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This paper studies the magnitude homology of graphs focusing mainly on the relationship between its diagonality and the girth. The magnitude and magnitude homology are formulations of the Euler characteristic and the corresponding homology, respectively, for finite metric spaces, first introduced by Leinster and Hepworth–Willerton. Several authors study them restricting to graphs with path metric, and some properties which are similar to the ordinary homology theory have come to light. However, the whole picture of their behaviour is still unrevealed, and it is expected that they catch some geometric properties of graphs. In this article, we show that the girth of graphs partially determines the magnitude homology, that is, the larger girth a graph has, the more homologies near the diagonal part vanish. Furthermore, applying this result to a typical random graph, we investigate how the diagonality of graphs varies statistically as the edge density increases. In particular, we show that there exists a phase transition phenomenon for the diagonality.
The space of Fredholm operators of fixed index is stratified by submanifolds according to the dimension of the kernel. Geometric considerations often lead to questions about the intersections of concrete families of elliptic operators with these submanifolds: Are the intersections nonempty? Are they smooth? What are their codimensions? The purpose of this article is to develop tools to address these questions in equivariant situations. An important motivation for this work are transversality questions for multiple covers of J-holomorphic maps. As an application, we use our framework to give a concise exposition of Wendl’s proof of the superrigidity conjecture.
Homotopy theory folklore tells us that the sheaf defining the cohomology theory
$\operatorname {\mathrm {Tmf}}$
of topological modular forms is unique up to homotopy. Here we provide a proof of this fact, although we claim no originality for the statement. This retroactively reconciles all previous constructions of
$\operatorname {\mathrm {Tmf}}$
.
We show that every orbispace satisfying certain mild hypotheses has ‘enough’ vector bundles. It follows that the $K$-theory of finite rank vector bundles on such orbispaces is a cohomology theory. Global presentation results for smooth orbifolds and derived smooth orbifolds also follow.
For a weight structure w on a triangulated category
$\underline {C}$
we prove that the corresponding weight complex functor and some other (weight-exact) functors are ‘conservative up to weight-degenerate objects’; this improves earlier conservativity formulations. In the case
$w=w^{sph}$
(the spherical weight structure on
$SH$
), we deduce the following converse to the stable Hurewicz theorem:
$H^{sing}_{i}(M)=\{0\}$
for all
$i<0$
if and only if
$M\in SH$
is an extension of a connective spectrum by an acyclic one. We also prove an equivariant version of this statement.
The main idea is to study M that has no weights
$m,\dots ,n$
(‘in the middle’). For
$w=w^{sph}$
, this is the case if there exists a distinguished triangle
$LM\to M\to RM$
, where
$RM$
is an n-connected spectrum and
$LM$
is an
$m-1$
-skeleton (of M) in the sense of Margolis’s definition; this happens whenever
$H^{sing}_i(M)=\{0\}$
for
$m\le i\le n$
and
$H^{sing}_{m-1}(M)$
is a free abelian group. We also consider morphisms that kill weights
$m,\dots ,n$
; those ‘send n-w-skeleta into
$m-1$
-w-skeleta’.
We develop a sheaf cohomology theory of algebraic varieties over an algebraically closed nontrivially valued nonarchimedean field K based on Hrushovski-Loeser’s stable completion. In parallel, we develop a sheaf cohomology of definable subsets in o-minimal expansions of the tropical semi-group
$\Gamma _{\infty }$
, where
$\Gamma $
denotes the value group of K. For quasi-projective varieties, both cohomologies are strongly related by a deformation retraction of the stable completion homeomorphic to a definable subset of
$\Gamma _{\infty }$
. In both contexts, we show that the corresponding cohomology theory satisfies the Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms, finiteness and invariance, and we provide natural bounds of cohomological dimension in each case. As an application, we show that there are finitely many isomorphism types of cohomology groups in definable families. Moreover, due to the strong relation between the stable completion of an algebraic variety and its analytification in the sense of V. Berkovich, we recover and extend results on the singular cohomology of the analytification of algebraic varieties concerning finiteness and invariance.
We study moduli spaces of d-dimensional manifolds with embedded particles and discs, which we refer to as decorations. These spaces admit a model in which points are unparametrised d-dimensional manifolds in
$\mathbb{R}^\infty$
with particles and discs constrained to it. We compare this to the space of d-dimensional manifolds in
$\mathbb{R}^\infty$
with particles and discs that are no longer constrained, i.e. the decorations are decoupled. We show that under certain conditions these spaces cannot be distinguished by homology groups within a range. This generalises work by Bödigheimer–Tillmann for oriented surfaces to different tangential structures and also to higher dimensional manifolds. We also extend this result to moduli spaces with more general submanifolds as decorations and specialise in the case of decorations being embedded circles.
In this paper, we compute the $BP$-cohomology of complex projective Stiefel manifolds. The method involves the homotopy fixed point spectral sequence, and works for complex oriented cohomology theories. We also use these calculations and $BP$-operations to prove new results about equivariant maps between Stiefel manifolds.
We describe an organizing framework for the study of infinitary combinatorics. This framework is Čech cohomology. It describes ZFC principles distinguishing among the ordinals of the form
$\omega _n$
. More precisely, this framework correlates each
$\omega _n$
with an
$(n+1)$
-dimensional generalization of Todorcevic’s walks technique, and begins to account for that technique’s “unreasonable effectiveness” on
$\omega _1$
.
We show in contrast that on higher cardinals
$\kappa $
, the existence of these principles is frequently independent of the ZFC axioms. Finally, we detail implications of these phenomena for the computation of strong homology groups and higher derived limits, deriving independence results in algebraic topology and homological algebra, respectively, in the process.
In this paper we focus on compacta
$K \subseteq \mathbb {R}^3$
which possess a neighbourhood basis that consists of nested solid tori
$T_i$
. We call these sets toroidal. Making use of the classical notion of the geometric index of a curve inside a torus, we introduce the self-geometric index of a toroidal set K, which roughly captures how each torus
$T_{i+1}$
winds inside the previous
$T_i$
as
$i \rightarrow +\infty $
. We then use this index to obtain some results about the realizability of toroidal sets as attractors for homeomorphisms of
$\mathbb {R}^3$
.
We establish a straightforward estimate for the number of open sets with fundamental group constraints needed to cover the total space of fibrations. This leads to vanishing results for simplicial volume and minimal volume entropy, e.g., for certain mapping tori.
For $G = \mathrm {GL}_2, \mathrm {SL}_2, \mathrm {PGL}_2$ we compute the intersection E-polynomials and the intersection Poincaré polynomials of the G-character variety of a compact Riemann surface C and of the moduli space of G-Higgs bundles on C of degree zero. We derive several results concerning the P=W conjectures for these singular moduli spaces.
We construct a complex analytic version of an equivariant cohomology theory which appeared in a paper of Rezk, and which is roughly modelled on the Borel-equivariant cohomology of the double free loop space. The construction is defined on finite, torus-equivariant CW complexes and takes values in coherent holomorphic sheaves over the moduli stack of complex elliptic curves. Our methods involve an inverse limit construction over all finite-dimensional subcomplexes of the double free loop space, following an analogous construction of Kitchloo for single free loop spaces. We show that, for any given complex elliptic curve $\mathcal {C}$, the fiber of our construction over $\mathcal {C}$ is isomorphic to Grojnowski's equivariant elliptic cohomology theory associated to $\mathcal {C}$.
Let $X^{n}$ be an oriented closed generalized $n$-manifold, $n\ge 5$. In our recent paper (Proc. Edinb. Math. Soc. (2) 63 (2020), no. 2, 597–607), we have constructed a map $t:\mathcal {N}(X^{n}) \to H^{st}_{n} ( X^{n}; \mathbb{L}^{+})$ which extends the normal invariant map for the case when $X^{n}$ is a topological $n$-manifold. Here, $\mathcal {N}(X^{n})$ denotes the set of all normal bordism classes of degree one normal maps $(f,\,b): M^{n} \to X^{n},$ and $H^{st}_{*} ( X^{n}; \mathbb{E})$ denotes the Steenrod homology of the spectrum $\mathbb{E}$. An important non-trivial question arose whether the map $t$ is bijective (note that this holds in the case when $X^{n}$ is a topological $n$-manifold). It is the purpose of this paper to prove that the answer to this question is affirmative.
In 1988, Sibe Mardešić and Andrei Prasolov isolated an inverse system
$\textbf {A}$
with the property that the additivity of strong homology on any class of spaces which includes the closed subsets of Euclidean space would entail that
$\lim ^n\textbf {A}$
(the nth derived limit of
$\textbf {A}$
) vanishes for every
$n>0$
. Since that time, the question of whether it is consistent with the
$\mathsf {ZFC}$
axioms that
$\lim ^n \textbf {A}=0$
for every
$n>0$
has remained open. It remains possible as well that this condition in fact implies that strong homology is additive on the category of metric spaces.
We show that assuming the existence of a weakly compact cardinal, it is indeed consistent with the
$\mathsf {ZFC}$
axioms that
$\lim ^n \textbf {A}=0$
for all
$n>0$
. We show this via a finite-support iteration of Hechler forcings which is of weakly compact length. More precisely, we show that in any forcing extension by this iteration, a condition equivalent to
$\lim ^n\textbf {A}=0$
will hold for each
$n>0$
. This condition is of interest in its own right; namely, it is the triviality of every coherent n-dimensional family of certain specified sorts of partial functions
$\mathbb {N}^2\to \mathbb {Z}$
which are indexed in turn by n-tuples of functions
$f:\mathbb {N}\to \mathbb {N}$
. The triviality and coherence in question here generalise the classical and well-studied case of
$n=1$
.
We consider the Birman–Hilden inclusion
$\phi\colon\Br_{2g+1}\to\Gamma_{g,1}$
of the braid group into the mapping class group of an orientable surface with boundary, and prove that
$\phi$
is stably trivial in homology with twisted coefficients in the symplectic representation
$H_1(\Sigma_{g,1})$
of the mapping class group; this generalises a result of Song and Tillmann regarding homology with constant coefficients. Furthermore we show that the stable homology of the braid group with coefficients in
$\phi^*(H_1(\Sigma_{g,1}))$
has only 4-torsion.
Let X be a topologically stratified space, p be any perversity on X and k be a field. We show that the category of p-perverse sheaves on X, constructible with respect to the stratification and with coefficients in k, is equivalent to the category of finite-dimensional modules over a finite-dimensional algebra if and only if X has finitely many strata and the same holds for the category of local systems on each of these. The main component in the proof is a construction of projective covers for simple perverse sheaves.
We prove that the only relation imposed on the Hodge and Chern numbers of a compact Kähler manifold by the existence of a nowhere zero holomorphic one-form is the vanishing of the Hirzebruch genus. We also treat the analogous problem for nowhere zero closed one-forms on smooth manifolds.
We observe that every self-dual ternary code determines a holomorphic
$\mathcal N=1$
superconformal field theory. This provides ternary constructions of some well-known holomorphic
$\mathcal N=1$
superconformal field theories (SCFTs), including Duncan’s “supermoonshine” model and the fermionic “beauty and the beast” model of Dixon, Ginsparg, and Harvey. Along the way, we clarify some issues related to orbifolds of fermionic holomorphic CFTs. We give a simple coding-theoretic description of the supersymmetric index and conjecture that for every self-dual ternary code this index is divisible by
$24$
; we are able to prove this conjecture except in the case when the code has length
$12$
mod
$24$
. Lastly, we discuss a conjecture of Stolz and Teichner relating
$\mathcal N=1$
SCFTs with Topological Modular Forms. This conjecture implies constraints on the supersymmetric indexes of arbitrary holomorphic SCFTs, and suggests (but does not require) that there should be, for each k, a holomorphic
$\mathcal N=1$
SCFT of central charge
$12k$
and index
$24/\gcd (k,24)$
. We give ternary code constructions of SCFTs realizing this suggestion for
$k\leq 5$
.
We calculate the integral equivariant cohomology, in terms of generators and relations, of locally standard torus orbifolds whose odd degree ordinary cohomology vanishes. We begin by studying GKM-orbifolds, which are more general, before specializing to half-dimensional torus actions.