Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Improved aerostructural performance via aeroservoelastic tailoring of a composite wing

  • Eduardo P. Krupa (a1), Jonathan E. Cooper (a1), Alberto Pirrera (a1) and Raj Nangia (a1)

Abstract

This paper investigates the synergies and trade-offs between passive aeroelastic tailoring and adaptive aeroelastic deformation of a transport composite wing for fuel burn minimisation. This goal is achieved by optimising thickness and stiffness distributions of constitutive laminates, jig-twist shape and distributed control surface deflections through different segments of a nominal “cruise-climb” mission. Enhanced aerostructural efficiency is sought both passively and adaptively as a means of aerodynamic load redistribution, which, in turn, is used for manoeuvre load relief and minimum drag dissipation. Passive shape adaptation is obtained by embedding shear-extension and bend-twist couplings in the laminated wing skins. Adaptive camber changes are provided via full-span trailing-edge flaps. Optimised design solutions are found using a bi-level approach that integrates gradient-based and particle swarm optimisations in order to tailor structural properties at rib-bay level and retrieve blended stacking sequences. Performance benefits from the combination of passive aeroelastic tailoring with adaptive control devices are benchmarked in terms of fuel burn and a payload-range efficiency. It is shown that the aeroservoelastically tailored composite design allows for significant weight and fuel burn improvements when compared to a similar all-metallic wing. Additionally, the trailing-edge flap augmentation can extend the aircraft performance envelope and improve the overall cruise span efficiency to nearly optimal lift distributions.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
3. Kharina, A. and Rutherford, D. Fuel efficiency trends for new commercial jet aircraft: 1960 to 2014, International Council on Clean Transportation, August 2015, Washington, DC, US. Available from: http://www.theicct.org/.
4. IATA. IATA Technology Roadmap Report, 4th ed, June 2013.
5. Shirk, M., Hertz, T. and Weisshaar, T. Aeroelastic tailoring – Theory, practice, and promise, J Aircr, 1986, 23, (1), pp 6-18.
6. Weisshaar, T. Aeroelastic tailoring of forward swept composite wings, J Aircr, 1981, 18, (8), pp 669-676.
7. Jutte, C. and Stanford, B. Aeroelastic tailoring of transport aircraft wings: State-of-the-art and potential enabling technologies, NASA/TM-2014-218252, April 2014.
8. Stanford, B., Jutte, C. and Wieseman, C. Trim and structural optimization of subsonic transport wings using nonconventional aeroelastic tailoring, AIAA J, 2016, 54, (1), pp 293-309.
9. Jutte, C., Stanford, B., Wieseman, C. and Moore, J. Aeroelastic tailoring of the NASA common research model via novel material and structural configurations, 52nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA SciTech Forum, National Harbor, Maryland, US, AIAA 2014-0598.
10. Dillinger, J., Klimmek, T., Abdalla, M. and Gürdal, Z. Stiffness optimization of composite wings with aeroelastic constraints, J Aircr, 2013, 50, (4), pp 1159-1168.
11. Kennedy, G. and Martins, J. A comparison of metallic and composite aircraft wings using aerostructural design optimization, 12th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference and 14th AIAA/ISSM, 17–19 September 2012, Indianapolis, Indiana, US.
12. Kenway, G., Kennedy, G. and Martins, J. Aerostructural optimization of the common research model configuration, 15th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, AIAA AVIATION Forum, Atlanta, Georgia, US, AIAA 2014-3274.
13. Kenway, G. and Martins, J. Multipoint high-fidelity aerostructural optimization of a transport aircraft configuration, J Aircr, 2015, 51, (1), pp 144-160.
14. Martins, J., Kennedy, G. and Kenway, G. High aspect ratio wing design: Optimal aerostructural tradeoffs for the next generation of materials, 52nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA SciTech Forum, National Harbor, Maryland, US, AIAA 2014-0596.
15. Liem, R., Kenway, G. and Martins, J. Multimission aircraft fuel-burn minimization via multipoint aerostructural optimization, AIAA J, 2015, 53, (1), pp 104-122.
16. Stanford, B. and Jutte, C.V. Comparison of curvilinear stiffeners and tow steered composites for aeroelastic tailoring of aircraft wings, Computer & Structures, 2017, 183, pp 48-60.
17. Brooks, T., Kennedy, G. and Martins, J. High-fidelity multipoint aerostructural optimization of a high aspect ratio tow-steered composite wing, 58th AIAA/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, AIAA SciTech Forum, Grapevine, Texas, US, AIAA 2017-1350.
18. Stodiek, O., Cooper, J., Weaver, P. and Kealy, P. Aeroelastic tailoring of a representative wing-box using tow-steered composites, AIAA J, 2017, 55, (4), pp 1425-1439.
19. Stanford, B. and Dunning, P. Optimal topology of aircraft rib and spar structures under aeroelastic loads, J Aircr, 2015, 52, (4), pp 1298-1311.
20. Stanford, B. Aeroelastic wingbox stringer topology optimization, 18th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, AIAA AVIATION Forum, Denver, Colorado, US, AIAA 2017-3655.
21. Dunning, P., Stanford, B. and Kim, A. Level-set topology optimization with aeroelastic constraints, AIAA SciTech Conference, 56th Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 5–9 January 2015, Kissimmee, Florida, US, AIAA Paper 2015-1408.
22. Francois, G., Cooper, J. and Weaver, P. Aeroelastic tailoring using rib/spar orientations: Experimental investigation, AIAA SciTech Conference, 56th Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 5–9 January 2015, Kissimmee, Florida, US, AIAA Paper 2015-1408.
23. Zeiler, T. and Weisshaar, T. Integrated aeroservoelastic tailoring of lifting surfaces, J Aircr, 1988, 25, (1), pp 76-83.
24. Regan, C.D. and Jutte, C.V. Survey of applications of active control technology for gust alleviation and new challenges for lighter-weight aircraft, Technical report, TM-2012-216008, NASA.
25. Nguyen, N., Lebofsky, S., Ting, E., Kaul, U., Chaparro, D. and Urnes, J. Development of variable camber continuous trailing edge flap for performance adaptive aeroelastic wing, 2015, SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2565.
26. Stanford, B. Optimization of an aeroservoelastic wing with distributed multiple control surfaces, J Aircr, 2016, 53, (4), pp 1131-1144.
27. Stanford, B. Static and dynamic aeroelastic tailoring with variable-camber control, J Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 2016, 39, (11), pp 2522-2534.
28. Stanford, B. Optimal control surface layout for an aeroservoelastic wingbox, AIAA J, 2017, 55, (12), pp 4347-4356.
29. Vassberg, J., DeHaan, M., Rivers, S. and Wahls, R. Development of a common research model for applied CFD validation studies, 26th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 10–13 August 2008, Honolulu, Hawaii, US.
30. Kolonay, R. and Eastep, F. Optimal scheduling of control surfaces on flexible wings to reduce induced drag, J Aircr, 2006, 43, (6), pp 1655-1661.
31. Duke, D. and Weisshaar, T. Induced drag reduction using aeroelastic tailoring with adaptive control surfaces, J Aircr, 2006, 43, (1), pp 157-164.
32. Lyu, Z. and Martins, J. Aerodynamic shape optimization of an adaptive morphing trailing-edge wing, J Aircr, 2015, 52, (6), pp 1951-1970.
33. Rodriguez, D., Aftosmis, M., Nemec, M. and Anderson, G. Optimization of flexible wings with distributed flaps at off-design conditions, AIAA SciTech Conference, 56th Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 5–9 January 2015, Kissimmee, Florida, US, AIAA Paper 2015-1409.
34. Zhao, W. and Kapania, R. BLP optimization of composite flying-wings with sparibs and multiple control surfaces, 2018 AIAA/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, AIAA SciTech Forum, Kissimmee, Florida, US, AIAA 2018-2150.
35. Burdette, D., Kenway, G. and Martins, J. Performance evaluation of a morphing trailing edge using multipoint aerostructural design optimization, AIAA SciTech Conference, 57th Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 4–8 January 2016, San Diego, California, US, AIAA Paper 2016-0159.
36. Burdette, D., Kenway, G. and Martins, J. Aerostructural design optimization of a continuous morphing trailing edge aircraft for improved mission performance, 17th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimisation Conference, AIAA Aviation, 13–17 June 2016, Washington, DC, US.
37. Corke, T.C. Design of Aircraft, 2005, Pearson Education, Singapore.
38. Jones, R. Mechanics of Composite Materials, 1975, New McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, US.
39. Tsai, W., Halpin, C. and Pagano, J. Composite Materials Workshop, 1968, Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Stamford, Connecticut, US, 2018, pp 223-253.
40. Tsai, W. and Hahn, H. Introduction to Composite Materials, 1980, Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Stamford, Connecticut, US.
41. Bailie, J., Ley, R. and Pasricha, A. A summary and review of composite laminate design guidelines, Technical report NASA, NAS1-19347. Northrop Grumman-Military Aircraft Systems Division, 1997.
42. Bloomfield, M., Diaconu, C. and Weaver, P. On feasible regions of lamination parameters for lay-up optimisation of laminated composite structures, Proceedings of Royal Soc. A, 2009, 465, (2104), pp 1123-1143.
43. Liu, D., Toropov, V., Querin, M. and Barton, C. Bilevel optimisation of blended composite wing panels, J Aircr, 2011, 48, pp 107-118.
44. Abdalla, M., Kassapoglou, , , C. and Gurdal, Z. Formulation of composite laminate robustness constraint in lamination parameters space>, 50th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC/ Structures Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 4–7 May 2009, Palm Springs, California, US.
45. Nocedal, J. and Wright, S.J.. Numerical Optimization, 2nd ed. Springer Series in Operations Research, 2006, Springer Verlag.
46. Kreisselmeier, G. and Steinhauser, R. Systematic control design by optimizing a vector performance index, International Federation of Active Controls Symposium on Computer-Aided Design of Control Systems, 1979, Zurich, Switzerland.
47. Poon, N.M.K. and Martins, J.R.R.A. An adaptive approach to constraint aggregation using adjoint sensitivity analysis, Structures and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 2007, 34, (1), pp 61-73.
48. Irisarri, F., Lasseigne, A., Leroy, F. and Le Riche, R. Optimal design of laminated composite structures with ply drops using stacking sequence tables, Composite Structures, 2014, 107, (1), pp 559-569.
49. Adams, D., Watson, L., Gürdal, Z. and Anderson-Cook, C. Genetic algorithm optimization and blending of composite laminates by locally reducing laminate thickness, Advances in Engineering Software, 2004, 35, (1), pp 35-43.
50. Macquart, T., Werter, N. and De Breuker, R. Aeroelastic tailoring of blended composite structures using lamination parameters, 57th AIAA/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, San Diego, California, US, 2016, p 1966.
51. Bordogna, M.T., Macquart, T., Bettebghor, D. and De Breuker, R. Aeroelastic optimization of variable stiffness composite wing with blending constraints, 17th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Washington, DC, US, 2016, p. 4122.
52. Nangia, R. Efficiency parameters for modern commercial aircraft, The Aeronautical J, August 2006, 110, (1110), pp 495-510.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Improved aerostructural performance via aeroservoelastic tailoring of a composite wing

  • Eduardo P. Krupa (a1), Jonathan E. Cooper (a1), Alberto Pirrera (a1) and Raj Nangia (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.