Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Print publication year: 2003
  • Online publication date: December 2009

9 - Autonoetic consciousness

from Part II - Cognitive and neurosciences

Summary

Abstract

The term ‘consciousness’ and its possible cerebral representation are discussed in this chapter. A direct relation between consciousness, especially autonoetic consciousness, and memory - the episodic memory system - is outlined. Episodic memory is defined as the context-embedded memory system which allows mental travelling in time - into both the future and the past. The development and lifelong stability of a controlled, self-generated and self-reflected mental framework which allows us to evaluate past episodes and to anticipate the framework of ones happening in the future constitutes the basis for an integrated - autonoetically conscious - personality. Evidence for the importance of certain brain structures - particularly of the right hemispheric prefrontal and anterior temporal cortex - in processing autonoetic consciousness is provided and patients with impaired consciousness and impaired episodic memory (including patients with schizophrenia) are described, both neuropsychologically and with respect to their neural metabolism, as measured by functional imaging techniques. Stress and trauma situations with which the individual is insufficiently able to cope, but also conditions of psychic or physical deprivation or alteration (sleep deprivation, drug abuse, hormonal changes) influence the neural system and may thereby weaken the episodic memory system and affect autonoetic consciousness. It is speculated that especially portions of the inferior prefrontal and the anterior temporal cortex (predominantly of the right hemisphere) control autonoetic consciousness.

REFERENCES
Abbruzzese, M., Ferri, S., & Scarone, S. (1997). The selective breakdown of frontal functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and in patients with schizophrenia: a double dissociation experimental finding. Neuropsychologia, 35, 907–12
Aleman, A., Hijman, R., Haan, E. H. F. & Kahn, R. S. (1999). Memory impairment in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1358–66
Alexander, M. P. & Stuss, D. R. (1998). On: Capgras syndrome: a reduplicative phenomenon. Journal of Psychomatic Research, 44, 637–9
Andreasen, N. C. (2000). Is schizophrenia a disorder of memory or consciousness? In Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain, ed. E. Tulving, pp. 243–61. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press
Bisiach, E. (1988). The (haunted) brain and consciousness. In Consciousness in Contemporary Science, ed. A. J. Marcel & E. Bisiach, pp. 101–20. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Block, N. (1995). On a confusion about a function of consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 227–47
Bogen, J. E. (1997). Some neurophysiologic aspects of consciousness. Seminars in Neurology, 17, 95–104
Bolton, J. S. (1903). The functions of the frontal lobes. Brain, 26, 215–41
Brébion, G., Smith, M. J., Gorman, J. M. et al. (2000). Memory and schizophrenia: differential link of processing speed and selective attention with two levels of encoding. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 34, 121–7
Buchanan, R. W., Vladar, K., Barta, P. E. & Pearlson, G. D. (1998). Structural evaluation of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1049–55
Byne, W. & Davis, K.-L. (1999). The role of prefrontal cortex in the dopaminergic dysregulation of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 657–9
Calabrese, P., Markowitsch, H. J. et al. (1996). Right temporofrontal cortex as critical locus for the ecphory of old episodic memories. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 61, 304–10
Carter, C. S., Mintun, M., Nichols, T. & Cohen, J. D. (1997). Anterior cingulate gyrus dysfunction and selective attention deficits in schizophrenia: [15O]H2O PET study during single-trial Stroop task performance. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1670–5
Cimino, C. R., Verfaellie, M., Bowers, D. & Heilman, K. M. (1991). Autobiographical memory: influence of right hemisphere damage on emotionality and specificity. Brain and Cognition, 15, 106–18
Collins, A. A., Remington, G. J., Coulter, K. & Birkett, K. (1997). Insight, neurocognitive function and symptom clusters in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 27, 37–44
Conway, M. A. & Pleydell-Pearce, C. W. (2000). The construction of autobiographical memories in the self-memory system. Psychological Review, 107, 261–88
Courtney, S. M., Petit, L., Haxby, J. V. & Ungerleider, L. G. (1998). The role of prefrontal cortex in working memory: examining the contents of consciousness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 353, 1819–28
Craik, F. I. M., Morris, L. W., Morris, R. G. & Loewen, E. R. (1990). Relations between source amnesia and frontal lobe functioning in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 5, 148–51
Damasio, A. R. (1998). Investigating the biology of consciousness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 353, 1879–82
Danion, J. M., Rizzo, L. & Bruant, A. (1999). Functional mechanisms underlying impaired recognition memory and conscious awareness in patients with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 639–44
Daprati, E., Franck, N., Georgieff, N. et al. (1997). Looking for the agent: an investigation into consciousness of action and self-consciousness in schizophrenic patients. Cognition, 65, 71–86
Dercum, F. X. (1925). The thalamus in the physiology and pathology of the mind. A. M. A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 14, 289–302
Donath, J. (1923). Die Bedeutung des Stirnhirns für die höheren seelischen Leistungen [The importance of the frontal lobe for higher psychic processes]. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde, 23, 282–306
Düzel, E., Yonelinas, A. P., Mangun, G. R., Heinze, H.-J. & Tulving, E. (1997). Event-related brain potential correlates of two states of conscious awareness in memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 94, 5973–8
Eslinger, P. J. (1998). Neurological and neuropsychological bases of empathy. European Neurology, 39, 193–9
Farde, L. (1997). Brain imaging of schizophrenia - the dopamine hypothesis. Schizophrenia Research, 28, 157–62
Feinstein, A., Goldberg, T. E., Nowlin, B. & Weinberger, D. R. (1998). Types and characteristics of remote memory impairment in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 30, 155–63
Fink, G. R., Markowitsch, H. J., Reinkemeier, M. et al. (1996). Cerebral representation of one's own past: neural networks involved in autobiographical memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 4275–82
Giacino, J. T. (1997). Disorders of consciousness: differential diagnosis and neuropathologic features. Seminars in Neurology, 17, 105–12
Goldberg, T. E. & Weinberger, D. R. (1995). A case against subtyping in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 17, 147–52
Hameroff, S. R. (1998). ‘Funda-mentality’: is the conscious mind subtly linked to a basic level of the universe? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2, 119–27
Hasselmo, M. E. (1999). Neuromodulation: acetylcholine and memory consolidation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 351–9
Henkel, L. A., Johnson, M. K. & Leonardis, D. M. (1998). Aging and source monitoring: cognitive processes and neuropsychological correlates. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 251–68
Henson, R. N. A., Shallice, T. & Dolan, R. J. (1999). Right prefrontal cortex and episodic memory retrieval: a functional MRI test of the monitoring hypothesis. Brain, 122, 1367–81
Hering, E. (1895). Memory as a General Function of Organized Matter. Chicago: Open Court
Janowsky, J., Shimamura, A. P. & Squire, L. R. (1989). Source memory impairment in patients with frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia, 7, 1043–56
Jetter, J., Poser, U., Freeman, R. B. Jr & Markowitsch, H. J. (1986). A verbal long term memory deficit in frontal lobe damaged patients. Cortex, 22, 229–42
Kapur, N., Ellison, D., Smith, M. P., McLellan, D. L. & Burrows, E. H. (1992). Focal retrograde amnesia following bilateral temporal lobe pathology. Brain, 115, 73–85
Keenan, J. P., Wheeler, M., Gallup, G. G. Jr & Pascual-Leone, A. (2000). Self-recognition and the right prefrontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 338–44
Koch, C. & Crick, F. (1999). Consciousness, neurobiology of. In The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, ed. R. Wilson & F. Keil, pp. 193–5. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Kroll, N., Markowitsch, H. J., Knight, R. & Cramon, D. Y. (1997). Retrieval of old memories - the temporo-frontal hypothesis. Brain, 120, 1377–99
Levine, B. (2000). Self-regulation and autonoetic consciousness. In Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain, ed. E. Tulving, pp. 200–14. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press
Levine, B., Black, S. E., Cabeza, R. et al. (1998). Episodic memory and the self in a case of isolated retrograde amnesia. Brain, 121, 1951–73
Lysaker, P. H., Bell, M. D., Bryson, G. & Kaplan, E. (1998). Neurocognitive function and insight in schizophrenia: support for an association with impairments in executive function but not with impairments in global function. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 97, 297–301
MacLeod, A. K., Buckner, R. L., Miezin, F. M., Petersen, S. E. & Raichle, M. E. (1998). Right anterior prefrontal cortex activation during semantic monitoring and working memory. Neuroimage, 7, 41–8
Markowitsch, H. J. (1992). Intellectual Functions and the Brain. An Historical Perspective. Toronto: Hogrefe and Huber
Markowitsch, H. J. (1995). Cerebral bases of consciousness: a historical view. Neuropsychologia, 33, 1181–92
Markowitsch, H. J. (1996). Organic and psychogenic retrograde amnesia: two sides of the same coin? Neurocase, 2, 357–71
Markowitsch, H. J. (1999a). Koma und Hirntod: Funktionelle Anatomie von Bewußtsein und Bewußtseinsstörungen [Coma and brain death: functional anatomy of consciousness and its disturbances]. In Neurologie in Praxis und Klinik, vol. 1, ed. H. C. Hopf, G. Deuschl, H. C. Diener & H. Reichmann, pp. 60–6. Stuttgart: Thieme
Markowitsch, H. J. (1999b). Functional neuroimaging correlates of functional amnesia. Memory, 7, 561–83
Markowitsch, H. J. (1999c). Neuroimaging and mechanisms of brain function in psychiatric disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 12, 331–7
Markowitsch, H. J. (2000). Memory and amnesia. In Principles of Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, ed. M.-M. Mesulam, pp. 257–93. New York: Oxford University Press
Markowitsch, H. J., Calabrese, P., Haupts, M. et al. (1993a). Searching for the anatomical basis of retrograde amnesia. Journal of Clinicaland Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 947–67
Markowitsch, H. J., Cramon, D. Y. & Schuri, U. (1993b). Mnestic performance profile of a bilateral diencephalic infarct patient with preserved intelligence and severe amnesic disturbances. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 627–52
Markowitsch, H. J., Calabrese, P., Fink, G. R. et al. (1997a). Impaired episodic memory retrieval in a case of probable psychogenic amnesia. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging Section, 74, 119–26
Markowitsch, H. J., Fink, G. R., Thöne, A. I. M., Kessler, J. & Heiss, W.-D. (1997b). Persistent psychogenic amnesia with a PET-proven organic basis. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 2, 135–58
Markowitsch, H. J., Thiel, A., Kessler, J., Stockhausen, H.-M. & Heiss, W.-D. (1997c). Ecphorizing semi-conscious episodic information via the right temporopolar cortex - a PET study. Neurocase, 3, 445–9
Markowitsch, H. J., Kessler, J., Ven, C., Weber-Luxenburger, G. & Heiss, W.-D. (1998). Psychic trauma causing grossly reduced brain metabolism and cognitive deterioration. Neuropsychologia, 36, 77–82
Markowitsch, H. J., Kessler, J., Russ, M. O. et al. (1999). Mnestic block syndrome. Cortex, 35, 219–30
Markowitsch, H. J., Kessler, J., Schramm, U. & Frölich, L. (2000a). Severe degenerative cortical and cerebellar atrophy and progressive dementia in a young adult. Neurocase, 6, 357–64
Markowitsch, H. J., Kessler, J., Weber-Luxenburger, G., Ven, C. & Heiss, W.-D. (2000b). Neuroimaging and behavioral correlates of recovery from ‘mnestic block syndrome’ and other cognitive deteriorations. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 13, 60–6
Markowitsch, H. J., Thiel, A., Reinkemeier, M. et al. (2000c). Right amygdalar and temporofrontal activation during autobiographic, but not during fictitious memory retrieval. Behavioural Neurology, 12, 181–90
McGuire, P. K., Silbersweig, D. A., Wright, I. et al. (1996). The neural correlates of inner speech and auditory verbal imagery in schizophrenia: relationship to auditory verbal hallucinations. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 148–59
Mesulam, M.-M. (2000). Behavioral neuroanatomy: large-scale networks, association cortex, frontal syndromes, the limbic system, and hemispheric specializations. In Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology, 2nd edn, ed. M.-M. Mesulam, pp. 1–120. New York: Oxford University Press
Moscovitch, M. (2000). Theories of memory and consciousness. In The Oxford Handbook of Memory, ed. E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik, pp. 609–26. New York: Oxford University Press
Perner, J. & Ruffman, T. (1995). Episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness: developmental evidence and a theory of childhood amnesia. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 59, 516–48
Perry, E., Walker, M., Grace, J. & Perry, R. (1999). Acetylcholine in mind: a neurotransmitter correlate of consciousness? Trends in Neurosciences, 22, 273–80
Raichle, M. E. (2000). The neural correlates of consciousness: an analysis of cognitive skill learning. In The New Cognitive Neurosciences, 2nd edn, ed. M. S. Gazzaniga, pp. 1305–18. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Romijn, H. (1997). About the origin of consciousness. A new, multidisciplinary perspective on the relationship between brain and mind. Proceedings van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, 100, 181–267
Rossi, A., Arduini, L., Prosperini, P. et al. (2000). Awareness of illness and outcome in schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 250, 73–5
Rueckert, L. & Grafman, J. (1996). Sustained attention deficits in patients with right frontal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 34, 953–63
Rugg, M. D., Fletcher, P. C., Chua, P. M.-L. & Dolan, R. J. (1999). The role of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory and memory for source: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 10, 520–9
Schacter, D. L. (1996). Illusory memories: a cognitive neuroscience analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 93, 13527–33
Schacter, D. L., Curran, T., Galluccio, L., Milberg, W. P. & Bates, J. F. (1996). False recognition and the right frontal lobe: a case study. Neuropsychologia, 34, 793–808
Schacter, D. L., Koutstaal, W. & Norman, K. A. (1997). False memories and aging. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 1, 229–36
Shammi, P. & Stuss, D. T. (1999). Humor appreciation: a role of the right frontal lobe. Brain, 122, 657–66
Sheldrake, R. (1988). The Presence of the Past. New York: Times Books
Silbersweig, D. A., Stern, E., Frith, E. et al. (1995). A funtional neuroanatomy of hallucinations in schizophrenia. Nature, 378, 176–9
Smythies, J. (1999). Consciousness: some basic issues - a neurophilosophical perspective. Consciousness and Cognition, 8, 164–72
Spittler, J. F. (1992). Der Bewutseinsbegriff aus neuropsychiatrischer und in interdisziplinärer Sicht [The term consciousness from neuropsychiatric and interdisciplinary views]. Fortschritte der Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 60, 54–65
Stuss, D. T. & Alexander, M. P. (2000). Affectively burnt in: a proposed role of the right frontal lobe. In Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain, ed. E. Tulving, pp. 215–27. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press
Tononi, G. & Edelman, G. M. (1998). Consciousness and complexity. Science, 282, 1846–51
Tulving, E. (1993). Self-knowledge of an amnesic individual is represented abstractly. In The Mental Representation of Trait and Autobiographical Knowledge about the Self. Advances in Social Cognition, vol. V, ed. T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer Jr, pp. 147–56. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Tulving, E. & Markowitsch, H. J. (1998). Episodic and declarative memory: role of the hippocampus. Hippocampus, 8, 198–204
Tulving, E., Kapur, S., Craik, F. I. M., Moscovitch, M. & Houle, S. (1994). Hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry in episodic memory: positron emission tomography findings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 91, 2016–20
Vargha-Khadem, F., Gadian, D. G., Watkins, K. E. et al. (1997). Differential effects of early hippocampal pathology on episodic and semantic memory. Science, 277, 376–80
Wheeler, M. A. (2000). Episodic memory and autonoetic awareness. In The Oxford Handbook of Memory, ed. E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik, pp. 597–608. New York: Oxford University Press
Wheeler, M. A., Stuss, D. T. & Tulving, E. (1997). Towards a theory of episodic memory. The frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 331–54
Wilkes, K. V. (1988). __, y‘ish‘i, duh, um, and consciousness. In Consciousness in Contemporary Science, ed. A. J. Marcel & E. Bisiach, pp. 16–41. New York: Oxford University Press
Woolf, N. J. (1997). A possible role for cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and pontomesencephalon in consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 6, 574–96
Woolf, N. J. (1999). Cholinergic correlates of consciousness: from mind to molecules. Trends in Neurosciences, 22, 540–1
Young, G. B. & Pigott, S. E. (1999). Neurobiological basis of consciousness. Archives of Neurology, 56, 153–7