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This paper deals with the global existence for a class of Keller–Segel model with signal-dependent motility and general logistic term under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a higher-dimensional smoothly bounded domain, which can be written as
then the considered system possesses a global classical solution for all sufficiently smooth initial data. Furthermore, the solution converges to the equilibrium
Q-conditional (non-classical) symmetries of the known three-component reaction-diffusion (RD) system [K. Aoki et al. Theor. Popul. Biol. 50, 1–17 (1996)] modelling interaction between farmers and hunter-gatherers are constructed for the first time. A wide variety of Q-conditional symmetries are found, and it is shown that these symmetries are not equivalent to the Lie symmetries. Some operators of Q-conditional (non-classical) symmetry are applied for finding exact solutions of the RD system in question. Properties of the exact solutions (in particular, their asymptotic behaviour) are identified and possible biological interpretation is discussed.
In a planar smoothly bounded domain
$\Omega$
, we consider the model for oncolytic virotherapy given by
$$\left\{ \begin{array}{l} u_t = \Delta u - \nabla \cdot (u\nabla v) - uz, \\[1mm] v_t = - (u+w)v, \\[1mm] w_t = d_w \Delta w - w + uz, \\[1mm] z_t = d_z \Delta z - z - uz + \beta w, \end{array} \right.$$
with positive parameters
$ D_w $
,
$ D_z $
and
$\beta$
. It is firstly shown that whenever
$\beta \lt 1$
, for any choice of
$M \gt 0$
, one can find initial data such that the solution of an associated no-flux initial-boundary value problem, well known to exist globally actually for any choice of
$\beta \gt 0$
, satisfies
$$u\ge M \qquad \mbox{in } \Omega\times (0,\infty).$$
If
$\beta \gt 1$
, however, then for arbitrary initial data the corresponding is seen to have the property that
This may be interpreted as indicating that
$\beta$
plays the role of a critical virus replication rate with regard to efficiency of the considered virotherapy, with corresponding threshold value given by
$\beta = 1$
.
We obtain a new theorem for the non-properness set
$S_f$
of a non-singular polynomial mapping
$f:\mathbb C^n \to \mathbb C^n$
. In particular, our result shows that if f is a counterexample to the Jacobian conjecture, then
$S_f\cap Z \neq \emptyset $
, for every hypersurface Z dominated by
$\mathbb C^{n-1}$
on which some non-singular polynomial
$h: \mathbb C^{n}\to \mathbb C$
is constant. Also, we present topological approaches to the Jacobian conjecture in
$\mathbb C^n$
. As applications, we extend bidimensional results of Rabier, Lê and Weber to higher dimensions.
where ɛ is a small positive parameter, a and b are positive constants, s ∈ (0, 1) and p ∈ (1, ∞) are such that
$sp \in (\frac {3}{2}, 3)$
,
$(-\Delta )^{s}_{p}$
is the fractional p-Laplacian operator, f: ℝ → ℝ is a superlinear continuous function with subcritical growth and V: ℝ3 → ℝ is a continuous potential having a local minimum. We also prove a multiplicity result and relate the number of positive solutions with the topology of the set where the potential V attains its minimum values. Finally, we obtain an existence result when f(u) = uq−1 + γur−1, where γ > 0 is sufficiently small, and the powers q and r satisfy 2p < q < p*s ⩽ r. The main results are obtained by using some appropriate variational arguments.
As a result of field fringing, the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor differs from that predicted by the textbook formula. Using singular perturbations and conformal mapping techniques, we calculate the leading-order correction to the capacitance in the limit of large aspect ratio. We additionally obtain a comparable approximation for the electrostatic attraction between the plates.
This paper is concerned with the existence results for generalized transition waves of space periodic and time heterogeneous lattice Fisher-KPP equations. By constructing appropriate subsolutions and supersolutions, we show that there is a critical wave speed such that a transition wave solution exists as soon as the least mean of wave speed is above this critical speed. Moreover, the critical speed we construct is proved to be minimal in some particular cases, such as space-time periodic or space independent.
The degenerate Cahn–Hilliard equation is a standard model to describe living tissues. It takes into account cell populations undergoing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion effects. In this framework, we consider the usual Cahn–Hilliard equation with a singular single-well potential and degenerate mobility. These degeneracy and singularity induce numerous difficulties, in particular for its numerical simulation. To overcome these issues, we propose a relaxation system formed of two second-order equations which can be solved with standard packages. This system is endowed with an energy and an entropy structure compatible with the limiting equation. Here, we study the theoretical properties of this system: global existence and convergence of the relaxed system to the degenerate Cahn–Hilliard equation. We also study the long-time asymptotics which interest relies on the numerous possible steady states with given mass.
Within the framework of the generalised Landau-de Gennes theory, we identify a Q-tensor-based energy that reduces to the four-constant Oseen–Frank energy when it is considered over orientable uniaxial nematic states. Although the commonly considered version of the Landau-de Gennes theory has an elastic contribution that is at most cubic in components of the Q-tensor and their derivatives, the alternative offered here is quartic in these variables. One clear advantage of our approach over the cubic theory is that the associated minimisation problem is well-posed for a significantly wider choice of elastic constants. In particular, this quartic energy can be used to model nematic-to-isotropic phase transitions for highly disparate elastic constants. In addition to proving well-posedness of the proposed version of the Landau-de Gennes theory, we establish a rigorous connection between this theory and its Oseen–Frank counterpart via a Г-convergence argument in the limit of vanishing nematic correlation length. We also prove strong convergence of the associated minimisers.
The Hopf bifurcation from spike solutions for the classical Gierer–Meinhardt system in a onedimensional interval is considered. The existence of time-periodic solution near the Hopf bifurcation parameter for a boundary spike is rigorously proved by the classical Crandall–Rabinowitz theory. The criteria for the stability of the limit cycle are determined, and it is shown that the limit cycle is unstable.
where 0 < γ < 1, λ > 0 and 0 < s ≤ t < 1 with 4s + 2t > 3. Under certain assumptions on V and f, we show the existence, uniqueness, and monotonicity of positive solution uλ using the variational method. We also give a convergence property of uλ as λ → 0, when λ is regarded as a positive parameter.
We revisit the problem of approximating minimizers of certain convex functionals subject to a convexity constraint by solutions of fourth order equations of Abreu type. This approximation problem was studied in previous articles of Carlier–Radice (Approximation of variational problems with a convexity constraint by PDEs of Abreu type. Calc. Var. Partial Differential Equations58 (2019), no. 5, Art. 170) and the author (Singular Abreu equations and minimizers of convex functionals with a convexity constraint, arXiv:1811.02355v3, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., to appear), under the uniform convexity of both the Lagrangian and constraint barrier. By introducing a new approximating scheme, we completely remove the uniform convexity of both the Lagrangian and constraint barrier. Our analysis is applicable to variational problems motivated by the original 2D Rochet–Choné model in the monopolist's problem in Economics, and variational problems arising in the analysis of wrinkling patterns in floating elastic shells in Elasticity.
where N ⩾ 2, Iα is the Riesz potential with order α ∈ (0, N − 1) and 2 ⩽ p < (N + α)/(N − 2). When the potential V is assumed to be bounded and bounded away from zero, we construct a family of localized bound states of higher topological type that concentrate around the local minimum points of the potential V as ε → 0. These solutions are obtained by combining the Byeon–Wang's penalization approach and the classical symmetric mountain pass theorem.
Suppose that
$G=(V,E)$
is a finite graph with the vertex set
$V$
and the edge set
$E$
. Let
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}$
be the usual graph Laplacian. Consider the nonlinear Schrödinger equation of the form
on the graph
$G$
, where
$f(x,u):V\times \mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$
is a nonlinear real-valued function and
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$
is a parameter. We prove an integral inequality on
$G$
under the assumption that
$G$
satisfies the curvature-dimension type inequality
$CD(m,\unicode[STIX]{x1D709})$
. Then by using the Poincaré–Sobolev inequality, the Trudinger–Moser inequality and the integral inequality on
$G$
, we prove that there is a nontrivial solution to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation if
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}<2\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}_{1}^{2}/m(\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}_{1}-\unicode[STIX]{x1D709})$
, where
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}_{1}$
is the first positive eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian.
where λ > 0 is a real parameter, f belongs to a suitable Lebesgue space,
$\mu \in L^{\infty}$
and
$\mathbb {D}_s^2$
is a nonlocal ‘gradient square’ term given by
Depending on the real parameter λ > 0, we derive existence and non-existence results. The proof of our existence result relies on sharp Calderón–Zygmund type regularity results for the fractional Poisson equation with low integrability data. We also obtain existence results for related problems involving different nonlocal diffusion terms.
We study the partial Gelfand–Shilov regularizing effect and the exponential decay for the solutions to evolution equations associated with a class of accretive non-selfadjoint quadratic operators, which fail to be globally hypoelliptic on the whole phase space. By taking advantage of the associated Gevrey regularizing effects, we study the null-controllability of parabolic equations posed on the whole Euclidean space associated with this class of possibly non-globally hypoelliptic quadratic operators. We prove that these parabolic equations are null-controllable in any positive time from thick control subsets. This thickness property is known to be a necessary and sufficient condition for the null-controllability of the heat equation posed on the whole Euclidean space. Our result shows that this geometric condition turns out to be a sufficient one for the null-controllability of a large class of quadratic differential operators.
We prove certain L2(ℝn) bilinear estimates for Fourier extension operators associated to spheres and hyperboloids under the action of the k-plane transform. As the estimates are L2-based, they follow from bilinear identities: in particular, these are the analogues of a known identity for paraboloids, and may be seen as higher-dimensional versions of the classical L2(ℝ2)-bilinear identity for Fourier extension operators associated to curves in ℝ2.
This is the second part of our study on the spatially heterogeneous predator–prey model where the interaction is governed by a Crowley–Martin type functional response. In part I, we have proved that when the predator competition is strong (i.e. k is large), the model has at most one positive steady-state solution for any
$\mu \in \mathbb {R}$
, moreover it is globally asymptotically stable for any
$\mu >0$
. This part is denoted to study the effect of saturation. Our result shows that the large saturation coefficient (i.e. large m) can not only lead to the uniqueness of positive solutions, but also lead to the multiplicity of positive solutions, moreover the stability of the corresponding positive solutions is also completely obtained. This work can be regarded as a supplement of Ref. [10].
We consider the minimizing problem for the energy functional with prescribed mass constraint related to the fractional non-linear Schrödinger equation with periodic potentials. Using the concentration-compactness principle, we show a complete classification for the existence and non-existence of minimizers for the problem. In the mass-critical case, under a suitable assumption of the potential, we give a detailed description of blow-up behaviour of minimizers once the mass tends to a critical value.