Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Fighting Armed Conflicts in Southeast Asia

Fighting Armed Conflicts in Southeast Asia

This Element seeks to make sense of Southeast Asia's numerous armed conflicts. It makes four contributions. First, this study provides a typology, distinguishing between revolutionary, secessionist, and communal conflicts. The first two are types of insurgencies, while the latter are ethnic conflicts. Second, this study emphasizes the importance of ethnicity in shaping conflict dynamics. This is true even for revolutionary conflicts, which at first glance may appear unrelated to ethnicity. A third contribution relates to broad conflict trends. Revolutionary and secessionist conflicts feature broad historical arcs, with clear peaks and declines, while communal conflicts occur more sporadically. The fourth contribution ties these points together by focusing on conflict management. Just as ethnicity shapes conflicts, ethnic leaders and traditions can also promote peace. Cultural mechanisms are especially important for managing communal conflicts, the lone type not declining in Southeast Asia.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the Element
  • Copyright

  • COPYRIGHT: © Shane Joshua Barter 2020

References

Hide all
Abinales, P. (2000). Making Mindanao: Cotabato and Davao in the Formation of the Philippine Nation-State. Manila: Ateneo University Press. Google Scholar
Adam, J. (2013). “A Comparative Analysis on the Micro-Level Genealogies of Conflict in the Philippines’ Mindanao Island and Indonesia’s Ambon Island.” Oxford Development Studies 41(2): 155–72. CrossRef | Google Scholar
al Qurtuby, S. (2013). “Peacebuilding in Indonesia: Christian–Muslim Alliances in Ambon Island.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 24(3): 349–67. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Aljunied, S. M. K., and Curaming, R. A. (2012). “Mediating Violence and Consuming Memories of Violence: The Jabidah Massacre in the Philippines.” Critical Asian Studies 44(2): 227–50. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso. Google Scholar
Anderson, B.. (1993). “Imagining ‘East Timor.’” Arena Magazine 4: 23–7. Google Scholar
Aragon, L. V. (2001). “Communal Violence in Poso, Central Sulawesi: Where People Eat Fish and Fish East People.” Indonesia 72(2): 45–79. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Arcilla, G. (2019). “NICA Chief Says CPP-NPA Wants Power, not Peace.” Philippine News Agency, June 20. Google Scholar
Arjona, A., Kasfir, N., and Mampilly, Z., eds. (2015). Rebel Governance in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Aspinall, E. (2005). The Helsinki Agreement: A More Promising Basis for Peace in Aceh? Honolulu: East–West Center Policy Studies 20. Google Scholar
Aspinall, E.. (2009). Islam and Nation: Separatist Rebellion in Aceh, Indonesia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Aspinall, E.. (2014). “Special Autonomy, Predatory Peace, and the Resolution of the Aceh Conflict.” In Regional Dynamics in a Decentralized Indonesia, ed. Hill, H., 460–81. Singapore: ISEAS. Google Scholar
Aspinall, E., and Crouch, H. (2003). The Aceh Peace Process: Why It Failed. Honolulu, HI: East–West Center Policy Studies 1. Google Scholar
Avruch, K., and Jose, R. S. (2007). “Peace Zones in the Philippines.” In Zones of Peace, ed. Hancock, L. E. and Mitchell, C., 51–70. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian. Google Scholar
Barter, S. J. (2013). “State Proxy or Security Dilemma? Understanding Anti-rebel Militias in Civil War.” Asian Security 9(2): 75–92. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Barter, S. J.. (2015a). “Second-Order Minorities in Asian Secessionist Conflicts.” Asian Ethnicity 16(2): 123–35. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Barter, S. J.. (2015b). “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Second-Order Minorities in the Aceh Conflict.” Asian Ethnicity 16(2): 152–65. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Barter, S. J.. (2018). “Rethinking Territorial Autonomy.” Regional Studies 52(2): 298–309. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Barter, S. J.. (2019). “Displacement and Reintegration in Aceh, Indonesia.” In Internal Migration: Challenges in Governance and Integration, ed. Barter, S. J. and Ascher, W. A., 113–28. New York: Peter Lang. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Barter, S. J., and Côté, I. (2015). “Strife of the Soil? Unsettling Transmigrant Conflicts in Indonesia.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 46(1): 60–85. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Barter, S. J., and Ascher, W. A., eds. (2019). Internal Migration: Challenges in Governance and Integration. London: Peter Lang. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Bartholomew-Feis, D. R. (2006). The OSS and Ho Chi Minh: Unexpected Allies in the War Against Japan. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. Google Scholar
Bertrand, J. (2000). “Peace and Conflict in the Southern Philippines: Why the 1996 Peace Agreement is Fragile.” Asian Survey 73(1): 37–54. Google Scholar
Bertrand, J.. (2004). Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
Bertrand, J.. (2010). “The Double-Edged Sword of Autonomy in Indonesia and the Philippines.” In Multinational States in Asia: Accommodation or Resistance, ed. Bertrand, J. and Laliberté, A.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 164–195. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Bertrand, J., and Pelletier, A. (2017). “Violent Monks in Myanmar: Scapegoating and the Contest for Power.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 23(3): 257–279. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Brancati, D. (2006). “Decentralization: Fueling the Fire or Dampening the Flames of Ethnic Conflict and Secessionism?” International Organization 60(3): 651–685. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Brass, P., ed. (1996). Riots and Pogroms. Albany: New York University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Brubaker, R., and Laitin, D. (1998). “Ethnic and Nationalist Violence.” Annual Review of Sociology 24(1): 423–452. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Bubant, N. (2008). “Rumors, Pamphlets, and the Politics of Paranoia in Indonesia.” Journal of Asian Studies 67(3): 789–817. Google Scholar
    Buchanan, J. (2017). Militias in Myanmar. San Francisco: The Asia Foundation. Google Scholar
    Caballero-Anthony, M. (2005). Regional Security in Southeast Asia: Beyond the ASEAN Way. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Canuday, J. J. (2009). Bakwit: The Power of the Displaced. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Google Scholar
    Capuno, J. J. (2019). “Probing Conflict Contagion and Casualties in Mindanao, Philippines.” Defence and Peace Economics: 1–20. Google Scholar
    Carey, P. (1999). “The Catholic Church, Religious Revival, and the Nationalist Movement in East Timor, 1975–98.” Indonesia and the Malay World 27(78): 77–95. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    CAVR (Comissão de Acolhimento, Verdade e Reconciliação) (2005). Chega! Report of the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor. Dili: Government of East Timor. Google Scholar
    Cederman, L. E. (2002). “Nationalism and Ethnicity.” In Handbook of International Relations, ed. Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T., and Simmons, B., 409–28. London: Sage. Google Scholar
    Cederman, L. E., Weidmann, N., and Gleditsch, K. S. (2011). “Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnonationalist Civil War: A Global Comparison.” American Political Science Review 105(3): 478–95. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Cederman, L. E., Hug, S., Schädel, A., and Wucherpfenning, J. (2015). “Territorial Autonomy in the Shadow of Conflict: Too Little, Too Late?” American Political Science Review 109(2): 354–70. Google Scholar
    Chandler, D. P. (1991). The Tragedy of Cambodian History: Politics, War, and Revolution since 1945. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
    Chandra, K., ed. (2012). Constructivist Theories of Ethnic Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Chang, P. M. (1982). “The Sino-Vietnamese Dispute over the Ethnic Chinese.” China Quarterly 90: 195–230. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Cheng, A. L. H. (2001). “The Past in the Present: Memories of the 1964 ‘Racial Riots’ in Singapore.” Asian Journal of Social Science 29(3): 431–55. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Chirot, D., and Reid, A. (2011). Essential Outsiders: Chinese and Jews in the Modern Transformation of Southeast Asia and Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Google Scholar
    Christie, C. (2001). Ideology and Revolution in Southeast Asia, 1800–1980: Political Ideas of the Anti-colonial Era. London: Curzon Press. Google Scholar
    Clutterbuck, R. (1985). Conflict and Violence in Singapore and Malaysia 1945–1983. London: Westview. Google Scholar
    Coakley, J. (1993). “Introduction: The Territorial Management of Ethnic Conflict.” Regional Politics and Policy 3(1): 1–22. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Colletta, N. J. (2006). “Citizen Security – the Role of NGOs and Broader Civil Society in Ceasefire Monitoring: Lessons from Mindanao.” Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 2(3): 21–34. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Côté, I. (2019). “Adopting Migrants as Brothers and Sisters – Fictive Kinship as a Mechanism of Conflict Resolution and Conflict Prevention in Lampung, Indonesia.” In Internal Migration: Challenges in Governance and Integration, ed. Barter, S. J. and Ascher, W. A., 97–112. New York: Peter Lang. Google Scholar
    Côté, I., and Huang, L. E (2020). “Where are the Daughters? Examining the Effects of Gendered Migration on the Dynamics of ‘Sons of the Soil’ Conflict.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Côté, I., and Mitchell, M. I. (2017). “Deciphering ‘Sons of the Soil’ Conflicts: A Critical Survey of the Literature.” Ethnopolitics 16(4): 333–51. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Cribb, R. (2001). “Genocide in Indonesia, 1965–1966.” Journal of Genocide Research 3(2): 219–39. Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Crocombe, R. (2007). Asia in the Pacific Islands: Replacing the West. Fiji: University of the South Pacific. Google Scholar
    Cunningham, K. G. (2011). “Divide and Conquer or Divide and Concede: How Do States Respond to Internally Divided Separatists?” American Political Science Review 105(2): 275–97. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Davidson, J. S. (2008). From Rebellion to Riots: Collective Violence on Indonesian Borneo. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Google Scholar
    di Tiro, H. (1979). The Drama of Achehnese History, 1873–1978. State of Acheh: Self-published. Google Scholar
    di Tiro, H.. (1984). The Price of Freedoms: The Unfinished Diary of Tengku Hasan di Tiro. State of Acheh: Self-published. Google Scholar
    DSW (Deep South Watch) (2019). “DSW Database.” https://deepsouthwatch.org. Google Scholar
    Eck, K. (2009). “From Armed Conflict to War: Ethnic Mobilization and Conflict Intensification.” International Studies Quarterly 53(2): 369–88. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Egreteau, R. (2011). “Burmese Indians in Contemporary Burma: Heritage, Influence, and Perceptions since 1988.” Asian Ethnicity 12(1): 33–54. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Ehrentraut, S. (2011). “Perpetually Temporary: Citizenship and Ethnic Vietnamese in Cambodia.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 34(5): 779–98. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Elfversson, E., and Brosché, J. (2012). “Communal Conflict, Connections, and the Case of Sudan.” African Journal on Conflict Resolution 12(1): 9–32. Google Scholar
    Fan, H. (2012). “The 1967 Anti-Chinese Riots in Burma and Sino-Burmese Relations.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 43(2): 234–56. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Fearon, J. D. (2004). “Separatist Wars, Partition, and World Order.” Security Studies 13(4): 394–415. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Fearon, J. D., and Laitin, D. D. (2003). “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97(1): 75–90. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Fisher, R. J. (1993). “The Potential for Peacebuilding: Forging a Bridge from Peacekeeping to Peacemaking.” Peace & Change 18(3): 247–66. Google Scholar
    Fox, J. (2004). “The Rise of Religious Nationalism and Conflict: Ethnic Conflict and Revolutionary Wars, 1945–2001.” Journal of Peace Research 41(6): 715–31. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Goldstein, J. S. (2011). Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide. London: Penguin. Google Scholar
    Goscha, C. E. (2003). “Revolutionizing the Indochinese Past: Communist Vietnam’s ‘Special Historiography’ on Laos.” In Contesting Visions of the Lao Past: Laos Historiography at a Crossroads, ed. Goscha, C. E. and Ivarsson, S., 265–300. Copenhagen: NIAS Press. Google Scholar
    Guan, A. C. (2018). Southeast Asia’s Cold War: An Interpretive History. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Google Scholar
    Guardian (2005). “Machete Killings Fuel Indonesia’s Religious Hatred.” November 19, 2005. Google Scholar
    Guterres, A. (2018). “UN Secretary General Press Remarks”. www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/press-encounter/2018–07-02/transcript-secretary-general%E2%80%99s-remarks-press-encounter. Google Scholar
    Hancock, L., and Mitchell, C., ed. (2007). Zones of Peace. London: Kumarian Press. Google Scholar
    Hamilton-Merritt, J. (1993). Tragic Mountains: The Hmong, the Americans, and the Secret War for Laos, 1942–1992. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Google Scholar
    Harish, S. P. (2006). “Ethnic or Religious Cleavage? Investigating the Nature of the Conflict in Southern Thailand.” Contemporary Southeast Asia 28(1): 48–69. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Hawkins, M. C. (2013). Making Moros: Imperial Historicism and American Rule in the Philippine’s Muslim South. Dekalb: Northern Illinois Press. Google Scholar
    Helbardt, S. (2015). Deciphering Southern Thailand’s Violence: Organization and Insurgent Practices of BRN-Coordinate. Singapore: ISEAS. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Henley, D. E. (1995). “Ethnogeographic Integration and Inclusion in Anti-colonial Nationalism: Indonesia and Indochina.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 37(2): 286–324. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Heydarian, R. J. (2015). “The Quest for Peace: The Aquino Administration’s Peace Negotiations with the MILF and CPP-NPA-NDF.” Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre Report. Google Scholar
    Minh, Ho Chi (1945). “Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.” Google Scholar
    Holmes, R. A. (1967). “Burmese Domestic Policy: The Politics of Burmanization.” Asian Survey 7(3): 188–97. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Horowitz, D. (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press. Google Scholar
    Horowitz, D.. (2001). The Deadly Ethnic Riot. Berkeley: University of California Press. Google Scholar
    HRW (Human Rights Watch) (1997). “Indonesia: Communal Violence in West Kalimantan.” Google Scholar
    HRW. (2002). “Indonesia: Four Years of Communal Violence in Central Sulawesi.” Google Scholar
    ICG (2016). “Southern Thailand’s Peace Dialogue: No Traction.” Briefing 148, September 21, 2016. Google Scholar
    ICG. (2012). “What Could Myanmar Learn from Indonesia? The Malino Accord.” Google Scholar
    Kalyvas, S. N. (2006). The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Kalyvas, S. N., and Kocher, M. A. (2007). “Ethnic Cleavages and Irregular War: Iraq and Vietnam.” Politics & Society 35(2): 183–223. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Kammen, D. (2003). “Master–Slave, Traitor–Nationalist, Opportunist–Oppressed: Political Metaphors in East Timor.” Indonesia 76: 69–85. Google Scholar
    Kaplow, J. M. (2016). “The Negotiation Calculus: Why Parties to Civil Conflict Refuse to Talk.” International Studies Quarterly 60(1): 38–46. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Kaufman, S. J. (2001). Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Kaufman, S. J.. (2011). “Symbols, Frames, and Violence: Studying Ethnic War in the Philippines.” International Studies Quarterly 55(4): 937–58. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Kaufmann, C. (1996). “Intervention in Ethnic and Ideological Civil Wars: Why One Can Be Done and the Other Can’t.” Security Studies 6(1): 62–101. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Kell, T. (1995). The Roots of Acehnese Rebellion, 1989–1992. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
    Kerkvliet, B. J. (1977). The Huk Rebellion: A Study of Peasant Revolt in the Philippines. Berkeley: University of California Press. Google Scholar
    Keyes, C. F. (1967). “Isan: Regionalism Regional in Northern Thailand.” Cornell Thailand Series, Data Paper 66. Google Scholar
    Kiernan, B. (2002). The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–79. New Haven: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
    King, D. Y., and Rasjid, M. R. (1988). “The Golkar Landslide in the 1987 Indonesian Elections: The Case of Aceh.” Asian Survey 28(9): 916–25. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Kivimäki, T. (2016). The Long Peace of East Asia. London: Routledge. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    KKR (Komisi Kebenaran dan Rekonsiliasi Aceh) (2019). “Aceh Truth and Reconciliation Commission: A Diplomatic Brief.” Available at http://kkr-aceh.com. Google Scholar
    Krause, J. (2020). “Restrained or Constrained? Elections, Communal conflicts, and Variation in Sexual Violence.” Journal of Peace Research 57(1): 185–98. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Kusaka, W. (2017). Moral Politics in the Philippines: Inequality, Democracy, and the Urban Poor. Singapore: NUS Press. Google Scholar
    Kymlicka, W., and He, B. (2005). Multiculturalism in Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Lev, D. S. (1967). “Political Parties in Indonesia.” Journal of Southeast Asian History 8(1): 52–67. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Levitsky, S., and Way, L. (2013). “The Durability of Revolutionary Regimes.” Journal of Democracy 24(3): 5–17. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Lightfoot, S. (2015). “Settler-State Apologies to Indigenous Peoples: A Normative Framework and Comparative Assessment.” Native American and Indigenous Studies 2(1): 15–39. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Lijphart, A. (1969). “Consociationalism Democracy.” World Politics 21(2): 207–25. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Lintner, B. (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Burma. Ithaca, NY: SEAP Publications. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Loesch, J. (2017). “The GPH–MILF Peace Process in the Philippines to Prevent and Transform Violent Extremism in Mindanao.” Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 12(2): 96–101. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Luong, H. V. (1992). Revolution in the Village: Tradition and Transformation in North Vietnam, 1925–1988. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Google Scholar
    Lyall, Jason, and Wilson, Isaiah III (2009). “Rage against the Machines: Explaining Outcomes in Counterinsurgency Wars.” International Organization 63(1): 67–106. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Magno, J. P. and Gregor, A. (1986). “Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the Philippines.” Asian Survey 26(5): 501–17. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Mampilly, Z. C. (2012). Rebel Rulers: Insurgent Governance and Civilian Life During War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
    Marx, K. (1844). A Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. Google Scholar
    Marx, K., and Engels, F.. (1848). Manifesto of the Communist Party. Google Scholar
    Mason, T. D., Weingarten, J. P., and Fett, P. J. (1999). “Win, Lose, or Draw: Predicting the Outcome of Civil Wars.” Political Research Quarterly 52(2): 239–68. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Mauzy, D. K. (2013). “Malaysia: Malay Political Hegemony and ‘Coercive Consociationalism’.” In The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflicts, ed. McGarry, J. and O’Leary, B., 118–39. London: Routledge. Google Scholar
    Mauzy, D. K., and Milne, R. S. (2002). Singapore Politics Under the People’s Action Party. London: Routledge. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    McCargo, D. (2008). Tearing the Land Apart: Islam and Legitimacy in Southern Thailand. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
    McCarthy, J. F. (2007). “The Demonstration Effect: Natural Resources, Ethnonationalism, and the Aceh Conflict.” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 28(3): 314–33. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    McCoy, A., ed. (2009). An Anarchy of Families: State and Family in the Philippines. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Google Scholar
    McDermott, G. B. (2013). “Barriers toward Peace in Southern Thailand.” Peace Review 25(1): 120–128. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    McKenna, T. M. (1998). Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. Berkeley: University of California Press. Google Scholar
    McVey, R. (2006). The Rise of Indonesian Communism. Jakarta: Equinox Publishing. Google Scholar
    Miller, M. A. (2004). “The Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Law: A Serious Response to Acehnese Separatism?” Asian Ethnicity 5(3): 333–51. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Miller, M. A.. (2008). Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia: Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh. London: Routledge. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Mozaffar, S., and Scarritt, J. R. (1999). “Why Territorial Autonomy Is Not a Viable Option for Managing Ethnic Conflict in African Plural Societies.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 5(3–4): 230–53. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    MSF (Médecins Sans Frontièrs) (2017). “Rohingya Refugee Crisis.” www.msf.org/myanmarbangladesh-msf-surveys-estimate-least-6700-rohingya-were-killed-during-attacks-myanmar. Google Scholar
    Nathan, K. S. (1990). “Malaysia in 1989: Communists End Armed Struggle.” Asian Survey 30(2): 210–20. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Paredes, O. (1997). “Higaûnon Resistance and Ethnic Politics in Northern Mindanao.” Australian Journal of Anthropology 8(3): 270–90. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Paredes, O.. (2015). “Indigenous vs. Native: Negotiating the Place of Lumads in the Bangsamoro Homeland.” Asian Ethnicity 16(2): 166–85. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Penders, C. L. M. (2002). The West New Guinea Debacle: Dutch Decolonization and Indonesia, 1945–1962. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Google Scholar
    Pinker, S. (2012). The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined. New York: Penguin Books. Google Scholar
    Pouvatchy, J. R. (1986). “Cambodian-Vietnamese Relations.” Asian Survey 26(4): 440–51. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    PRIO (Peace Research Institute Oslo) (2012). “PRIO Battle Deaths Dataset 3.1.” B. Lacina and N. P. Gleditsch. Google Scholar
    Pye, L. (1956). Guerrilla Communism in Malaysia. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
    Quimpo, N.G. (2001). “Options in the Pursuit of a Just, Comprehensive, and Stable Peace in the Southern Philippines.” Asian Survey 41(2): 271–289. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Race, J. (1973). War Comes to Long An: Revolutionary Conflict in a Vietnamese Province. Berkeley: University of California Press. Google Scholar
    Rahimmula, C. (2003). “Peace Resolution: A Case Study of Separatist and Terrorist Movement in Southern Border Provinces of Thailand.” Songkhlanakarin Journal of Social Science and Humanities 10(1): 98–112. Google Scholar
    Reid, A. (2005). An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese and Other Histories of Sumatra. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press. Google Scholar
    Reilly, B. (2008). “Ethnic Conflict in Papua New Guinea.” Asia Pacific Viewpoint 49(1): 12–22. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Ricklefs, M. C. (2012). Islamicisation and Its Opponents in Java: A Political, Social, Cultural, and Religious History, c. 1930 to the Present. Singapore: NUS Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Riwanto, T. (2013). From Colonization to Nation-State: The Political Demography of Indonesia. Jakarta: LIPI Press. Google Scholar
    Robinson, G. (2009). “If You Leave Us Here, We Will Die”: How Genocide Was Stopped in East Timor. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
    Robinson, G.. (2018). The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
    Rohman, A., and Ang, P. H. (2019). “Truth, not Fear: Countering False Information in a Conflict.” International Journal of Communication 13: 4586–601. Google Scholar
    Rood, S. (2012). “Interlocking Autonomy: Manila and Muslim Mindanao.” In Autonomy and Armed Separatism in South and Southeast Asia, ed. Miller, M.A., 256–77. Singapore: ISEAS. Google Scholar
    Sambanis, N. (2001). “Do Ethnic and Nonethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes? A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 45(3): 259–82. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sanford, S. (2019). “Myanmar’s Karen Rebel Groups Reunite for Anniversary.” VOA News. Google Scholar
    Sarkees, M. R., and Wayman, F. (2010). “COW War Data, 1816–2007.” Washington DC: CQ Press. Google Scholar
    Scott, J. S. (2009). The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Sebastian, L. (1991). “Ending an Armed Struggle without Surrender: The Demise of the Communist Party of Malaya (1979–89) and the Aftermath.” Contemporary Southeast Asia 13(3): 271–98. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Short, A. (1970). “Communism, Race, and Politics in Malaysia.” Asian Survey 10(12): 1081–9. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sidel, J. T. (2006). Riots, Pogroms, Jihad: Religious Violence in Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Siegel, James T. (1998). “Early Thoughts on the Violence of May 13 and 14, 1998 in Jakarta.” Indonesia 66: 75–108. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Simbulan, R. G. (2016). “Indigenous Communities’ Resistance to Corporate Mining in the Philippines.” Peace Review 28(1): 29–37. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sison, J. M. (2004). Jose Maria Sison: At Home in the World, Portrait of a Revolutionary. London: Open Hand Publishing. Google Scholar
    Sjamsuddin, N. (1985). The Republic Revolt: A Study of the Acehnese Rebellion. Singapore: ISEAS. Google Scholar
    Smith, A. D. (1979). “Towards a Theory of Ethnic Separatism.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 2(1): 21–37. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Smith, A. D.. (1996). “Culture, Community, and Territory: The Politics of Ethnicity and Nationalism.” International Affairs 72(3): 445–68. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Smith, M. (2007). State of Strife: The Dynamics of Ethnic Conflict in Burma. Honolulu: East-West Center Policy Studies 36. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Solahudin, (2013). The Roots of Terrorism in Indonesia: From Darul Islam to Jem’ah Islamiyah. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Somers-Heidhues, M. (2012). “Anti-Chinese Violence in Java during the Indonesian Revolution, 1945–49.” Journal of Genocide Studies 14(3–4): 381–401. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    St. John, R. B. (2006). Revolution, Reform, and Regionalism in Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. London: Routledge. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Staniland, P. (2014). Networks of Rebellion: Explaining Insurgent Cohesion and Collapse. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Stark, J. (2003). “Muslims in the Philippines.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 23(1): 195–209. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Stuart-Fox, M. (1979). “Factors Influencing Relations between the Communist Parties of Thailand and Laos.” Asian Survey 19(4): 333–52. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Taras, R., and Ganguly, R. (2015). Understanding Ethnic Conflict. London: Routledge. Google Scholar
    Taylor, R. H. (1983). “The Burmese Communist Movement and Its Indian Connection: Formation and Factionalism.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 14(1): 95–108. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Temby, Q. (2010). “Imagining an Islamic State in Indonesia: From Darul Islam to Jemaah Islamiyah.” Indonesia 89: 1–36. Google Scholar
    Thawnghmung, A. M. (2012). The ‘Other’ Karen in Myanmar: Ethnic Minorities and the Struggle without Arms. New York: Lexington Books. Google Scholar
    Thomas, M. L. (1986). “Communist Insurgency in Thailand: Factors Contributing to its Decline.” Asian Affairs 13(1): 17–26. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Tomsa, D. (2009). “Electoral Democracy in a Divided Society.” South East Asia Research 17(2): 229–59. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Topmiller, R. (2002). The Lotus Unleashed: The Buddhist Peace Movement in South Vietnam, 1964–66. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. Google Scholar
    Torres, W. M. (2014). Rido: Clan Feuding and Conflict Management in Mindanao. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Google Scholar
    UN (United Nations) (1948). Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Google Scholar
    UNHCR (UN High Commissioner for Refugees) (2019). “UN Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar Calls on UN Member States to Remain Vigilant in the Face of the Continued Threat of Genocide.” New York: October 23, 2019. Google Scholar
    van der Kroef, J. M. (1981). Communism and South-East Asia. London: MacMillan Higher Education. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Viartasiwi, N. (2018). “The Politics of History in West Papua – Indonesia Conflict.” Asian Journal of Political Science 26(1): 141–59. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Vu, T. (2016). Vietnam’s Communist Revolution: The Power and Limits of Ideology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
    Walton, M. J., and Hayward, S. (2014). Contesting Buddhist Narratives: Democratization, Nationalism, and Communal Violence in Myanmar. Honolulu: East-West Center Policy Studies 71. Google Scholar
    Weiner, M. (1978). Sons of the Soil: Migration and Ethnic Conflict in India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
    Weiss, M. (2020). “Legacies of the Cold War in Malaysia: Anything but Communism.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 50(4): 511–29. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Wood, J. R. (1981). “Secession: A Comparative Analytical Framework.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 14(1): 107–34. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Young, S., Pinkerton, A., and Dodds, K. (2014). “The Word on the Street: Rumor, Race, and the Anticipation of Urban Unrest.” Political Geography 38: 57–67. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Zartman, I. W. (2001). “The Timing of Peace Initiatives: Hurting Stalemates and Ripe Moments.” Global Review of Ethnopolitics 1(1): 8–18. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Indonesia: Twenty Years after Democracy Davidson, Jamie CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Civil–Military Relations in Southeast Asia Croissant, Aurel CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Singapore: Identity, Brand, Power Tan, Kenneth Paul Google Scholar
    Ritual and Region: The Invention of ASEAN Davies, Mathew CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Populism in Southeast Asia Kenny, Paul CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Cambodia: Return to Authoritarianism Un, Kheang Google Scholar
    Vietnam: A Pathway from State Socialism Vasavakul, Thaveeporn CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Independent Timor-Leste: Regime, Economy and Identity Kammen, Douglas CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Media and Power in Southeast Asia George, Cherian and Venkiteswaran, Gayathry CrossRef | Google Scholar
    The Rise of Sophisticated Authoritarianism in Southeast Asia Morgenbesser, Lee CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Rural Development in Southeast Asia Rigg, Jonathan Google Scholar

    Metrics

    Altmetric attention score

    Full text views

    Total number of HTML views: 0
    Total number of PDF views: 0 *
    Loading metrics...

    Abstract views

    Total abstract views: 0 *
    Loading metrics...

    * Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

    Usage data cannot currently be displayed.