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Sample Treatment for TXRF - Requirements and Prospects

  • Andreas Prange (a1) and Heinrich Schwenke (a1)

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Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, abbreviated as TXRF, is known for its high sensitivity down to the low pg-level or sub-ppb level, respectively, and its wide dynamic range of about three to four orders of magnitude (Yoneda and Horiuchi, 1971, Wobrauschek and Aiginger, 1980; Knoth and Schwenke, 1978 and 1980, Aiginger and Wobrausohek, 1985, Michaelis et al., 1985, Prange, 1987). Meanwhile several laboratories have purchased commercially available TXRF spectrometers and have started to report favourable about this technique. Applications have been reported from various disciplines: These are estuarine and marine water quality management and research, air pollution studies, mineralogical investigations, biology and medicine (Prange, 1987, Prange et al, 1985; Prange and Kremling, 1985, Prange et al., 1987, Stöβel and Prange, 1985, Michaelis, 1986, Ketelsen and Knöchel, 1985, Leland et al., 1987, von Bohlen et al., 1987, Junge et al., 1983, Hentschke et al., 1985, Hentschke et al., 1985, Gerwinski and Goetz, 1987, von Bohlen et al., 1987), In spite of its close kinship to conventional EDXRF , TXRF is quite different with respect to operation and performance and provides complementary capabilities.

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References

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Aiginger, H. and P., Wobrauschek, 1985 Total Reflectance X-Ray Spectrometry, Adv. X-Ray Anal. 28: 110.
Bohlen, A.V. , Eller, R. , R., Klockenkämper , and Tölg, G. , 1987 Microanalysis of Solid Samples by Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Anal. Chem. 59: 25512555.
Bohlen, A.V. , Klockenkämper, R. , Otto, H. , G., Tölg , and Wiecken, B. , 1987 Qualitative survey analysis of thin layers of tissue samples - Heavy metal traces in human long tissue, Int. Arch. Accup. Environ. Health. 59: 403411.
Gerwinski, W. and Goetz, D. , 1937 Multielement analysis of standard reference materials with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF), Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 327: 690693.
Hentschke, U. , Junge, W. , and Rath, R. , 1985 Chemical and Optical Properties of Columbites, N. Jb. Miner. Abh. 152: 113121.
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Ketelsen, P. and Knöchel, A. , 1965 Multielementanalyse von gröβenklassierten Luftstaubproben, Staub Reinhaltung der Luft 45:175178.
Knoth, J. and H., Schwenke , 1978 An X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer with Totally Reflecting Sample Support for Trace Analysis at the ppb Level, Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 291: 200204.
Knoth, J. and H., Schwenke , 1980 A New Totally Reflecting X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer with Detection Limits below 10-11 g, Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 301 :79.
Leland, D.J. DIlbrey, D.B. , Leyden, D.E. , Wobrauschek, P. , H., Aiginger , and Puxbaum, H. , 1987 Analysis of Aerosols Using Total Reflection X-Ray Spectrometry, Anal. Chem. 59: 19111914.
Michaelis, W. , Knoth, J. , A., Prange , and H., Schwenke , 1985 Trace Analytical Capabilities of Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis, Adv. X-Ray Anal. 28: 7583.
Michaelis, W. , 1986 Naβ- und Trockendeposition von Schwermetallen, Technische Mittellungen 79: 266271.
Prange, A. , 1987 Totalreflexions-Röntgenfluoreszenzanalyse, GIT Fachz. Lab. 31:513526.
Prange, A. ,A., Knöchel , and Michaelis, W., 1985 Multielement Determination of Dissolved Heavy Metal Traces in Sea Water by Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Anal. Chim. Acta 172: 79100.
Prange, A. and Kremling, K. , 1985 Distribution of Dissolved Molybdenum, Uranium and Vanadium in Baltic Sea Waters, Mar. Chem. 16:259274.
Prange, A. , Knoth, J. , Stöβel, R. -P. , H., Böiddeker , and Kramer, K. , 1987, Determination of Trace Elements in Water Cycle by Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Anal. Chlm. Acta 195:275287.
Rastegar, B. , Jundt, F. , Grallmann, A. , F., Rastegar , and Leroy, M.J.F., 1986 Sample Homogeneity in Energy-Dispersive XRF Trace Metal Analysis, X-Ray Spectrometry 15: 83.
Schneider, B. , 1989 The determination of atmospsheric trace metals concentrations by collection of aerosol particles on TXRF-sample holders. submitted to Spectrochib. Acta B.
Stogel, R. -P. and Prange, A. , 1985 Determination of Trace Elements in Rainwater by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence, Anal. Chem. 57:2890–2885.
Wobrauschek, T. and H., Aiginger , 1975 Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometric Determination of Elements in Nanogram Amounts, Anal. Chem. 47:352855.
Yoneda, Y. and Horiuchi, T. , 1971 Optical Flats for Use in X-Ray Spectrochemical Microanalysis, Rev. Sci. Instr. 42:10691070.

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