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Minor amounts of rare-earth elements (0.01 to 1.0%) in high-purity rare-earth oxides may be determined by a fluorescent X-ray procedure. The analysis of high-purity yttrium, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, and samarium is described. Basic to the method is accurate determination of spectral line intensity above background. Sample and standard preparation, choice of analytical lines, and utilization of a helium path to increase X-ray intensities are discussed. Precision and accuracy were evaluated by analyzing samples of known composition. The average of five separate determinations showed an average error of about 10 per cent.