Skip to main content Accessibility help

Integrated review of stealth technology and its role in airpower

  • G. A. Rao (a1) and S. P. Mahulikar (a1)


This paper discusses the evolution of airpower and the ever-increasing component of stealth technology in dictating warfare, based on the need felt in the literature to integrate and place them in the right perspective. Hence, the role of stealth aircraft and the dominance of all aspects of stealth technology, especially in recent conflicts, are reviewed. The integration of the fundamental aspects of stealth technology, through its classification, types of aircraft signatures: especially radar, infrared, and visual signatures, their sources of origin, modelling techniques, and methods of signature reduction are discussed. Due to the increasing importance of infrared signatures relative to radar signatures, infrared signatures are also closely examined and analysed. Hence, the lock-on and surveillance ranges of infrared detectors are compared. Future projections in stealth technology, especially based on the role of anti-stealth technologies, are also elaborated.



Hide All
1. Wilbur, C. Zeppelins of World War I, 1993, Barnes and Noble, New York.
2. McFarland, S.L. America's Pursuit of Precision Bombing 1910-1945, 1995, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.
3. Mark, A.L. and Hugh, P.L. The Cutting Edge: A Half Century of US Fighter Aircraft R&D, 1998, Rand Publications, California.
4. Torren, L.E. The Future of NATO's Tactical Air Doctrine, School of Advanced Air Power Studies, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, Graduation Thesis, 1996.
5. Ochmanck, D.A., Harshberger, E.R., Thaler, D.E. and Kent, A.G. To Find, and not to Yield-How Advances in Information and Firepower can Transform Theater Warfare, 1998, Rand Publications, California.
6. Hampton, W.T. The Quest For Air Dominance: F-22, Cost Versus Capability, 1998, Air Command and Staff College, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, Graduation Thesis.
7. Boatman, J. USA planned stealthy UAV to replace SR-71, 17 December 1994, Jane's Defence Weekly.
8. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, January 1986, Department of Defense, Washington DC.
9. David, R.M. Quest for a surgical strike: the United States Air Force and laser guided bombs, 1987, Air Force Systems Command Armament Division History Office, Eglin AFB, FL.
10. Mckenna, P. Placing steel on target, Airman Magazine, 1 October 1996, pp 1820.
11. Thomas, A.K. Surveying Gulf war airpower, Joint Force Quarterly, Autumn 1993, pp 2436.
12. Dornheim, M.A. F-l17A provides new freedom in attacking ground targets, Aviation and Space Technology, 14 May 1990, 132, pp 106109.
13. Toffler, H. and Toffler, A. War and Anti War, 1993 Warner Books, New York.
14. Hallion, P.R. Precision guided munitions and new era of warfare, 1997, APSC Working Paper-53, Air Power Studies Centre, Canberra.
15. Westhauser, T.C. Improving NATO's Interoperability Through U.S. Precision Weapons, 1988, School of Advanced Air Power Studies, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base Alabama, Graduation Thesis.
16. Canan, J.W. The Lessons of Kosovo, Aerospace America, June 2001, pp 2434.
17. Ball, R.E. The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis and Design, 1985, AIAA Education Series, New York.
18. Volpe, V. and Schiavone, J.M. Balancing design for survivability, AIAA 93-0982, 1993.
19. Pedlow, G.W. and Welzenbach, D.E. The CIA and the U-2 programme, 1954-1974, 1988, History Staff Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency.
20. Hines, R.N and Mavris, N.D. A parameter design environment for including signatures analysis in conceptual design, 2001, AIAA-2000-01-5564.
21. Aronstein, D.C., Hirshberg, M.J. and Piccirillo, A.C. Advanced Tactical Fighter to F-22 Raptor: Origins of the 21st Century Air Dominance Fighter, 1998, AIAA, Virginia.
22. Skolnik, I. M. Radar Applications, 1987, IEEE Press, New York.
23. Jay, F. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms, 1984, ANSI / IEEE Std 100-1984, IEEE Press, New York.
24. Knott, E.F. Radar observables. In Tactical Missile Aerodynamics: General Topics, Hemsch, M. (Ed), 1992, Vol 141, AIAA, Washington, DC.
25. Knott, E.F., Shaeffer, J.F. and Tuley, M.T. Radar Cross Section. 1993, Artech House, Boston.
26. Stadmore, H.A. Radar cross section fundamentals for the aircraft designer, 1979, AIAA 79-1818.
27. Edde, B. Radar, Principles, Technology, 1993, Applications, Prentice Hall ,New Jersey.
28. Howe, D. Introduction to the basic technology of stealth aircraft: Part 2 - Illumination By The Enemy (active considerations), ASME Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, January 1991, 113, (75), pp 8086.
29. Weisbeck, W. and Heidrich, E. Influence of antennas on the radar cross section of camouflaged aircraft, Radar 92, IEE conference publication no 365, 1992.
30. Aronstein, D.C. and Piccirillo, A.C. Have blue and The F-117A, Evolution Of The Stealth Fighter, 1997, AIAA, Virginia.
31. Vinoy, K.J. and Jha, R.M. Radar Absorbing Materials, 1996, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
32. Brown, S.A. Stealth came of age, Aerospace America, March 1990, 129, pp 1636.
33. Chrzanowski, E.J. Active Radar Electronic Countermeasures, 1990, Artech House Inc., Boston.
34. Regelson, E. Impact of IR devices on aircraft design trends, Astronautics & Aeronautics, August 1967, 5, pp 6064.
35. Thompson, J. and Birk, A.M. Design of infrared signature suppressor for the bell 205 (UH-1H) helicopter. Part I, 1999, Aerothermal Design, 7th CASI Propulsion Symposium.
36. Sully, P.R., Vandam, D., Bird, J. and Luisi, D. Development of a tactical helicopter infrared signature suppression (IRSS) System, 1996, AGARD-FVP Conference 9605-4-001, Paper 12.
37. Blake, B.H.L. Jane's Weapon System: 1988-89, 1988, Jane's Yearbooks, Surrey.
38. Varney, G.E. Infrared signature measurement techniques and simulation methods for aircraft survivability, 1979, AIAA-79-1186.
39. Mahulikar, S.P., Sane, S.K., Gaitonde, U.N. and Marathe, A.G. Numerical studies of infrared signature levels of complete aircraft, Aeronaut J, April 2001, 105, (1046), pp 185192.
40. Howe, D. Introduction to the basic technology of stealth aircraft: Part 1 - basic considerations and aircraft self-emitted signals (passive considerations), J Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, Transactions of ASME, January 1991, 113, (75), pp 7579.
41. Decher, R. Infrared emissions from turbofans with high aspect ratio nozzles, AIAA, JAircr, December 1981, 18,(12),pp 10251031.
42. Lefebvre, A.H. Gas Turbine Combustion, 1983, McGraw-Hill Series in Energy, Combustion and Environment, Hemisphere, Washington DC.
43. Hudson, R.D. Infrared System Engineering, 1969 Wiley, New York.
44. Capone, F.J. The nonaxisymmetric nozzle - it is for real, AIAA-79-1810, 1979
45. Spalding, D.B. Some Fundamentals of Combustion, Butterworths Scientific Publications, London, 1955.
46. Chu, W.C., Der, J. Jr. and Wun, W. Simple two dimensional-nozzle plume model for infrared analysis, AIAA J Aircr, December 1981, 18, (12), pp 10381043.
47. DeMeis, R. Visual stealth, Aerospace America, July 1987, 25, pp 1215.
48. Palmdale, C. Northrop unveil B-2 next generation bomber, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 28 November 1988, 129, pp 2023.
49. Lerner, J.E. Tracking missiles with mosaic starers, Aerospace America, June 1986, 126, pp 5255.
50. Wheeler, J.G. Radar Fundamentals, 1967, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
51. Pruyn, R.R. and Windolf, W.G. Survivability trade-off considerations of future military observation helicopters, J American Heli Soc, April 1979, 24, (2), pp 49.
52. Willis, J.N. Bistatic Radar, 1991, Artech House, Boston.
53. Scott, W.B. UWB radar has potential to detect stealth aircraft, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 December 1989, 131, pp 3841.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Integrated review of stealth technology and its role in airpower

  • G. A. Rao (a1) and S. P. Mahulikar (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.