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Clay Minaeral Analysis by Automated Powder Diffraction Analysis Using the Whole Diffraction Pattern

  • Deane K. Smith (a1), Gerald G. Johnson (a1) and Clayton O. Ruud (a1)


Clay minerals are one of the most difficult classes of materials to analyze by x-ray powder diffraction, yet powder diffraction is the only technique which can yield the important crystallographic information necessary to identify and classify the minerals. The importance of clay minerals in industry and in the studies of rocks, due to their chemical properties and sensitivity to geological changes, often requires the analyses of large numbers of samples in short periods of time. Such sample throughput requires computerized analysis* Because definitive, meaningful d-I data are difficult to obtain from the broad diffraction peaks obtained from most clay samples, this problem has been approached by using the whole diffraction, trace as the basis of a computerized analytical scheme.



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1. Reynolds, R.C., Interstratified Clay Systems: Calculation of the total one-dimensional diffraction functon, Am. Mineral. 52: 661-672 (1967).
2. Reynolds, R.C., Interstratified clay minerals Chapt 4 in Crystal Structures of Clay Mineral and their X-ray Identification Brindley, G.W., and Brown, G., Editors, Mineralogical Society, Great Britian (1982).
3. Pevear, D.R., (Program for calculating oriented clay mineral x-ray patterns FORTRAN version) Private Communication (1982).
4. Smith, D.K., Nichols, M.C., and Zolensky, M.E., Powder A Fortran-program for calculating X-ray powder diffraction patterns. College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University (1983).
5. The Clay Minerals Society, Oriented Sample Mounts for the Analysis of Clay Minerals by X-ray Diffraction. Workshop Syllabus, Annual Meeting, Honolulu Hawaii (1982).


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