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X-Ray Diffraction Intensity of Oxife Soild Soultions: Application to Qualitative and Quantitative Phase Analysis

  • Ronald C. Gehringer (a1), Gregory J. McCarthy (a1), R.G. Garvey (a1) and Deane K. Smith (a2)


Solid solutions are pervasive in minerals and in industrial inorganic materials. The analyst is often called upon to provide qualitative and quantitative X-ray phase analysis for specimens containing solid solutions when all that is available are Powder Diffraction File (PDF) data or commercial standards for the end members. In an earlier paper (1) we presented several examples of substantial errors in accuracy of quantitative analysis that can arise when the crystallinity and composition of the analyte standard do not match those of the analyte in the sample of interest. We recommended that to obtain more accurate quantitative analyses, one should determine the analyte composition (e.g., from XRF on grains seen in a SEM or from comparison of cell parameters with those of the end members) and synthesize an analyte standard with this composition and with a crystallinity approximating that of the analyte (e.g., as determined from peak breadth or α1/ α2 splitting).



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1. McCarthy, G.J., Gehringer, R.C., Smith, D.K., Injaian, V.M., Pfoertsch, D.E. and Kabel, R.L., Adv. X-Ray Anal., 2A, Smith, D.K., Barrett, C., Leyden, D.E. and Predecki, P.K., Eds., Plenum Publ. Corp., pp. 253264 (1981).
2. Morris, M.C., McMurdie, H.F., Evans, E.H., Baretzkin, B., Parker, H.S. and Pyrros, N.C., National Bureau of Standards Monograp. 25, Section 18, p. 3 (1981).
3. Gehringer, R.C., Thesis, M.S., North Dakota State University (1983).
4. Klug, H.P. and Alexander, L.E., X-Ray Diffraction Procedures, 2nd Ed., Wiley Interscience, New”York (l974).
5. Cline, J.P. and Snyder, R.L., (this volume).
6. Hubbard, C.R., Robbins, C.R., and Snyder, R.L., (this volume).


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