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Savin [‘
$\mathcal {C}^{1}$
regularity for infinity harmonic functions in two dimensions’, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal.3(176) (2005), 351–361] proved that every planar absolutely minimizing Lipschitz (AML) function is continuously differentiable whenever the ambient space is Euclidean. More recently, Peng et al. [‘Regularity of absolute minimizers for continuous convex Hamiltonians’, J. Differential Equations274 (2021), 1115–1164] proved that this property remains true for planar AML functions for certain convex Hamiltonians, using some Euclidean techniques. Their result can be applied to AML functions defined in two-dimensional normed spaces with differentiable norm. In this work we develop a purely non-Euclidean technique to obtain the regularity of planar AML functions in two-dimensional normed spaces with differentiable norm.
This article deals with kinetic Fokker–Planck equations with essentially bounded coefficients. A weak Harnack inequality for nonnegative super-solutions is derived by considering their log-transform and adapting an argument due to S. N. Kružkov (1963). Such a result rests on a new weak Poincaré inequality sharing similarities with the one introduced by W. Wang and L. Zhang in a series of works about ultraparabolic equations (2009, 2011, 2017). This functional inequality is combined with a classical covering argument recently adapted by L. Silvestre and the second author (2020) to kinetic equations.
In this paper, we establish a new fractional interpolation inequality for radially symmetric measurable functions on the whole space $R^{N}$ and a new compact imbedding result about radially symmetric measurable functions. We show that the best constant in the new interpolation inequality can be achieved by a radially symmetric function. As applications of this compactness result, we study the existence of ground states of the nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equation on the whole space $R^{N}$. We also prove an existence result of standing waves and prove their orbital stability.
This paper focuses on a 2D magnetohydrodynamic system with only horizontal dissipation in the domain $\Omega = \mathbb {T}\times \mathbb {R}$ with $\mathbb {T}=[0,\,1]$ being a periodic box. The goal here is to understand the stability problem on perturbations near the background magnetic field $(1,\,0)$. Due to the lack of vertical dissipation, this stability problem is difficult. This paper solves the desired stability problem by simultaneously exploiting two smoothing and stabilizing mechanisms: the enhanced dissipation due to the coupling between the velocity and the magnetic fields, and the strong Poincaré type inequalities for the oscillation part of the solution, namely the difference between the solution and its horizontal average. In addition, the oscillation part of the solution is shown to converge exponentially to zero in $H^{1}$ as $t\to \infty$. As a consequence, the solution converges to its horizontal average asymptotically.
First, we revisit the proof of the existence of an unbounded sequence of non-radial positive vector solutions of synchronized type obtained in S. Peng and Z. Wang [Segregated and synchronized vector solutions for nonlinear Schrödinger systems, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 208 (2013), 305–339] to give a point-wise estimate of the solutions. Taking advantage of these estimates, we then show a non-degeneracy result of the synchronized solutions in some suitable symmetric space by use of the locally Pohozaev identities. The main difficulties of BEC systems come from the interspecies interaction between the components, which never appear in the study of single equations. The idea used to estimate the coupling terms is inspired by the characterization of the Fermat points in the famous Fermat problem, which is the main novelty of this paper.
with positive parameters $D_u,D_w,D_z,\xi _u,\xi _w,\delta _z,\rho$, $\alpha _u,\alpha _w,\mu _u,\beta$. When posed under no-flux boundary conditions in a smoothly bounded domain $\Omega \subset {\mathbb {R}}^{2}$, and along with initial conditions involving suitably regular data, the global existence of classical solution to this system was asserted in Tao and Winkler (2020, J. Differ. Equ. 268, 4973–4997). Based on the suitable quasi-Lyapunov functional, it is shown that when the virus replication rate $\beta <1$, the global classical solution $(u,v,w,z)$ is uniformly bounded and exponentially stabilizes to the constant equilibrium $(1, 0, 0, 0)$ in the topology $(L^{\infty }(\Omega ))^{4}$ as $t\rightarrow \infty$.
We study a variant of the mean curvature flow for closed, convex hypersurfaces where the normal velocity is a non-homogeneous function of the principal curvatures. We show that if the initial hypersurface satisfies a certain pinching condition, then this is preserved and the flow converges to a sphere under rescaling.
We prove the existence of a solution for a class of activator–inhibitor system of type
$- \Delta u +u = f(u) -v$
,
$-\Delta v+ v=u$
in
$\mathbb{R}^{N}$
. The function f is a general nonlinearity which can grow polynomially in dimension
$N\geq 3$
or exponentiallly if
$N=2$
. We are able to treat f when it has critical growth corresponding to the Sobolev space we work with. We transform the system into an equation with a nonlocal term. We find a critical point of the corresponding energy functional defined in the space of functions with norm endowed by a scalar product that takes into account such nonlocal term. For that matter, and due to the lack of compactness, we deal with weak convergent minimizing sequences and sequences of Lagrange multipliers of an action minima problem.
In this paper, we prove several results on the exponential decay in $L^{2}$ norm of the KdV equation on the real line with localized dampings. First, for the linear KdV equation, the exponential decay holds if and only if the averages of the damping coefficient on all intervals of a fixed length have a positive lower bound. Moreover, under the same damping condition, the exponential decay holds for the (nonlinear) KdV equation with small initial data. Finally, with the aid of certain properties of propagation of regularity in Bourgain spaces for solutions of the associated linear system and the unique continuation property, the exponential decay for the KdV equation with large data holds if the damping coefficient has a positive lower bound on $E$, where $E$ is equidistributed over the real line and the complement $E^{c}$ has a finite Lebesgue measure.
\[ \begin{cases} \epsilon^{2}\mbox{div}(a(x)\nabla u(x))+f(x,u)=0 & \text{ in }\Omega,\\ \frac{\partial u}{\partial \nu}=0 & \text{ on }\partial \Omega,\\ \end{cases} \]
where $\Omega$ is a smooth and bounded domain in general dimensional space $\mathbb {R}^{N}$, $\epsilon >0$ is a small parameter and function $a$ is positive. We respectively obtain the locations of interior transition layers of the solutions of the above transition problems that are $L^{1}$-local minimizer and global minimizer of the associated energy functional.
In this study, we consider the nonclassical diffusion equations with time-dependent memory kernels
\begin{equation*} u_{t} - \Delta u_t - \Delta u - \int_0^\infty k^{\prime}_{t}(s) \Delta u(t-s) ds + f( u) = g \end{equation*}
on a bounded domain
$\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^N,\, N\geq 3$
. Firstly, we study the existence and uniqueness of weak solutions and then, we investigate the existence of the time-dependent global attractors
$\mathcal{A}=\{A_t\}_{t\in\mathbb{R}}$
in
$H_0^1(\Omega)\times L^2_{\mu_t}(\mathbb{R}^+,H_0^1(\Omega))$
. Finally, we prove that the asymptotic dynamics of our problem, when
$k_t$
approaches a multiple
$m\delta_0$
of the Dirac mass at zero as
$t\to \infty$
, is close to the one of its formal limit
\begin{equation*}u_{t} - \Delta u_{t} - (1+m)\Delta u + f( u) = g. \end{equation*}
The main novelty of our results is that no restriction on the upper growth of the nonlinearity is imposed and the memory kernel
$k_t(\!\cdot\!)$
depends on time, which allows for instance to describe the dynamics of aging materials.
We study the optimal investment strategy to minimize the probability of lifetime ruin under a general mortality hazard rate. We explore the error between the minimum probability of lifetime ruin and the achieved probability of lifetime ruin if one follows a simple investment strategy inspired by earlier work in this area. We also include numerical examples to illustrate the estimation. We show that the nearly optimal probability of lifetime ruin under the simplified investment strategy is quite close to the original minimum probability of lifetime ruin under reasonable parameter values.
We consider the following class of quasilinear Schrödinger equations proposed in plasma physics and nonlinear optics $-\Delta u+V(x)u+\frac {\kappa }{2}[\Delta (u^{2})]u=h(u)$ in the whole two-dimensional Euclidean space. We establish the existence and qualitative properties of standing wave solutions for a broader class of nonlinear terms $h(s)$ with the critical exponential growth. We apply the dual approach to obtain solutions in the usual Sobolev space $H^{1}(\mathbb {R}^{2})$ when the parameter $\kappa >0$ is sufficiently small. Minimax techniques, Trudinger–Moser inequality and the Nash–Moser iteration method play an essential role in establishing our results.
We investigate the equilibrium configurations of closed planar elastic curves of fixed length, whose stiffness, also known as the bending rigidity, depends on an additional density variable. The underlying variational model relies on the minimisation of a bending energy with respect to shape and density and can be considered as a one-dimensional analogue of the Canham–Helfrich model for heterogeneous biological membranes. We present a generalised Euler–Bernoulli elastica functional featuring a density-dependent stiffness coefficient. In order to treat the inherent nonconvexity of the problem, we introduce an additional length scale in the model by means of a density gradient term. We derive the system of Euler–Lagrange equations and study the bifurcation structure of solutions with respect to the model parameters. Both analytical and numerical results are presented.
In this paper, we discuss the solvability of the p-k-Hessian inequality
$\sigma _{k}^{\frac 1k} ( \lambda ( D_{i} (|Du|^{p-2}$
$ D_{j}u ) ) ) \geq f(u)$
on the entire space
$\mathbb {R}^{n}$
and provide a necessary and sufficient condition, which can be regarded as a generalized Keller–Osserman condition. Furthermore, we obtain the optimal regularity of solution.
We consider the $\mathbb {T}^{4}$ cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS), which is energy-critical. We study the unconditional uniqueness of solutions to the NLS via the cubic Gross–Pitaevskii hierarchy, an uncommon method for NLS analysis which is being explored [24, 35] and does not require the existence of a solution in Strichartz-type spaces. We prove U-V multilinear estimates to replace the previously used Sobolev multilinear estimates. To incorporate the weaker estimates, we work out new combinatorics from scratch and compute, for the first time, the time integration limits, in the recombined Duhamel–Born expansion. The new combinatorics and the U-V estimates then seamlessly conclude the $H^{1}$ unconditional uniqueness for the NLS under the infinite-hierarchy framework. This work establishes a unified scheme to prove $H^{1}$ uniqueness for the $ \mathbb {R}^{3}/\mathbb {R}^{4}/\mathbb {T}^{3}/\mathbb {T}^{4}$ energy-critical Gross–Pitaevskii hierarchies and thus the corresponding NLS.
In this paper, we prove existence results of a one-dimensional periodic solution to equations with the fractional Laplacian of order $s\in (1/2,1)$, singular nonlinearity and gradient term under various situations, including nonlocal contra-part of classical Lienard vector equations, as well other nonlocal versions of classical results know only in the context of second-order ODE. Our proofs are based on degree theory and Perron's method, so before that we need to establish a variety of priori estimates under different assumptions on the nonlinearities appearing in the equations. Besides, we obtain also multiplicity results in a regime where a priori bounds are lost and bifurcation from infinity occurs.