: exploring the views of nurse aides. Journal of Nursing Care Quality 14, 55–64.
Brännström, M and Boman, K (2014) Effects of person-centred and integrated chronic heart failure and palliative home care. PREFER: a randomized controlled study. European Journal of Heart Failure 16, 1142–1151.
Brownie, S and Nancarrow, S (2013) Effects of person-centered care on residents and staff in aged-care facilities: a systematic review. Clinical Interventions in Aging 8, 1–10.
Caspar, S and O'Rourke, N (2008) The influence of care provider access to structural empowerment on individualized care in long-term-care facilities. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences 63B, 255–265.
Chenoweth, L, King, MT, Jeon, YH, Brodaty, H, Stein-Parbury, J, Norman, R, Haas, M and Luscombe, (2009) Caring for Aged Dementia Care Resident Study (CADRES) of person-centred care, dementia-care mapping, and usual care in dementia: a cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet Neurology 8, 317–325.
Costello, J (2006) Dying well: nurses’ experiences of ‘good and bad’ deaths in hospital. Journal of Advanced Nursing 54, 594–601.
Cott, C (1997) We decide, you carry it out: a social network analysis of multidisciplinary long-term care teams. Social Science & Medicine 45, 1411–1121.
Daly, T and Szebehely, M (2012) Unheard voices, unmapped terrain: care work in long-term residential care for older people in Canada and Sweden. International Journal of Social Welfare 21, 139–148.
Dellefield, ME, Harrington, C and Kelly, A (2012) Observing how RNs use clinical time in a nursing home: a pilot study. Geriatric Nursing 33, 256–263.
Desbiens, JF and Fillion, L (2011) Development of the Palliative Care Nursing Self-competence Scale. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing 13, 230–241.
Desbiens, JF, Gagnon, J and Fillion, L (2012) Development of a shared theory in palliative care to enhance nursing competence. Journal of Advanced Nursing 68, 2113–2124.
Devilly, GJ, Wright, R and Varker, T (2009) Vicarious trauma, secondary traumatic stress or simply burnout? Effect of trauma therapy on mental health professionals. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 43, 373–385.
Dillman, DA (1978) Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method, Vol. 19. New York, NY: Wiley.
Dobrina, R, Tenze, M and Palese, A (2014) An overview of hospice and palliative care nursing models and theories. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 20, 75–81.
Eaton, S (2001) What a difference management makes! Nursing staff turnover variation within a single labor market. In Feurberg, M (ed.), Appropriateness of Minimum Nurse Staffing Ratios in Nursing Homes, Report to Congress: Phase II Final Report (Chapter 5). Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).
Edelwich, J and Brodsky, A (1980) Burnout: Stages of Disillusionment in the Helping Professions. New York, NY: Human Services Press.
Eldh, AC, Zijpp, T, McMullan, C, McCormack, B, Seers, K and Rycroft-Malone, J (2016) ‘I have the world's best job’ – staff experience of the advantages of caring for older people. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 30, 365–373.
Elwood, LS, Mott, J, Lohr, JM and Galovski, TE (2011) Secondary trauma symptoms in clinicians: a critical review of the construct, specificity, and implications for trauma-focused treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 31, 25–36.
Ewing, G, Austin, L, Diffin, J and Grande, G (2015) Developing a person-centred approach to carer assessment and support. British Journal of Community Nursing 20, 580–584.
Fillion, L, Tremblay, I, Truchon, M, Côté, D, Struthers, CW and Dupuis, R (2007) Job satisfaction and emotional distress among nurses providing palliative care. International Journal of Stress Management 14, 1–25.
Frampton, SB, Guastello, S and Lepore, M (2013) Compassion as the foundation of patient-centered care: the importance of compassion in action. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research 2, 443–455.
Frey, R, Boyd, M, Foster, S, Robinson, J and Gott, M (2015) Burnout matters: the impact on residential aged care staffs’ willingness to undertake formal palliative care training. Progress in Palliative Care 23, 68–74.
Fry, M, MacGregor, C, Hyland, S, Payne, B and Chenoweth, L (2015) Emergency nurses’ perceptions of the role of confidence, self-efficacy and reflexivity in managing the cognitively impaired older person in pain. Journal of Clinical Nursing 24, 1622–1629.
Fuchs-Lacelle, S, Hadjistavropoulos, T and Lix, L (2008) Pain assessment as intervention: a study of older adults with severe dementia. Clinical Journal of Pain 24, 697–707.
Gruneir, A, Bell, CM, Bronskill, SE, Schull, M, Anderson, GM and Rochon, PA (2010) Frequency and pattern of emergency department visits by long-term care residents – a population-based study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 58, 510–517.
Gunnarsdottir, S, Clarke, S, Rafferty, A and Nutbeam, D (2007) Front-line management, staffing and nurse–doctor relationships as predictors of nurse and patient outcomes. A survey of Icelandic hospital nurses. International Journal of Nursing Studies 1, 1–9.
Harahan, M, Kiefer, K, Johnson, A, Guiliano, J, Bowers, B and Stone, R (2003) Addressing Shortages in the Direct Care Workforce: The Recruitment and Retention Practices of California's Not-for-profit Nursing Homes, Continuing Care Retirement Communities and Assisted Living Facilities. Washington, DC: IFAS.
Hare, J and Pratt, CC (1988) Burnout: differences between professional and paraprofessional nursing staff in acute care and long-term care health facilities. Journal of Applied Gerontology 7, 60–72.
Higginson, IJ (1999) Evidence based palliative care: there is some evidence – and there needs to be more. BMJ: British Medical Journal 319, 462–463.
Hunter, PV, Hadjistavropoulos, T, Smythe, WE, Malloy, DC, Kaasalainen, S and Williams, J (2013) The Personhood in Dementia Questionnaire (PDQ): establishing an association between beliefs about personhood and health providers’ approaches to person-centred care. Journal of Aging Studies 27, 276–287.
Hunter, PV, Hadjistavropoulos, T and Kaasalainen, S (2016 a) A qualitative study of nursing assistants’ awareness of person-centred approaches to dementia care. Ageing & Society 36, 1211–1237.
Hunter, PV, Hadjistavropoulos, T, Thorpe, L, Lix, LM and Malloy, DC (2016 b) The influence of individual and organizational factors on person-centred dementia care. Aging & Mental Health 20, 700–708.
Jayaraman, J and Joseph, KS (2013) Determinants of place of death: a population-based retrospective cohort study. BMC Palliative Care 12, 1–9.
Jenkins, H and Allen, C (1998) The relationship between staff burnout/distress and interactions with residents in two residential homes for older people. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 13, 466–472.
Jeon, YH, Luscombe, G, Chenoweth, L, Stein-Parbury, J, Brodaty, H, King, M and Haas, M (2012) Staff outcomes from the Caring for Aged Dementia Care Resident Study (CADRES): a cluster randomised trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49, 508–518.
Kaasalainen, S, Brazil, K and Kelley, ML (2014) Building capacity in palliative care for personal support workers in long-term care through experiential learning. International Journal of Older People Nursing 9, 151–158.
Kaasalainen, S, Brazil, K, Ploeg, J and Martin, LS (2007) Nurses’ perceptions around providing palliative care for long-term care residents with dementia. Journal of Palliative Care 23, 173–180.
Kaasalainen, S, Sussman, T, Bui, M, Akhtar-Danesh, N, Laporte, RD, McCleary, L, Griffiths, AW, Brazil, K, Parker, D, Dal Bello-Haas, V and Papaioannou, A (2017) What are the differences among occupational groups related to their palliative care-specific educational needs and intensity of interprofessional collaboration in long-term care homes? BMC Palliative Care 16, 33–41.
Kelley, ML and McKee, M (2013) Capacity development in participatory action research. In Hockley, J, Froggatt, K and Heimerl, K (eds), Participatory Research in Palliative Care: Actions and Reflections. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 40–52.
Kennedy, BR (2005) Stress and burnout of nursing staff working with geriatric clients in long-term care. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 37, 381–382.
Kitwood, T (1997) Dementia Reconsidered: The Person Comes First. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.
Lazenby, M, Ercolano, E, Schulman-Green, D and McCorkle, R (2012) Validity of the end-of-life professional caregiver survey to assess for multidisciplinary educational needs. Journal of Palliative Medicine 15, 427–431.
Lehuluante, A, Nilsson, A and Edvardsson, D (2012) The influence of a person-centred psychosocial unit climate on satisfaction with care and work. Journal of Nursing Management 20, 319–325.
Lopez, SH (2006) Culture change management in long-term care: a shop floor view. Politics & Society 34, 1, 55–79.
Mallidou, AA, Cummings, GG, Schalm, C and Estabrooks, CA (2013) Health care aides use of time in a residential long-term care unit: a time and motion study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 50, 1229–1239.
Manojlovich, M (2005 a) Promoting nurses’ self-efficacy: a leadership strategy to improve practice. Journal of Nursing Administration 35, 271–278.
Manojlovich, M (2005 b) Predictors of professional nursing practice behaviors in hospital settings. Nursing Research 54, 41–47.
Manojlovich, M (2005 c) The effect of nursing leadership on hospital nurses' professional practice behaviors. Journal of Nursing Administration 35, 366–374.
Manojlovich, M and Laschinger, H (2007) The nursing worklife model: extending and refining a new theory. Journal of Nursing Management 15, 256–263.
Martins Pereira, S, Fonseca, AM and Sofia Carvalho, A (2011) Burnout in palliative care: a systematic review. Nursing Ethics 18, 317–326.
Maslach, C (1976) Burned-out. Human Behavior 5, 16–22.
Maslach, C, Schaufeli, WB and Leiter, MP (2001) Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology 52, 397–422.
McCormack, B, Dewing, J, Breslin, L, Coyne-Nevin, A, Kennedy, K, Manning, M, Peelo-Kilroe, L, Tobin, C and Slater, P (2010) Developing person-centred practice: nursing outcomes arising from changes to the care environment in residential settings for older people. International Journal of Older People Nursing 5, 93–107.
Meier, DE, Back, AL and Morrison, RS (2001) The inner life of physicians and care of the seriously ill. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 28, 3007–3014.
Mitchell, SL, Kiely, DK and Hamel, MB (2004) Dying with advanced dementia in the nursing home. Archives of Internal Medicine 164, 321–326.
Moir, C, Roberts, R, Martz, K, Perry, J and Tivis, LJ (2015) Communicating with patients and their families about palliative and end of life: comfort and educational needs of staff RNs. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 21, 109–112.
Morgan, DG, Crossley, MF, Stewart, NJ, D'Arcy, C, Forbes, DA, Normand, SA and Cammer, AL (2008) Taking the hit: focusing on caregiver ‘error’ masks organizational-level risk factors for nursing aide assault. Qualitative Health Research 18, 334–346.
Murray, SA, Kendall, M, Boyd, K and Sheikh, A (2005) Illness trajectories and palliative care. BMJ: British Medical Journal 330, 1007–1111.
Ngo, A and Murphy, S (2005) A theory-based intervention to improve nurses’ knowledge, self-efficacy, and skills to reduce PICC occlusion. Journal of Infusion Nursing 28, 173–181.
Nolan, M, Nolan, J and Grant, G (1994) Maintaining nurses’ job satisfaction and morale. British Journal of Nursing 4, 1149–1154.
O'Brien, VA (2012) Person Centred Palliative Care: A First Nations Perspective (Doctoral dissertation). McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
Opie, J, Doyle, C and O'Connor, DW (2002) Challenging behaviours in nursing home residents with dementia: a randomized controlled trial of multidisciplinary interventions. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 17, 6–13.
Pan, JL, Chochinov, H, Thompson, G and McClement, S (2016) The TIME Questionnaire: a tool for eliciting personhood and enhancing dignity in nursing homes. Geriatric Nursing 37, 273–277.
Perez, GK, Haime, V, Jackson, V, Chittenden, E, Mehta, DH and Park, ER (2015) Promoting resiliency among palliative care clinicians: stressors, coping strategies, and training needs. Journal of Palliative Medicine 18, 332–337.
Pfister, D, Markett, S, Müller, M, Müller, S, Grützner, F, Rolke, R, Kern, M, Schmidt-Wolf, G and Radbruch, L (2013) German nursing home professionals’ knowledge and specific self-efficacy related to palliative care. Journal of Palliative Medicine 16, 794–798.
Phillips, J, Davidson, PM, Jackson, D, Kristjanson, L, Daly, J and Curran, J (2006) Residential aged care: the last frontier for palliative care. Journal of Advanced Nursing 55, 416–424.
Phillips, J, Salamonson, Y and Davidson, PM (2011) An instrument to assess nurses’ and care assistants’ self-efficacy to provide a palliative approach to older people in residential aged care: a validation study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 48, 1096–1100.
Qian, SY, Yu, P, Zhang, ZY, Hailey, DM, Davy, PJ and Nelson, MI (2012) The work pattern of personal care workers in two Australian nursing homes: a time-motion study. BMC Health Services Research 12, 305–313.
Quinal, L, Harford, S and Rutledge, DN (2009) Secondary traumatic stress in oncology staff. Cancer Nursing 32, 1–7.
Ramirez, A, Addington-Hall, J and Richards, M (1998) ABC of palliative care. The carers. BMJ: British Medical Journal 316, 208–211.
Ribbe, MW, Ljunggren, G, Steel, K, Topinkova, E, Hawes, C, Ikegami, N, Henrard, JC and Johnson, PV (1997) Nursing homes in 10 nations: a comparison between countries and settings. Age & Ageing 26, 3–12.
Shinan-Altman, S and Cohen, M (2009) Nursing aides’ attitudes to elder abuse in nursing homes: the effect of work stressors and burnout. The Gerontologist 49, 674–684.
Simons, K, An, S and Bonifas, R (2016) Professional and practice characteristics associated with self-efficacy in assessment and intervention among social workers in aging. Social Work in Health Care 55, 362–380.
Sinclair, S (2011) Impact of death and dying on the personal lives and practices of palliative and hospice care professionals. Canadian Medical Association Journal 183, 180–187.
Sinclair, S, Norris, JM, McConnell, SJ, Chochinov, HM, Hack, TF, Hagen, NA, McClement, S and Bouchal, SR (2016) Compassion: a scoping review of the healthcare literature. BMC Palliative Care 15, 6.
Smolen-Hetzel, AC (2010) Geropsychiatric Nursing Staff: The Role of Empowerment, Geriatric Caregiving Self-efficacy, and Emotional Labor at Work. Richmond, VA: Virginia Commonwealth University.
Spreitzer, GM, Lam, CF and Fritz, C (2010) Engagement and human thriving: complementary perspectives on energy and connections to work. In Bakker, AB and Leiter, MP (eds), Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research. London: Routledge, pp. 132–146.
Stajkovic, AD and Luthans, F (1998) Self-efficacy and work-related performance: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 124, 240–261.
Stamm, BH (2002) Measuring compassion satisfaction as well as fatigue: developmental history of the compassion satisfaction and fatigue test. In Figley, CR (ed.), Treating Compassion Fatigue (Psychosocial Stress Series No. 24). New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge, pp. 107–122.
Sussman, T, Kaasalainen, S, Mintzberg, S, Sinclair, S, Young, L, Ploeg, J, Guérin-Bourgois, V, Thompson, G, Ventura, L, Earl, M, Strachan, P, You, J, Bonifas, R and McKee, M (2017) Broadening end-of-life comfort to improve palliative care practices in LTC. Canadian Journal on Aging 36, 306–317.
Thompson, GN, McArthur, J and Doupe, M (2016) Identifying markers of dignity-conserving care in long-term care: a modified Delphi study. PLOS ONE 11, 1–14.
Todd, SJ and Watts, SC (2005) Staff responses to challenging behaviour shown by people with dementia: an application of an attributional-emotional model of helping behaviour. Aging & Mental Health 9, 71–81.
Vachon, ML (1995) Staff stress in hospice/palliative care: a review. Palliative Medicine 9, 91–122.
Vachon, ML (1998) Caring for the caregiver in oncology and palliative care. Seminars in Oncology Nursing 14, 152–157.
van der Eerden, M, Hughes, S, Varey, S, Ewert, B, Schwabe, S, Busa, C, Kiss, Z, Van Beek, K, van Ende, S, Csikos, A, Hasselaar, J and Groot, M (2016) Person-centred palliative care in five European countries: the experiences of patients and family carers. International Journal of Integrated Care 16, A162.
van der Steen, JT, Radbruch, L, Hertogh, CM, de Boer, ME, Hughes, JC, Larkin, P, Francke, AL, Jünger, S, Gove, D, Firth, P and Koopmans, RT (2014) White paper defining optimal palliative care in older people with dementia: a Delphi study and recommendations from the European Association for Palliative Care. Palliative Medicine 28, 197–209.
Venturato, L and Drew, L (2010) Beyond ‘doing’: supporting clinical leadership and nursing practice in aged care through innovative models of care. Contemporary Nurse 35, 157–170.
Vis, JA, Ramsbottom, K, Marcella, J, McAnulty, J, Kelley, ML, Kortes-Miller, K and Jones-Bonofiglio, K (2016) Developing and implementing peer-led intervention to support staff in long-term care homes manage grief. Sage Open 6, 1–10.
Wakefield, A (2000) Nurses’ responses to death and dying: a need for relentless self-care. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 6, 245–251.
Westermann, C, Kozak, A, Harling, M and Nienhaus, A (2014) Burnout intervention studies for inpatient elderly care nursing staff: systematic literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies 51, 63–71.
White, DL, Newton-Curtis, L and Lyons, KS (2008) Development and initial testing of a measure of person-directed care. The Gerontologist 48, 114–123.
Wickson-Griffiths, A, Kaasalainen, S, Brazil, K, McAiney, C, Crawshaw, D, Turner, M and Kelley, ML (2014) Comfort care rounds: a staff capacity-building initiative in long-term care homes. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 41, 42–48.
Woodhead, EL, Northrop, L and Edelstein, B (2016) Stress, social support, and burnout among long-term care nursing staff. Journal of Applied Gerontology 35, 84–105.
Zimmerman, S, Williams, CS, Reed, PS, Boustani, M, Preisser, JS, Heck, E and Sloane, PD (2005) Attitudes, stress, and satisfaction of staff who care for residents with dementia. The Gerontologist 45, 96–105.