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Sub-Kilovolt X-Ray Calibration of Photographic Film

  • Louis N. Koppel (a1)


The x-ray spectroscopy of laser-generated plasmas can be applied to photon energies of less than 1 keV, provided calibrations of the response of energy discriminators and detectors are performed in the sub-kilovolt region. In our application we use photographic film to monitor the intensity of radiation dispersed by a curved lead stearate crystal. We have determined the response to sub-kilovolt x-rays of two types of film, Kodak No-Screen and the special vacuum ultra-violet Kodak type 101-01. This calibration was obtained by exposing samples of film to continuous beams of nearly monochromatic characteristic radiation from an array of targets. The fluorescent radiations were the K series of carbon and magnesium and the L series of titanium, nickel, cobalt and copper. The response data are presented as a series of characteristic curves, plotting for each film type and photon energy the net diffuse photographic density as a function of the photon flux incident on the film. The processing of all film was in accordance with the manufacturer's suggestions. We attempt to characterize the accuracy and reproducibility of these data. The data demonstrate the greater sensitivity of the type 101-01 to sub-kilovolt x-rays.

The intensity and spectral purity of the incident fluorescent beams were monitored by a thin-window gas proportional counter that used flowing propane gas at sub-atmospheric pressures. We describe the procedures and results of a determination of the quantum efficiency of this counter as a function of photon energy.



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1. Birks, L. S., “Convex Curved Crystal X-ray Spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instr, 41, 11291132 (1970).
2. Atkinson, P. A. and Pounds, K. A., “Laboratory Calibration of Several High-Speed Films with 2-14 A X-rays,” J. Photog. Sci. 12, 302306 (1964).
3. Webb, J. H., “Number of Quanta Required to Form the Photographic Latent Image as Determined from Mathematical Analysis of the H and P Curve,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 309313 (1939).
4. Armistead, R. A., “Calibration of Kodak Fine Grain Positive and No Screen Film In the 4 to 52 keV X-ray Range,” (to be published).
5. Henke, B. L. and Ebisu, E. S., “Low Energy X-ray and Electron Absorption Within Solids,” Air Force Office of Scientific Research Report 72-2174 (1973).

Sub-Kilovolt X-Ray Calibration of Photographic Film

  • Louis N. Koppel (a1)


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