Skip to main content Accessibility help

Manual landings in Category 3 conditions

  • A. D. Brown (a1) and D. J. Gurney (a1)


In the past, it has been generally accepted internationally that in order to land aircraft in runway visual ranges below 400 metres—ICAO Category 3 conditions—a fail operational automatic landing system is required. The Trident aircraft with its triplex system is of course an example of this philosophy. However, the overall system requirements for such operations were specified nearly a decade ago and considerable advances have been made since then on such aspects as understanding fog characteristics, avionic system design, visual aids and of course, airline experience of all-weather operations. Consequently, there is now a world-wide interest in trying to ease the system requirements without jeopardising safety, for example, by considering the use of less complex fail-passive autopilots. If feasible, this would allow existing suitably equipped aircraft to operate to lower minima and hopefully, widen the spectrum of aircraft capable of being equipped, with overall benefits in terms of increased regularity and hence revenue.



Hide All
1. Brown, A. D., Firmin, P. and Blackmore, J. H. A review of the flight and simulator trials being performed to in vestigate the feasibility of Category 3 operations using a fail passive autopilot. RAE Tech Memo FS 141, October 1977.
2. Brown, A. D. and Ginn, S. B. A pitch and roll stabilised airborne fogblind. RAE Tech Memo Avionics 138.
3. Penwill, J. C. and Packwood, R. J. Digitally generated outside world display of lighting pattern used in conjunction with an aircraft simulator. RAE Tech Memo FS 45 (1975).
4. Puffett, A. W. A proposed economical fog sensor con figuration for the estimation of slant visual range. RAE Tech Memo FS 233.
5. Penwill, J. C. A simulator study to examine the prob lems of manual landings in Category 3 conditions. RAE Tech Memo FS 149, December 1977.
6. Blackmore, J. H. A summary of performance measure ments made during flight trials to examine the use of the HS 748 (XW 750) for Category 3 operations. RAE Tech Memo (To be published).
7. Keating, R. F. A. A preliminary simulator investigation into the use of visual flare monitors to assist manual landings in poor visibility. RAE Tech Memo FS 111 (March 1977).
8. Agate, R. M. and Wilson, J. W. A simulator investigation of the performance of the pilot in low weather manual landings. HSA Ltd, Hatfield HSY/R/RES/AC-927, January 1977.
9. Newbery, R. R. Manual landings in fog. RAE Tech Report TR 74069.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed