Alley, D., Liebig, P., Pynoos, J., Banerjee, T. and Choi, I. H. 2007. Creating elder-friendly communities: preparing for an aging society. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 49, 1/2, 1–18.
Bronfenbrenner, U. 1994. Ecological models of human development. In Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, T. (eds), International Encyclopedia of Education. Volume 3, second edition, Elsevier Science, New York, 1643–7.
Butler-Jones, D. 2010. The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on the State of Public Health in Canada, 2010: Growing Older – Adding Life to Years. Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa.
Dandy, K. and Bollman, R. D. 2008. Seniors in rural Canada. Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin, 7, 8, 1–56.
Dannenberg, A. L., Jackson, R. J., Frumkin, H., Schieber, R. A., Pratt, M., Kochtitzky, C. and Tilson, H. H. 2003. The impact of community design and land-use choices on public health: a scientific research agenda. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 9, 1500–8.
Denton, M., Ploeg, J., Tindale, J., Hutchison, B., Brazil, K., Akhtar-Danesh, N., Quinlan, M., Lillie, J., Millen Plenderleith, L. and Boos, L. 2008. Where would you turn for help? Older adults’ awareness of community support services. Canadian Journal on Aging, 27, 4, 359–70.
Ding, D. and Gebel, K. 2012. Built environment, physical activity, and obesity: what have we learned from reviewing the literature? Health and Place, 18, 1, 100–5.
duPlessis, V., Beshiri, R. and Bollman, R. D. 2001. Definitions of rural. Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin, 3, 3, 1–17.
Estabrooks, P. A., Lee, R. E. and Gyurcsik, N. C. 2003. Resources for physical activity participation: does availability and accessibility differ by neighborhood socioeconomic status? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 2, 100–4.
Evans, R. G. and Stoddart, G. L. 1990. Producing health, consuming health care. Social Science & Medicine, 31, 12, 1347–63.
Federal, Provincial, Territorial Ministers Responsible for Seniors 2007. Age-Friendly Rural and Remote Communities: A Guide. Minister of Industry, Ottawa.
Feldman, P. H. and Oberlink, M. R. 2003. The AdvantAge Initiative: developing community indicators to promote the health and well-being of older people. Family and Community Health, 26, 4, 268–74.
Ford, G. 2008. Life after placement: experiences of older rural caregivers after placing a family member into residential care. Rural and Remote Health, 8, 3, 1030 (online).
Giles-Corti, B. and Donovan, R. J. 2002. Socioeconomic status differences in recreational physical activity levels and real and perceived access to a supportive physical environment. Preventive Medicine, 35, 6, 601–11.
Hanlon, N. and Halseth, G. 2005. The greying of resource communities in northern British Columbia: implications for health care delivery in already-underserviced communities. The Canadian Geographer, 49, 1, 1–24.
Hanlon, N., Halseth, G., Clasby, R. and Pow, V. 2007. The place embeddedness of social care: restructuring work and welfare in Mackenzie, BC. Health and Place, 13, 2, 466–81.
Hanson, D. and Emlet, C. A. 2006. Assessing a community's elder friendliness: a case example of the AdvantAge Initiative. Family and Community Health, 29, 4, 266–78.
Harris, G. 2004. Suburbia is no place to grow old. Ontario Planning Journal, 19, 3, 1–2.
Hillsdon, M., Panter, J., Foster, C. and Jones, A. 2007. Equitable access to exercise facilities. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32, 6, 506–8.
Kalton, G. and Kasprzyk, D. 1982. Imputing for missing survey responses. Proceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section. American Statistical Association, Washington DC, 22–31.
Kawachi, I. and Berkman, L. F. 2003. Neighborhoods and Health. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Lavergne, M. R. and Kephart, G. 2012. Examining variations in health within rural Canada. Rural and Remote Health, 12, 1848 (online).
Lawton, M. P. and Nahemow, L. 1973. Ecology and the aging process. In Eisdorfer, C. and Lawton, M. P. (eds), The Psychology of Aging and Adult Development. American Psychological Association, Washington DC, 619–74.
Lehning, A., Chun, Y. and Scharlach, A. 2007. Structural barriers to developing ‘aging-friendly’ communities. Public Policy and Aging Report, 17, 3, 15–20.
Liddle, J., Scharf, T., Bartlam, B., Bernard, M. and Sim, J. 2013. Exploring the age-friendliness of purpose-built retirement communities: evidence from England. Ageing & Society. Published online 17 June, doi:10.1017/S0144686X13000366.
Lui, C. W., Everingham, J. A., Warburton, J., Cuthill, M. and Bartlett, H. 2009. What makes a community age-friendly: a review of the international literature. Australasian Journal on Aging, 28, 3, 116–21.
McLeroy, K. R., Bibeau, D., Steckler, A. and Glanz, K. 1988. An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Education Behavior, 15, 4, 351–77.
McNiven, C., Puderer, H. and Janes, D. 2000. Census Metropolitan Area and Census Agglomeration Influenced Zones (MIZ): A Description of the Methodology. Catalogue number 92F0138MIE2000002, Statistics Canada, Ottawa.
Menec, V. H., Means, R., Keating, N., Parkhurst, G. and Eales, J. 2011. Conceptualizing age-friendly communities. Canadian Journal on Aging, 30, 3, 479–93.
Menec, V. H., Veselyuk, D., Blandford, A. A. and Nowicki, S. 2009. Availability of activity-related resources in senior apartments: does it differ by neighbourhood socio-economic status? Ageing & Society, 29, 3, 397–411.
Miller, G., Harris, G. and Ferguson, I. 2006 a. Mobility under attack – are older Canadians ready to live without their cars? Ontario Planning Journal, 21, 4, 3–7.
Miller, G., Harris, G. and Ferguson, I. 2006 b. Bracing for the demographic tsunami – can Canada's seniors escape un-pleasantville? Ontario Planning Journal, 21, 6, 1–3.
Novek, S. and Menec, V. H. 2013. Older adults’ perceptions of age-friendly communities in Canada: a photovoice study. Ageing & Society. Published online 21 February, doi:10.1017/S0144686X1200150X.
Plouffe, L. A. and Kalache, A. 2010. Towards global age-friendly cities: determining urban features that promote active aging. Journal of Urban Health, 87, 5, 733–9.
Plouffe, L. A. and Kalache, A. 2011. Making communities age friendly: state and municipal initiatives in Canada and other countries. Gaceta Sanitaria, 25, supplement 2, 131–7.
Powell, L. M., Slater, S., Chaloupka, F. J. and Harper, D. 2006. Availability of physical activity-related facilities and neighbourhood demographic and socioeconomic characteristics: a national study. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 9, 1676–80.
Propper, C., Jones, K., Bolster, A., Burgess, S., Johnston, R. and Sarker, R. 2005. Local neighborhood and mental health: evidence from the UK. Social Science and Medicine, 61, 10, 2065–83.
Raudenbush, S. W. and Bryk, A. S. 2002. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Second edition, Sage, Thousand Oaks, California.
Roeger, L. S., Reed, R. L. and Smith, B. P. 2010. Equity of access in the spatial distribution of GPs within an Australian metropolitan city. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 16, 4, 284–90.
Ross, N. A., Tremblay, S. and Graham, K. 2004. Neighbourhood influences on health in Montreal, Canada. Social Science and Medicine, 59, 7, 1485–94.
Rosso, A. L., Auchincloss, A. H. and Michael, Y. L. 2011. The urban built environment and mobility in older adults: a comprehensive review. Journal of Aging Research, 2011: 816106. doi:10.4061/2011/816106.
Ryser, L. and Halseth, G. 2012. Resolving mobility constraints impeding rural seniors’ access to regionalized services. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 24, 3, 328–44.
Saelens, B. E. and Handy, S. L. 2008. Built environment correlates of walking: a review. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40, 7, S550–66.
Sallis, J. E., Cervero, R. B., Ascher, W., Henderson, K. A., Kraft, M. K. and Kerr, J. 2006. An ecological approach to creating active living communities. Annual Review of Public Health, 27, 297–322.
Silver, D., Blustein, J. and Weitzman, B. C. 2012. Transportation to clinic: findings from a pilot clinic-based survey of low-income suburbanites. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 14, 2, 350–5.
Smith, R. J., Lehning, A. J. and Dunkle, R. E. 2013. Conceptualizing age-friendly community characteristics in a sample of urban elders: an exploratory factor analysis. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 56, 2, 90–111.
Southworth, M. 1997. Walkable suburbs? An evaluation of neotraditional communities at the urban edge. Journal of the American Planning Association, 63, 1, 28–44.
Spina, J. and Menec, V. H.What community characteristics help or hinder rural communities in becoming age-friendly? Perspectives from a Canadian prairie province. Journal of Applied Gerontology (in press).
Statistics Canada 2007. 2006 Census of Population. Catalogue number 97-551-XCB2006005, Statistics Canada, Ottawa.
Wilson, N. W., Couper, I. D., De Vries, E., Reid, S., Fish, T. and Marais, B. J. 2009. A critical review of interventions to redress the inequitable distribution of healthcare professionals to rural and remote areas. Rural and Remote Health, 9, 2, 1060 (online).
Winterton, R. and Warburton, J. 2011. Models of care for socially isolated older rural carers: barriers and implications. Rural and Remote Health, 11, 3, 1678 (online).
World Health Organization (WHO) 2002. Active Aging: A Policy Framework. Second United Nations World Assembly on Ageing, Madrid.
World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. Global Age-Friendly Cities: A Guide. WHO, Geneva.