Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Civil-Military Relations in Southeast Asia
  • Cited by 13

Civil-Military Relations in Southeast Asia

Civil-Military Relations in Southeast Asia reviews the historical origins, contemporary patterns, and emerging changes in civil–military relations in Southeast Asia from colonial times until today. It analyzes what types of military organizations emerged in the late colonial period and the impact of colonial legacies and the Japanese occupation in World War II on the formation of national armies and their role in processes of achieving independence. It analyzes the long term trajectories and recent changes of professional, revolutionary, praetorian and neo-patrimonial civil-military relations in the region. Finally, it analyzes military roles in state- and nation-building; political domination; revolutions and regime transitions; and military entrepreneurship.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the Element
  • Copyright

  • COPYRIGHT: © Aurel Croissant 2018

References

Hide all
Ahmad, Abu Taljib (2009). “The impact of Japanese occupation on colonial and anti-colonial armies in Southeast Asia,” in Colonial Armies in Southeast Asia, ed. Karl Hack and Tobias Rettig . London: Routledge, 213–38. Google Scholar
Abul-Magd, Zeinab (2017). Militarizing the Nation: The Army, Business, and Revolution in Egypt. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Chambers, Paul W. (2013). Knights of the Realm: Thailand’s Military and Policy Then and Now. Bangkok: White Lotus Press. Google Scholar
Chambers, Paul W. (2017). “Khaki clientelism: the political economy of Cambodia’s security forces,” in Khaki Capital: The Political Economy of the Military in Southeast Asia, ed. Paul W. Chambers and Napisa Waitoolkiat . Copenhagen: NIAS, 161–217. Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel (2016). “Civil-military relations in Asia,” in Oxford Bibliographies in Political Science , ed. Sandy Maisel . New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
Agüero, Felipe (1998). “Legacies of transitions: institutionalization, the military, and democracy in South America,” Mershon International Studies Review 42:383–404. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Aspinall, Edward (2005). Opposing Suharto: Compromise, Resistance, and Regime Change in Indonesia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Google Scholar
Brown, Rajeswary Ampalavanar (2006). “Indonesian corporations, cronyism, and corruption,” Modern Asian Studies 40: 953–92. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Case, William (2002). Politics in Southeast Asia: Democracy or Less. Richmond, VA: Curzon Press. Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel , and Tanja Eschenauer (2018). “The Military and Politics in North Africa and the Levant,” in Routledge Handbook of Mediterranean Politics, ed. Richard Gillespie and Frederic Volpi . New York and London: Routledge, 157–170. Google Scholar
Alagappa, Muthiah (2001b). “Introduction,” in Coercion and Governance: The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia, ed. Muthiah Alagappa . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1–28. Google Scholar
Barr, Michael D. (2014). The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence. London: I.B. Tauris Google Scholar
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2017). CIA World Factbook. Available at www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/. Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel (2008). “The perils and promises of democratization through United Nations transitional authority: lessons from Cambodia and East Timor, Democratization 15: 649–68. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Edmunds, Timothy M. (2012). “Security sector reform,” in Routledge Handbook of Civil-Military Relations, ed. Thomas C. Bruneau and Florina Cristiana Matei . London: Routledge. Google Scholar
Feijó, Rui Gracia (2018). “Timor-Leste in 2017: between a diplomatic victory and the return of ‘belligerent democracy,’” Asian Survey 58: 206–12. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Feith, Herbert (1962). The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
Funston, N. John (2006). “Thailand: reform politics,” In Government and Politics in Southeast Asia, ed. N. John Funston . Singapore: ISEAS, 328–71. Google Scholar
Geddes, Barbara (2003). Paradigms and Sand Castles: Theory Building and Research Design in Comparative Politics. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Bureau of Arms Control, Verification, and Compliance (2017). World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers 1998–2016, US Department of State. Available at www.state.gov/t/avc/rls/rpt/wmeat/. Google Scholar
Chong, Alan , and Samuel Chan (2017). “Militarizing civilians in Singapore: preparing for ‘crisis’ within a calibrated nationalism,” Pacific Review 30: 365–84. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel , and Philip Lorenz (2018). Comparative Politics of Southeast Asia: An Introduction to Governments and Political Regimes. Heidelberg: Springer. CrossRef | Google Scholar
72 Chambers, Paul. W. (2015). “‘Neo-Sultanistic Tendencies:’ The Trajectory of Civil-Military Relations in Cambodia”, Asian Security 11: 179–205. CrossRef | Google Scholar
71 Barany, Zoltan (2012). The Soldier and the Changing State: Building Democratic Armies in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Connors, Michael K. (2003). Democracy and National Identity in Thailand. New York, NY: Routledge. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Fink, Christina (2018). “Myanmar in 2017: insecurity and violence,” Asian Survey 58: 158–75. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Callahan, Mary P. (2005). Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel , Tanja Eschenauer , and Jil Kamerling (2017). “Militaries’ roles in political regimes: introducing the PRM data set,” European Political Science 16: 400–14. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Crouch, Harold (1996). Government and Society in Malaysia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
Aphornsuvan, Thanet (2001). The Search for Order: Constitutions and Human Rights in Thai Political History. Available at https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/42075/2/Thanet.pdf (accessed August 3, 2018). Google Scholar
Bünte, Marco (2017). “The NLD–military coalition in Myanmar: military guardianship and its economic foundations,” in Khaki Capital: The Political Economy of the Military in Southeast Asia, ed. Paul W. Chambers and Napisa Waitoolkiat . Copenhagen: NIAS, 93–129. Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel (2015). “Southeast Asian militaries in the age of democratization: from ruler to servant?,” in Routledge Handbook of Southeast Asian Democratization, ed. William Case . London: Routledge, 314–32. Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel , and David Kuehn (2015). “The military’s role in politics,” in Routledge Handbook of Comparative Political Institutions, ed Jennifer Gandhi and Ruben Ruiz-Rufino . London: Routledge, 258–77. Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel , David Kuehn , Philip Lorenz , and Paul W. Chambers (2013). Civilian Control and Democracy in Asia, Basingstoke: Palgrave. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Edmonds, Martin (1988). Armed Services and Society. Leicester: Leicester University Press. Google Scholar
Geddes, Barbara , Joseph Wright , and Erica Frantz (2014). “Military rule,” Annual Review of Political Science 17: 147–62. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Abuza, Zachary , and Nguyen Nhat Anh (2016). “Little fallout: Vietnam’s security policy after the 12th Congress of the Vietnam Communist Party,” Center for International Maritime Security. Available at http://cimsec.org/21720–2/21720 (accessed June 2, 2017). Google Scholar
Gunawan, Aditya B. (2017). “Civilian control and defense policy in Indonesia’s nascent democracy,” In Reforming Civil-Military Relations in New Democracies, ed. Aurel Croissant and David Kuehn . Heidelberg: Springer, 129–50. Google Scholar
Aminuddin, M. Faishal (2017). “The Purnawirawan and party development in post-authoritarian Indonesia, 1998–2014,” Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 36:3–30. Google Scholar
Brömmelhörster, Jörn , and Wolf-Christian Paes (2003). “Soldiers in business: an introduction,” in The Military As an Economic Actor: Soldiers in Business, ed. Jörn Brömmelhörster and Wolf-Christian Paes . Basingstoke: Palgrave, 1–18. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Chambers, Paul W. , and Napisa Waitoolkiat (2017). “Arch-royalist rent: the political economy of the military in Thailand,” in Khaki Capital: The Political Economy of the Military in Southeast Asia, ed. Paul W. Chambers and Napisa Waitoolkiat . Copenhagen: NIAS, 40–92. Google Scholar
74 Fink, Christina (2009). Living Silence: Burma under Military Rule (2nd edn). Bangkok: Silkworm Press. Google Scholar
Brown, Cameron S. , Christopher J. Fariss , and R. Blake McMahon (2016). “Recouping after coup-proofing: compromised military effectiveness and strategic substitution,” International Interactions 42:1–30. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Dwyer, Michael B. (2014). “Micro-geopolitics: capitalising security in Laos’s Golden Quadrangle,” Geopolitics 19:377–405. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Dwyer, Michael B. , Micah L. Ingalls , and Ian G. Baird (2016). “The security exception: development and militarization in Laos’s protected areas,” Geoforum 69: 207–17. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Egreteau, Renaud (2017). “Embedding praetorianism: soldiers, state, and constitutions in postcolonial Myanmar,” in Politics and Constitutions in Southeast Asia, ed. Marco Bünte and Björn Dressel . New York, NY: Routledge, 117–39. Google Scholar
Ahmad, Zakaria Haji (1988). “The military and development in Malaysia and Brunei, with a short survey on Singapore,” in Soldiers and Stability in Southeast Asia, ed. J. Soedjati Djiwandono and Yong Mun Cheong . Singapore: ISEAS, 231–54. Google Scholar
Chambers, Paul W. (2010). “Thailand on the brink: resurgent military, eroded democracy,” Asian Survey 50: 835–58. CrossRef | Google Scholar
73 Croissant, Aurel , and David Kuehn (2018). “Military and politics,” in Routledge Handbook of Asian Politics, ed. Shiping Hua . New York, NY: Routledge, 413–29. Google Scholar
Crouch, Harold (1978). The Army and Politics in Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
Crouch, Harold (1991). “The military in Malaysia,” in The Military, the State, and Development in Asia and the Pacific, ed. V. Selochan , Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 121–37. Google Scholar
Feaver, Peter D. (1999). “Civil-military relations,” Annual Review of Political Science 2: 211–41. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Ferrara, Federico (2003). “Why regimes create disorder: Hobbes’s dilemma during a Rangoon summer,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 47: 302–25. Google Scholar
Grewert, Elke , and Zeinab Abul-Magd (eds.) (2016). Businessmen in Arms: How the Military and Other Armed Groups Profit in the MENA Region. London: Rowman & Littlefield. Google Scholar
Alagappa, Muthiah (2001a). “Conclusion,” in Coercion and Governance: The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia, ed. Muthiah Alagappa . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 433–98. Google Scholar
Baird, Ian (2010). Quotas, Powers, Patronage and Illegal Rent Seeking: The Political Economy of Logging and the Timber Trade in Southern Laos. Washington, DC: Forest Trends. Google Scholar
Beeson, Mark , and Alex J. Bellamy (2008). Securing Southeast Asia: The Politics of Security Sector Reform. London: Routledge. Google Scholar
Burton, Michael , Richard Gunther , and John Higley (1992). Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
Alagappa, Muthiah (1988). “Military professionalism and the development role of the military in Southeast Asia,” in Soldiers and Stability in Southeast Asia, ed. J. Soedjati Djiwandono and Yong Mun Cheong . Singapore: ISEAS, 15–48. Google Scholar
Case, William (2015). “Democracy’s mixed fortunes in Southeast Asia: Topor, change, and trade-offs,” in Routledge Handbook of Southeast Asian Democratization, ed. William Case . London: Routledge, 3–23. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. New York, NY: Praeger. Google Scholar
Chambers, Paul W. , and Napisa Waitoolkiat 2016. “The resilience of monarchised military in Thailand,” Journal of Contemporary Asia 46: 425–44. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel , and Jil Kamerling (2013). “Why do military regimes institutionalize? Constitution-making and elections as political survival strategy in Myanmar,” Asian Journal of Political Science 21: 105–25. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel , and Jil Kamerling (2013). “Why do military regimes institutionalize? Constitution-making and elections as political survival strategy in Myanmar,” Asian Journal of Political Science 21: 105–25. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Hernandez, K. M. G. , and H. J. S. Kraft (2010). “Armed forces as veto power: civil-military relations in the Philippines,” in Democracy under Stress: Civil-Military Relations in South and Southeast Asia, ed. Paul W. Chambers and Aurel Croissant . Bangkok: ISIS, 126–48. Google Scholar
Hack, Karl , and Tobias Rettig (2009a). “Imperial systems of power, colonial forces and the making of modern Southeast Asia,” in Colonial Armies in Southeast Asia, ed. Karl Hack and Tobias Rettig . London: Routledge, 3–38. Google Scholar
Mérieau, Eugenie (2017). “The legal-military alliance for illiberal constitutionalism in Thailand,” in Politics and Constitutions in Southeast Asia, ed. Marco Bünte and Björn Dressel . New York, NY: Routledge, 140–61. Google Scholar
Hernandez, Carolina G. (1985). “The Philippine military and civilian control: under Marcos and beyond,” Third World Quarterly 7: 907–23. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Hernandez, Carolina G. (2006). “The military in Philippine politics: democratization, governance, and security sector reform,” in Philippine Politics and Governance: Challenges to Democratization and Development, ed. T. S. E. Tadem and N. M. Morada . Diliman: University of the Philippines Press, 391–408. Google Scholar
Huxley, Tim (2000). Defending the Lion City: The Armed Forces of Singapore. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin. Google Scholar
Lipp, Hans , and Paul Chambers (2017). “Earning their keep: the political economy of the military in Laos,” in Khaki Capital: The Political Economy of the Military in Southeast Asia, ed. Paul Chambers and Napisa Waitoolkiat . Copenhagen: NIAS, 218–70. Google Scholar
McCargo, Duncan (2018). “Thailand in 2017: politics on hold,” Asian Survey 58: 181–87. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Nathan, K. S. , and Geetha Govindasamy (2001). “Malaysia: a congruence of interests,” In Coercion and Governance: The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia, ed. M. Alagappa . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 259–75. Google Scholar
Honna, Jun (2017). “The politics of securing khaki capitalism in democratizing Indonesia,” in Khaki Capital: The Political Economy of the Military in Southeast Asia, ed. Paul W. Chambers and Napisa Waitoolkiat , Copenhagen: NIAS. 305–27. Google Scholar
Mietzner, Marcus (2018). “The Indonesian armed forces, coalitional presidentialism, and democratization,” in Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Indonesia, ed. Robert Hefner . London: Routledge, 140–51. Google Scholar
Lebra, Joyce C. (1977). Japanese-Trained Armies in Southeast Asia: Independence and Volunteer Forces in World War II. Hong Kong: Heinemann Educational Books. Google Scholar
Lee, Terence (2015). Defect or Defend. Military Responses to Popular Protests in Authoritarian Asia. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Mietzner, Marcus (2011). “Conflict and leadership: the resurgent political role of the military in Southeast Asia,” in The Political Resurgence of the Military in Southeast Asia: Conflict and Leadership, ed. Marcus Mietzner . London: Routledge, 1–23. Google Scholar
    Laksmana, Evan A. (2008). “Spoilers, partners, and pawns: military organizational behaviour and civil-military relations in Indonesia,” RSIS Working Paper No. 161, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Singapore. Google Scholar
    Horner, Layton (1973). Japanese Military Administration in Malaya and the Philippines. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. Google Scholar
    Lall, Marie (2016). Understanding Reform in Myanmar: People and Society in the Wake of Military Rule. London: Hurst. Google Scholar
    Meixsel, Richard (2009). “American exceptionalism in colonial forces? The Philippine Scout mutiny of 1924,” in Colonial Armies in Southeast Asia, ed. Karl Hack and Tobias Rettig . London: Routledge, 171–93. Google Scholar
    Morgenbesser, Lee (2017). “Misclassification on the Mekong: the origins of Hun Sen’s personalist dictatorship,” Democratization 25:192–208. Google Scholar
    Myrttinen, Henri (2012). “Guerillas, gangsters, and contractors: reintegrating former combatants and its impact on SSR and development in post-conflict societies,” In Back to the Roots: Security Sector Reform and Development, ed. A. Schnabel and V. Farr . Münster: LIT Verlag, 225–47. Google Scholar
    Perlmutter, Amos , and William M. LeoGrande (1982). “The party in uniform: toward a theory of civil-military relations in communist political systems,” American Political Science Review 76: 778–89. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Guyot, Dorothy (1966). “The Burma Independence Army: a political movement in military garb,” in Southeast Asia in World War II: Four Essays, ed. Joseph Silverstein . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 51–65. Google Scholar
    Hack, Karl (2009). “Imperialism and decolonization in Southeast Asia: colonial forces and British world power,” in Colonial Armies in Southeast Asia, ed. Karl Hack and Tobias Rettig , London: Routledge, 239–66. Google Scholar
    Hack, Karl , and Tobias Rettig (2009b). “Demography and domination in Southeast Asia,” in Colonial Armies in Southeast Asia, ed. Karl Hack and Tobias Rettig . London: Routledge, 39–73. Google Scholar
    Hewison, Kevin , and Kengkij Kitirianglarp (2010). “Thai-style democracy: the royalist struggle for Thailand’s politics,” in Saying the Unsayable: Monarchy and Democracy in Thailand, ed. S. Ivarsson and L. Isager . Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 179–203. Google Scholar
    Kammen, Damien (2013). “The armed forces in Timor-Leste: politicization through elite conflict,” in The Political Resurgence of the Military in Southeast Asia: Conflict and Leadership, ed. Marcus Mietzner . New York, NY: Routledge, 107–26. Google Scholar
    Maung, Aung Myoe (2007). “A historical overview of political transition in Myanmar since 1988,” Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 95, NUS, Singapore. Google Scholar
    Kraisoraphong, Keokam (2014). “Crossing the threshold: Thailand’s path to rethinking security sector governance,” In Peacebuilding and Security Sector Governance in Asia, ed. Yuji Uesugi . Zürich: LIT Verlag, 77–104. Google Scholar
    McCargo, Duncan , and Pathmanand Ukrist (2005). The Thaksinization of Thailand. Copenhagen: NIAS. Google Scholar
    McLeod, R. H. (2008). “Inadequate budgets and salaries as instruments for institutionalizing public sector corruption in Indonesia,” South East Asia Research 16:199–223. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Osborne, Milton E. (1990). Southeast Asia: An Illustrated History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
    75Hedman, Eva-Lotta (2001). “The Philippines: not so military, not so civil,” in Coercion and Governance: The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia, ed. Muthiah Alagappa . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 165–86. Google Scholar
    Lee, Terence (2009). “The armed forces and transitions from authoritarian rule: explaining the role of the military in 1986 Philippines and 1998 Indonesia,” Comparative Political Studies 42: 640–69. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Hodgdon, Benjamin D. (2008). “Frontier country: the political culture of logging and development on the periphery in Laos,” Kyoto Journal 69:58–65. Google Scholar
    International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2017). The Military Balance, 2017. London: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
    Mani, Kristina (2011). “Militares empresarios: approaches to studying the military as an economic actor,” Bulletin of Latin American Research 30: 183–97. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Mietzner, Marcus , and L. Misol (2012). “Military businesses in post-Suharto Indonesia: decline, reform and persistence,” in The Politics of Military 78Reform: Experiences from Indonesia and Nigeria, ed. J. Rüland , M. G. Manea , and H. Born . Heidelberg: Springer, 101–22. Google Scholar
    Montiel, Cristina Jayme (2010). “Social representations of democratic transition: was the Philippine People Power a non-violent power shift or a military coup?,” Asian Journal of Social Psychology 13: 173–84. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    O’Donnell, Guillermo A. (1992). “Transitions, continuities, and paradoxes,” in Issues in Democratic Consolidation: The New South American Democracies in Comparative Perspective, ed. Scott Mainwaring , Guillermo O’Donnell , and Samuel J. Valenzuela . Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 17–52. Google Scholar
    76 Kim, Insoo (2008). Bringing the Military Back in Political Transition: Democratic Transition by and for Powerless Officers in South Korea. Madison, WI: UMI Dissertation Publishing. Google Scholar
    Mietzner, Marcus (2009). Military Politics, Islam, and the State in Indonesia: From Turbulent Transition to Democratic Consolidation. Singapore: ISEAS. Google Scholar
    Mietzner, Marcus (2017). “Stateness and state capacity in post-authoritarian Indonesia: securing democracy’s survival, entrenching its low quality,” unpublished manuscript. Google Scholar
    Ockey, James (2001). “Thailand: the struggle to redefine civil-military relations,” In Coercion and Governance: The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia, ed. Muthiah Alagappa . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 187–209. Google Scholar
    Miranda, Felipe B. , and Ruben F. Ciron (1988). “Development and the military in the Philippines: military perceptions in a time of continuing crisis,” In Soldiers and Stability in Southeast Asia, ed. J. Soedjati Djiwandono and Yong Mun Cheong . Singapore: ISEAS, 163–212. Google Scholar
    Peled, Alon (1995). Soldiers Apart: A Study in Ethnic Military Manpower Policies in Singapore, Israel, and South Africa. Ann Arbor. MI: University of Michigan Press. Google Scholar
    Koehler, Kevin (2016). “Officers and regimes: the historical origins of political military-relations in the Middle East and North Africa,” in Armies and Insurgencies in the Arab Spring, ed. Holger Albrecht , Aurel Croissant , and Fred H. Lawson . Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 34–53. Google Scholar
    Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles: A Biography of Thailand’s Bhumibol Adulyadej. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
    Landé, Carl H. (1965). Leaders, Factions, and Parties: The Structure of Philippine Politics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
    Lissak, Moshe (1976). Military Roles in Modernization: Civil-Military Relations in Thailand and Burma. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. Google Scholar
    Min, Win (2008). “Looking inside the Burmese military,” Asian Survey 48: 1018–37. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Hanson, Victor David (2017). The Second World Wars: How the First Global Conflict Was Fought and Won. New York, NY: Basic Books. Google Scholar
    Kessler, Richard J. (1989). Rebellion and Repression in the Philippines. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    LoGorfo, James P. (1997). Civil Society and Democratization in Thailand, 1973–1992. New York, NY: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Google Scholar
    Mahoney, James , and Dietrich Rueschemeyer (2003). “Comparative historical analysis: achievements and agendas,” in Comparative Historical Analysis in 77the Social Sciences, ed. James Mahoney and Dietrich Rueschemeyer , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3–40. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    79 Perlmutter, Amos (1974). Egypt, the Praetorian State. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Google Scholar
    Powell, Jonathan M. , and Clayton L. Thyne . (2011). “Global instances of coups from 1950 to 2010,” Journal of Peace Research 48: 249–59. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    McCulloch, Lesley (2003). “Trifungsi: the role of the Indonesian military in business,” in The Military As an Economic Actor: Soldiers in Business, ed. Jörn Brömmelhörster and Wolf-Christian Paes . Basingstoke: Palgrave, 94–123. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Pathmanand, Ukrist (2008). “A different coup d’état?,” Journal of Contemporary Asia 38: 124–42. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Hall, Rosalie Arcala (2017). “Philippine military capital after 1986: norming, holdouts and new frontiers,” in Khaki Capital: The Political Economy of the Military in Southeast Asia, ed. Paul W. Chambers and Napisa Waitoolkiat . Copenhagen: NIAS. 271–305. Google Scholar
    Hoadley, John S. (1975). Soldiers and Politics in Souteast Asia: Civil-Military Relations in Comparative Perspective, 1933–1975 (reprint 2012). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books. Google Scholar
    Lee, Eun Ho (1971). The Role of the Military in Nation-Building: A Comparative Study of South Vietnam and South Korea. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Google Scholar
    McCargo, Duncan (2005). “Network monarchy and legitimacy crises in Thailand,” Pacific Review 18:499–519. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Perlmutter, Amos (1977). The Military and Politics in Modern Times: On Professionals, Praetorians, and Ordinary Soldiers. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
    Pion-Berlin, David , and Rafael Martinez (2017). Soldiers, Politicians, and Civilians: Reforming Civil-Military Relations in Democratic Latin America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Shin, Doh-chul , and Rollin F. Tusalem (2009) “East Asia,” in Democratization, ed. C. W. Haerpfer , P. Bernhagen , R. F. Inglehart , and C. Welzel . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 356–76. Google Scholar
    Rappa, Antonio L. (2017). The King and the Making of Modern Thailand. London: Routledge. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Riggs, Fred W. (1966). Thailand: The Modernization of a Bureaucratic Polity. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Google Scholar
    Roosa, John (2007). “Finalising the nation: the Indonesian military as the guarantor of national unity,” Asia Pacific Viewpoint 48:99–111. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Stuart-Fox, Martin (2009). “Laos: the Chinese connection,” Southeast Asian Affairs 2009: 141–69. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Tan, Tai Yong (2011). “The armed forces and politics in Singapore: the persistence of civil-military fusion,” In The Political Resurgence of the Military in Southeast Asia: Conflict and Leadership, ed. Marcus Mietzner . New York, NY: Routledge, 148–67. Google Scholar
    Thayer, Carlyle A. (2017). “The political economy of military-run enterprises in Vietnam,” in Khaki Capital: The Political Economy of the Military in Southeast Asia, ed. Paul W. Chambers and Napisa Waitoolkiat . Copenhagen: NIAS, 130–60. Google Scholar
    Tomsa, Dirk (2008). Party Politics and Democratization in Indonesia: Golkar in the Post-Suharto Era. New York, NY: Routledge. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Somvichian, Kamol (1969). The Thai Military in Politics: An Analytical Study. London: SOAS. Google Scholar
    Vasavakul, Thaveeporn (2001). “From revolutionary heroes to red entrepreneurs,” in Coercion and Governance: The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia, ed. Muthiah Alagappa . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 336–56. Google Scholar
    Walsh, Sean P. (2007). “The roar of the lion city: ethnicity, gender, and culture in the Singapore armed forces,” Armed Forces & Society 33: 265–85. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sidel, John T. (2008). “Social origins of dictatorship and democracy revisited: colonial state and Chinese immigrants in the making of modern Southeast Asia,” Comparative Politics 40: 127–47. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Stockwell, A. J. (1999). “Southeast Asia in war and peace: the end of European colonial empires,” in Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, vol. II, part 2: From World War II to the Present, ed. Nicholas Tarling . New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1–58. Google Scholar
    Steinberg, David I. (2010). Burma/Myanmar: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
    Var, Veasna (2016). “Reform of the royal Cambodian armed forces organization to meet the challenges of the 21st century,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis 28: 249–75. Google Scholar
    80 Samudavanija, Chai-anan (1989). “Thailand: A Stable Semidemocracy,” in Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experiences with Democracy, ed. L. Diamond , J. J. Linz , and S. M. Lipset . Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Google Scholar
    Sahin, Selver B. , and Donald Feaver (2013). “The politics of security sector reform in ‘fragile’ or ‘post-conflict’ settings: a critical review of the experience in Timor-Leste,” Democratization 20: 1056–80. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Tamada, Yoshifumi (1995). “Coups in Thailand, 1980–1991: classmates, internal conflicts and relations with the government of the military,” Southeast Asian Studies 33: 317–39. Google Scholar
    Taylor, Robert H. (1996). “Elections in Burma/Myanmar: for whom and why?,” in The Politics of Elections in Southeast Asia, ed. Robert H. Taylor . Cambridge, MA: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 164–83. Google Scholar
    Woods, Kevin (2011). “Ceasefire capitalism: military–private partnerships, resource concessions and military–state building in the Burma–China borderlands,” Journal of Peasant Studies 38: 747–70. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Slater, Dan (2010a). “Altering authoritarianism: institutional complexity and autocratic agency in Indonesia,” in Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power, ed. James Mahoney and Kathleen Thelen . New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 132–67. Google Scholar
    Yawnghwe, Chao-Tzang (1997). The Politics of Authoritarianism: The State and Political Soldiers in Burma, Indonesia, and Thailand. University of British Columbia: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Google Scholar
    Civil–Military Relations in Southeast Asia Aurel Croissant Google Scholar
    Sarkees, Meredith Reid , and Frank Whelon Wayman (2010). Resort to War: A Data Guide to Inter-State, Extra-State, Intra-State, and Non-State Wars, 1816–2007. Washington, DC: CQ Press. Google Scholar
    Prasirtsuk, Kitti (2015). “Thailand in 2014: another coup, a different coup?,” Asian Survey 55: 200–6. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Steinberg, David I. (2001). Burma, the State of Myanmar. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Google Scholar
    Thompson, Mark R. (1995). The Anti-Marcos Struggle: Personalistic Rule and Democratic Transition in the Philippines. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
    82 Turley, William S. (1977). “Origins and development of communist military leadership in Vietnam,” Armed Forces and Society 3: 219–43. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Woo, Jongseok (2010). “Crafting democratic control of the miltiary in South Korea and the Philippines: the problem of military factions,” Contemporary Politics 16: 369–82. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Wurfel, David (1988). Filipino Politics: Development and Decay. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
    Richardson, Sophie , and Peter Sainsbury (2009). “Security sector reform in Cambodia,” in Security Sector Reform and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, ed. Albrecht Schnabel and Hans-Georg Ehrhart . Tokio: United Nations University Press, 283–96. Google Scholar
    Said, Salim (2006). Legitimizing Military Rule: Indonesian Armed Forces Ideology, 1958–2000. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan. Google Scholar
    Svolik, Milan W. (2012). The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Stuart-Fox, Martin (2002). Buddhist Kingdom, Marxist State: The Making of Modern Laos (2nd edn). Bangkok: White Lotus Press. Google Scholar
    Sundhausen, Ulf (1982). The Road to Power: Indonesian Military Politics, 1945–1967. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
    Raymond, Gregory Vincent (2017). “Naval modernization in Southeast Asia: under the shadow of army dominance?,” Contemporary Southeast Asia 39: 149–77. Google Scholar
    Politics, Political Economy and Identity Mobilization in Indonesia Jamie Davidson Google Scholar
    Ricklefs, Merle Calvin (2008). A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1200. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Google Scholar
    Sirivunnabood, Punchada , and Jacob Ricks (2016). “Professionals and soldiers: measuring professionalism in the Thai military,” Pacific Affairs 89:7–30. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Smith, Martin J. (1991). Burma: Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London: Zed Books. Google Scholar
    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) (2017). Military Expenditure Database, available at https://www.sipri.org (accessed August 3, 2018). Google Scholar
    Tigno, Jorge V. (2018). “The Philippines in 2017,” Asian Survey 58: 142–48. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Samudavanija, Chai-anan (1971). The Politics and Administration of the Thai Budgetary Process. University of Wisconsin: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Google Scholar
    Slater, Dan (2010b). Ordering Power: Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    81 Stuart-Fox, Martin (2006). Laos – May 2006: The Eighth Congress of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party: More of the Same. Available at www.aseanfocus.com/asiananalysis/article.cfm?articleID963. Google Scholar
    Tan, Tai Yong (2001). “Singapore: civil-military fusion,” In Coercion and Governance: The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia, ed. Muthiah Alagappa . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 276–93. Google Scholar
    Thayer, Carlyle A. (2003). “The economic and commercial roles of the Vietnam People’s Army,“ in The Military as an Economic Actor: Soldiers in Business, ed. Jörn Brömmelhörster and Wolf-Christian Paes . Basingstoke: Palgrave, 4–94. Google Scholar
    Womack, Sarah (2009). “Ethnicity and martial races: the Garde indigene of Cambodia in the 1880s and 1890s,” in Colonial Armies in Southeast Asia, ed. Karl Hack and Tobias Rettig , London: Routledge, 107–25. Google Scholar
    Samudavanija, Chai-anan (1982). The Thai Young Turks. Singapore: ISEAS. Google Scholar
    Selth, Andrew (2002). Burma’s Armed Forces: Power without Glory. Norwalk, CT: Eastbridge. Google Scholar
    von der Mehden, Fred (1970). “The military and Thailand in development,” Journal of Comparative Administration November: 323–40. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Wyatt, David K. (1984). Thailand: A Short History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
    Searle, Peter (1999). The Riddle of Malaysian Capitalism: Rent-Seekers or Real Capitalists? Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Google Scholar
    Thayer, Carlyle A. (2013). “Military politics in contemporary Vietnam: political engagement, corporate interests, and professionalism,” In The Political Resurgence of the Military in Southeast Asia: Conflict and Leadership, ed. Muthiah Mietzner . New York, NY: Routledge, 63–84. Google Scholar

    Metrics

    Altmetric attention score

    Full text views

    Total number of HTML views: 0
    Total number of PDF views: 0 *
    Loading metrics...

    Abstract views

    Total abstract views: 0 *
    Loading metrics...

    * Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

    Usage data cannot currently be displayed.