Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
Purpose and Cognition
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Digdon, Nancy 2019. Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. p. 1.

    ×

Book description

This book discusses the development of Edward Tolman's purposive behaviourism from the 1920s to the 1950s, highlighting the tension between his references to cognitive processes and the dominant behaviourist trends. It shows how Tolman incorporated concepts from European scholars, including Egon Brunswik and the Gestalt psychologists, to justify a more purposive form of behaviourism and how the theory evolved in response to the criticisms of his contemporaries. The manuscript also discusses Tolman's political activities, culminating in his role in the California loyalty oath controversy in the 1950s. Tolman was involved in a number of progressive causes during his lifetime, activities that drew the attention of both state legislators in California and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. It treats Tolman's theoretical and political activities as emanating from the same source, a desire to understand the learning process in a scientific manner and to apply these concepts to improve the human condition.

Reviews

'Carroll explicitly makes the connection between the historical Tolman and contemporary neuroscience research, casting this 'neobehaviorist' as presaging the so-called 'cognitive revolution'. This volume is an excellent resource for the historian and an attractive supplement for a variety of psychology courses.'

David J. Hardy - Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles

'Edward Tolman changed the face of psychology and cognitive science by his innovative experimentation and big-picture conceptualisations. In Carroll’s Purpose and Cognition the reader gets an immensely enjoyable account of Tolman’s life and contributions, and a flavour of a time when fears of communism permeated even academic institutions.'

Paul A. Dudchenko - University of Stirling, Scotland

'This book will appeal to a wide range of readers interested in the history and theory of psychology and perhaps beyond that to those interested in the broader intellectual milieus of the eras through which the narrative passes, including the history of social activism within academia. … Carroll’s book will provide the reader with sufficient background in Tolman-the-man, Tolman-the-researcher, and Tolman-the-thinker …'

Source: PsycCRITIQUES

'In sum, this book is rich with Edward C. Tolman's struggles to identify empirical phenomena that pointed future theoretical effort in new directions, as well as their impact on modern cognitive science. It will prove most interesting for the historians and students of the history of psychology, who will enjoy reading a work so well documented and written.'

José M. Gondra Source: Journal of The History of the Behavioral Sciences

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

Abraham, T. H. (2002). (Physio)logical circuits: The intellectual origins of the McCulloch-Pitts neural networks. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 38, 325.
Adams, R. W. (1998). The 1918 Spanish influenza, Berkeley’s “Quinta Columna.” Chronicle of the University of California, 1, 4958.
Allen, P. (2004). Abolitionist, suffragist, philanthropist: The life and work of reformer Elizabeth Buffum Chace. Journal of Women’s History, 16, 183190.
Allport, G. W., Hunt, W. A., Klein, D. B., Murphy, G., Rosenzweig, S., Tolman, E. CBurks, B. S. (1940). Report of the committee on displaced foreign psychologists. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 715718.
Allport, G. W. (1936, March 6). Letter to Isadore Krechevsky. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) records, box 186, folder “Correspondence, 1937–1938.”
Allport, G. W. (1940). The psychologist’s frame of reference. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 128.
Allport, G. W. (1943a). The productive paradoxes of William James. Psychological Review, 50, 95120.
Allport, G. W. (1943b). Review of Drives Toward War. Psychological Bulletin, 40, 293296.
Allport, G. W. (1945). Human nature and the peace. Psychological Bulletin, 42, 376378.
Allport, G. W., & Veltfort, H. R. (1943). Social psychology and the civilian war effort. Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 165233.
American Association of University Professors. (1921). Membership. Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors, 7, 5255.
American Peace Society. (1906). List of Members. Advocate of Peace, 68, 199208.
American Psychological Association. (1895). Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the American Psychological Association. Psychological Review, 2, 149172.
American Psychological Association. (1915).Yearbook. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
American Psychological Association. (1936). Proceedings of the forty-fourth meeting of the American Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 33, 677816.
American Psychological Association. (1957). Distinguished scientific contribution awards. American Psychologist, 12, 155168.
American Psychological Association. (1963). Tolman Hall: University of California, Berkeley. American Psychologist, 18, 720721.
American Psychological Association. (1957). Distinguished scientific contribution awards. American Psychologist, 12, 155168.
American Psychological Association. (1983). Awards for distinguished scientific contributions: 1982. American Psychologist, 38, 123.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (1915). ASME Transactions. New York: ASME.
American Unitarian Association. (1889). Annual report of the Board of Directors. Boston: American Unitarian Association.
Amundson, R. (1983). E. C. Tolman and the intervening variable: A study in the epistemological history of psychology. Philosophy of Science, 50, 268281.
Amundson, R. (1985). Psychology and epistemology: The place versus response Controversy. Cognition, 20, 127153.
Amundson, R. (1986). The unknown epistemology of E. C. Tolman. British Journal of Psychology, 77, 525531.
Angell, J. R. (1907). The province of functional psychology. Psychological Review, 14, 6191.
Ash, M. G. (1987). Psychology and politics in interwar Vienna: The Vienna Psychological Institute, 1922–1942. In Ash, M. G. & Woodward, W. R. (Eds.), Psychology in twentieth-century thought and society (pp. 143164). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ash, M. G. (1992). Cultural contexts and scientific change in psychology: Kurt Lewin in Iowa. American Psychologist, 47, 198207.
Ash, M. G. (1998). Gestalt psychology in German culture, 1890–1967: Holism and the quest for objectivity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ash, M. G. (2001). Egon Brunswik before and after emigration: A study in the history of science. In Hammond, K. R. & Stewart, T. R. (Eds.), The essential Brunswik: Beginnings, explications, applications (pp. 453464). New York: Oxford University Press.
Ash, M. G. (2005). The uses and usefulness of psychology. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 600, 99114.
Baars, B. J. (1986). The cognitive revolution in psychology. New York: Guilford Press.
Bandura, A. (2007). Albert Bandura. In Lindzey, G. & Runyan, W. M. (Eds.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. IX, pp. 4375). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Banks, L. M. III (1995). The Office of Strategic Services Psychological Selection Program. Master’s thesis, U. S. Army.
Beals, C. E. (1916). Benjamin Franklin Trueblood. Advocate of Peace, 78, 326329.
Benjamin, L. T. Jr. (2007). A history of psychology in letters (2nd ed.). New York, NY:Wiley-Blackwell.
Benjamin, L. T. Jr. (1979). The Midwestern Psychological Association: A history of the organization and its antecedents, 1902–1978. American Psychologist, 34, 201213.
Benjamin, L. T. Jr. (1997). The origin of psychological species: History of the beginnings of American Psychological Association divisions. American Psychologist, 52, 725732.
Benjamin, L. T. Jr. (2000a). The psychology laboratory at the turn of the 20th century. American Psychologist, 55, 318321.
Benjamin, L. T. Jr. (2000b). Hugo Münsterberg. In Kazdin, A. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 354356). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Benjamin, L. T. Jr. (2006). Hugo Münsterberg’s attack on the application of scientific psychology. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 414425.
Benjamin, L. T. Jr. (2007). A history of psychology in letters (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell.
Bennett, A. T. D. (1996). Do animals have a cognitive map? Journal of Experimental Biology, 199, 219224.
Benveniste, D. (2006). The early history of psychoanalysis in San Francisco. Psychoanalysis and History, 8, 140.
Bettencourt, B. A. (1993). The Western Psychological Association. In Pate, J. L. & Wertheimer, M. (Eds.), No small part: A history of regional organizations in American psychology (pp. 2142). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Bird, K., & Sherwin, M. J. (2005). American Prometheus: The triumph and tragedy of Robert Oppenheimer. New York: Vintage Books.
Black, A. H., Nadel, L., & O’Keefe, J. (1977). Hippocampal function in avoidance learning and punishment. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 11071129.
Blauner, B. (2009). Resisting McCarthyism: To sign or not sign California’s loyalty oath. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Blodgett, H. C. (1929). The effect of the introduction of reward upon the maze performance of rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 113134.
Blodgett, G. T. (1962). The mind of the Boston Mugwump. The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 48, 614634.
Blumberg, A. E. & Feigl, H. (1931). Logical positivism. Journal of Philosophy, 28, 281296.
Boring, E. G. (1920). Statistics of the American Psychological Association in 1920. Psychological Bulletin, 17, 271278.
Boring, E. G. (1927a). The problem of originality in science. The American Journal of Psychology, 39, 7090.
Boring, E. G. (1927b). Edward Bradford Titchener: 1867–1927. The American Journal of Psychology, 38, 489506.
Boring, E. G. (1929). The psychology of controversy. Psychological Review, 36, 97121.
Boring, E. G. (1930). The “Gestalt” psychology and the “Gestalt” movement. The American Journal of Psychology, 42, 308315.
Boring, E. G. (1938). The Society of Experimental Psychologists: 1904–1938. The American Journal of Psychology, 51, 410423.
Boring, E. G., Bryan, A. I., Doll, E. A., Elliott, R. M., Hilgard, E. R., Stone, C. P., & Yerkes, R. M. (1942). First report of the subcommittee on survey and planning in psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 39, 619630.
Boring, M. D., & Boring, E. G. (1948). Masters and pupils among the American psychologists. American Journal of Psychology, 61, 527534.
Bridgman, P.W. (1927). The logic of modern physics. New York: Macmillan.
Bridgman, P. W. (1938). Operational analysis. Philosophy of science, 5, 114131.
Bringmann, W., Bringmann, N. J., & Ungerer, G. A. (1997). The establishment of Wundt’s laboratory: An archival and documentary study. In Benjamin, L. T. Jr., A history of psychology: Original sources and contemporary research (2nd ed., pp. 151157). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Broad, C. D. (1929). The mind and its place in nature. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Company.
Brock, A. (1994). Whatever happened to Karl Bühler? Canadian Psychology, 35, 319329.
Brown, W. (1927). Proceedings of the sixth annual meeting of the Western Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 24, 313315.
Brown, W. (1928). Proceedings of the Western Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 25, 446461.
Brown, W. (1929). Proceedings of the Western Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 26, 114.
Bruce, D. (1994). Lashley and the problem of serial order. American Psychologist, 49, 93103.
Bruce, D. (1996). Lashley, Hebb, connections, and criticisms. Canadian Psychology, 37, 129136.
Bruce, R. H. (1930). The effect of removal of reward on the maze performance of rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 203214.
Bruner, J. E., & Allport, G. W. (1940). Fifty years of change in American psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 757776.
Bruner, J. S. (1980). Jerome S. Bruner. In Lindzey, G. (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 7, pp. 75151). San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman & Company.
Bruner, J. S., Goodnow, J. J., & Austin, G. A. (1956). A study of thinking. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Bruner, J. S., & Postman, L. (1949). On the perception of incongruity: A paradigm. Journal of Personality, 18, 206223.
Bruner, J. S., Postman, L., & Rodrigues, J. (1951). Expectation and the perception of color. American Journal of Psychology, 64, 216227.
Brunswik, E. (1937). Psychology as a science of objective relations. Philosophy of Science, 4, 227260.
Brunswik, E. (1955). Representative design and probabilistic theory in a functional psychology. Psychological Review, 62, 193217.
Buckley, K. W. (1989). Mechanical man: John Broadus Watson and the beginnings of behaviorism. New York: Guilford.
Burks, B. S. (1939). Progress report on the committee on displaced foreign psychologists. Psychological Bulletin, 36, 188190.
Burtt, H. E. (1949). Review of Assessment of men. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 44, 130132.
Calkins, M. W. (1926). Critical comments on the ‘Gestalt-Theorie.’ Psychological Review, 33, 135158.
Camfield, T. M. (1992). The American Psychological Association and World War I: 1914 to 1919. In Evans, R. B., Sexton, V. S., & Cadawallader, T. C. (Eds.), The American Psychological Association: A historical perspective (pp. 91118). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Campbell, D. T. (1979), A tribal model of the social system vehicle carrying scientific knowledge. Science Communication, 1, 181201.
Capshew, J. H. (1986). Networks of leadership: A quantitative study of SPSSI Presidents, 1936–1986. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 75106.
Capshew, J. H. & Hilgard, E. R. (1992). The power of service: World War II and professional reform in the American Psychological Association. In Evans, R. B., Sexton, V. S., & Cadwallader, T. C. (Eds.), The American Psychological Association: A historical perspective (pp. 149175). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Carpintero, H. (2004). Watson’s Behaviorism: A comparison of the two editions (1925 and 1930). History of Psychology, 7, 183202.
Carroll, D. W. (2012). The regents versus the professors: Edward Tolman’s role in the California Loyalty Oath Controversy. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 48, 218235.
Cason, H. (1924). Purposive psychology and the conditioned reflex. Psychological Review, 31, 253255.
Cattell, J. M. (1904). The conceptions and methods of psychology. Popular Science Monthly, 66, 179180.
Cattell, J. M. (1936, April 4). Letter to Isadore Krechevsky. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) records, box 186, folder “Correspondence, 1937–1938.”
Caughey, J. (1969). Farewell to California’s “Loyalty” Oath. The Pacific Historical Review, 38, 123128.
Chace, E. B. (1891). Anti-slavery reminiscences. Central Falls, R. I.: E. L. Freeman & Sons.
Chace, E. B., & Lovell, L. B. (1937). Two Quaker sisters: From the original diaries of Elizabeth Buffum Chace and Lucy Buffum Lovell. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation.
Charles, E. P. (2011). Seeing minds in behavior: Descriptive mentalism. Review of General Psychology, 15, 267276.
Christian Register Association (1913, April 24). Religious intelligence. The Christian Register, 91, 404405.
Chomsky, N. (1959). Review of Verbal Behavior. Language, 35, 2658.
Coover, J. E. (1915). Proceedings of the joint meeting of the American Psychological Association and the Division of Psychology of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, August 3, 4, and 5, 1915. Psychological Bulletin, 12, 313332.
Crannell, C. W. (1971, March 8). Letter to David Krantz. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/9, Student and colleague views of Tolman], Wellcome Library, London.
Crutchfield, R. S., Krech, D., & Tryon, R. C. (1960). Edward Chace Tolman: A life of scientific and social purpose. Science, 131, 714716.
Crutchfield, R. S. & Tolman, E. C. (1940). Multiple-variable design for experiments involving interaction of behavior. Psychological Review, 47, 3842.
Daily Californian (1956, March 19). Back pay granted faculty members (Papers related to the loyalty oath controversy (Box 3, Folder: Clippings), The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
Dallenbach, K. M. (1946). The emergency committee in psychology, National Research Council. The American Journal of Psychology, 59, 496582.
Danziger, K. (1980). The history of introspection reconsidered. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 16, 241262.
Darwin, C. (1859). On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray.
Darwin, C. (1872). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: John Murray.
de Waal, C. (2011). Preface. In Charles, E. P. (Ed.), A new look at New Realism: The psychology and philosophy of E. B. Holt (pp. xiiixxvii). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Dewey, J. (1896). The reflex arc concept in psychology. Psychological Review, 3, 357370.
Dewey, J. (1912). A reply to Professor Royce’s critique of instrumentalism. The Philosophical Review, 21, 6981.
Dewsbury, D. A. (1990). Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA committee on precautions in animal experimentation. American Psychologist, 43, 315327.
Dewsbury, D. A. (1996). Robert M. Yerkes: A psychobiologist with a plan. In Kimble, G. A., Boneau, C. A., & Wertheimer, M. (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 87105). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Dewsbury, D. A. (1998). Animal psychology in journals, 1911 to 1927: Another look at the snark. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112, 400405.
Dewsbury, D. A. (2002). The Chicago five: A family group of integrative psychobiologists. History of Psychology, 5, 1637.
Deutsch, M. E. (1926). (Ed.). The abundant life: Benjamin Ide Wheeler. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Dieffenbach, A. C. (1921, April 21). (Ed.). What they do at Norfolk House. The Christian Register, 100, 378379.
Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Park, J. Y. (2014). An incomplete list of eminent psychologists of the modern era. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 2, 2032.
Dollard, J., Miller, N. E., Doob, L. W., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Douglass, J. A. (2000). The California idea and American higher education: 1850 to the 1960 master plan. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Duncker, K. & Krechevsky, I. (1939). On solution-achievement. Psychological Review, 46, 176185.
Dunlap, K. (1912). The case against introspection. Psychological Review, 19, 404413.
Dunlap, K. (1930). Knight Dunlap. In Murchison, C. (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 2, pp. 3561). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Ebbinghaus, H. (1913). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology (Translated by Ruger, Henry A. and Bussenius, Clara E.). New York City: Teachers College, Columbia University. (Originally published 1885).
Estes, W. K. (1972). Reinforcement in human behavior. American Scientist, 60, 723729.
Estes, W. K. (1988). Learning. In Hilgard, E. R. (Ed.), Fifty years of psychology: Essays in honor of Floyd Ruch (pp. 7592). Boston: Scott Foresman.
Evans, R. B. (1990). The scientific and psychological positions of E.B. Titchener. In Leys, R. & Evans, R. B. (Eds.), Defining American psychology: The correspondence between Adolf Meyer and E.B. Titchener (pp. 139). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Feest, U. (2005a). Giving up instincts in psychology, or not? In Mulberger, A. & Gomez-Zuniga, B. (Eds.), Recent contributions to the history of the human sciences (pp. 242259). Munich: Profil Verlag.
Feest, U. (2005b). Operationism in psychology: What the debate is about, what the debate should be about. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 41, 131149.
Fernberger, S. W. (1921). Further statistics of the American Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 18, 569572.
Fernberger, S. W. (1932). The American Psychological Association: A historical summary, 1892–1930. Psychological Bulletin, 29, 189.
Finison, L. J. (1976). Unemployment, politics, and the history of organized psychology. American Psychologist, 31, 747755.
Finison, L. J. (1977). Psychologists and Spain: A historical note. American Psychologist, 32, 10801084.
Finison, L. J. (1978). Unemployment, politics, and the history of organized psychology, II: The Psychologists League, the WPA, and the National Health Program. American Psychologist, 33, 471477.
Finison, L. J. (1983). The Society for Psychological Study of Social Issues, peace action, and theories of conflict, 1936–1950. American Psychologist, 38, 12501252.
Finison, L. J. (1986). The psychological insurgency: 1936–1945. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 2133.
Fisch, M. (1964). A chronicle of pragmatism, 1865–1879. Monist, 48, 441466.
Freeman, L. (1950, September 7). Psychology group bars California U. New York Times, 1.
Freud, S. (1989). The future of an illusion. New York: Norton. (Originally published 1927).
Friman, P. C., Allen, K. D., Kerwin, M. L. E., & Larzelere, R. (1993). Changes in modern psychology: A citation analysis of the Kuhnian displacement thesis. American Psychologist, 48, 656664.
Fyhn, M., Molden, S., Witter, M. P., Moser, E. I., & Moser, M.-B. (2004). Spatial representation in the entorhinal cortex. Science, 305, 12581264.
Garcia, J. (1976). I. Krechevsky and I: Once upon a time at Berkeley. In Petrinovich, L. & McGaugh, J. L. (Eds.), Knowing, thinking, and believing: Festschrift for Professor David Krech (pp. 7184). New York: Plenum.
Garcia, J. (1981). Tilting at the paper mills of academe. American Psychologist, 36, 149158.
Garcia, J. (1997). Tolman: Creative surges and dubious second thoughts. Review of Collected papers in psychology by Edward C. Tolman. PsycCRITIQUES, 42, 285291.
Garcia, J., Kimeldorf, D. J., & Koelling, R. A. (1955). Conditioned taste aversion to saccharin resulting from exposure to gamma radiation. Science, 122, 157158.
Gardner, D. P. (1967). The California oath controversy. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Gardner, H. (1985). The mind’s new science: A history of the cognitive revolution. New York: Basic Books.
Garvey, C. R. (1929). List of American psychology laboratories. Psychological Bulletin, 26, 652660.
Gigerenzer, G. (2001). Ideas in exile: The struggles of an upright man. In Hammond, K. R. & Stewart, T. R. (Eds.), The essential Brunswik: Beginnings, explications, applications (pp. 445452). New York: Oxford University Press.
Gleitman, H. (1991). Edward Chace Tolman: A life of scientific and social purpose. In Kimble, G. A., Wertheimer, M., & White, C. L. (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (pp. 226241). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Good, J., & Still, A. (1986). Tolman and the tradition of direct perception. British Journal of Psychology, 77, 533539.
Goodenough, F. L. (1933). A note on Tolman’s ‘disproof’ of Thorndike’s law of effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 16, 459462.
Goodwin, C. J. (2005). Reorganizing the Experimentalists: The origins of the Society of Experimental Psychologists. History of Psychology, 8, 347361.
Goodwin, C. J. (2006). Edmund Clark Sanford and the consequences of loyalty. In Dewsbury, D. A., Benjamin, L. T. Jr., & Wertheimer, M. (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 317). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Gottlieb, G. (1972). Zing-Yang Kuo: Radical scientific philosopher and innovative experimentalist (1898–1970). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 30, 110.
Gottsberger, W. S. (1882). Proceedings at the annual meeting of the national civil service issues. New York: National Civil Service Reform League.
Grant, U. S. (1894). Personal memoirs of U. S. Grant. New York: Jenkins and McCowan.
Green, C. D. (1992). Of immortal mythological beasts: Operationism in psychology. Theory and Psychology, 2, 291320.
Green, C. D. (1996). Where did the word “cognitive” come from anyway? Canadian Psychology, 37, 3139.
Green, C. D. (2009). Darwinian theory, functionalism, and the first American psychological revolution. American Psychologist, 64, 7583.
Greenwood, J. D. (1999). Understanding the “cognitive revolution” in psychology. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 35, 122.
Greenwood, J. D. (2009). A conceptual history of psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Grold, J. D. (1961). A History of the University of California Psychology Department at Berkeley, University of California, Berkeley Education Psychology Library.
Guthrie, E. R. (1933). On the nature of psychological explanations. Psychological Review, 40, 124137.
Guthrie, E. R. (1935). The psychology of learning. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Guthrie, E. R. (1937). Tolman on associative learning. Psychological Review, 44, 525528.
Hafting, T., Fyhn, M., Molden, S., Moser, M.-B., & Moser, E. I. (2005). Microstructure of a spatial map in the entorhinal cortex. Nature, 436, 801806.
Haggbloom, S. J., Warnick, R., Warnick, J. E., Jones, V. K., Yarbrough, G. L., Russell, T. M…Monte, E. (2012). The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century. Review of General Psychology, 6, 139152.
Hale, M. Jr. (1980). Human science and social order: Hugo Münsterberg and the origins of applied psychology. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Hamilton, D. A., Akers, K. G., Johnson, T. E., Rice, J. P., Candelaria, F. T., Sutherland, R. JRedhead, E. S. (2008), The relative influence of place and direction in the Morris water task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 34, 3153.
Hammond, K. R. (2001). Comment: A meeting of minds. In Hammond, K. R. & Stewart, T. R. (Eds.), The essential Brunswik: Beginnings, explications, applications (pp. 1516). New York: Oxford University Press.
Handler, L. (2001). Assessment of men: Personality assessment goes to war by the Office of Strategic Services Assessment Staff. Journal of Personality Assessment, 76, 558578.
Hanson, S. J. (1964). Edward Chace Tolman at Northwestern University 1915–1918. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/5, Miscellaneous], Wellcome Library, London.
Harlow, H. F., Harlow, M. K., & Meyer, D. R. (1950). Learning motivated by a manipulation drive. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40, 228234.
Harper, R. S. (1949). Tables of American doctorates in psychology. The American Journal of Psychology, 62, 579587.
Harper, R. S. (1950). The first psychological laboratory. Isis, 41, 158161.
Harrell, W., & Harrison, R. (1938). The rise and fall of behaviorism. The Journal of General Psychology, 18, 367421.
Harris, B. (1986). Reviewing 50 years of the psychology of social issues. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 120.
Harris, B. (2009). Jewish quotas in clinical psychology? The Journal of Clinical Psychology and the scandal of 1945. Review of General Psychology, 13, 252261.
Harris, M. (2014). Five came back: A story of Hollywood and the Second World War. New York: Penguin.
Hartman, G. W. (1939, September 29). Letter to Edward Tolman. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Edward C. Tolman papers, box M132.
Heale, M. J. (1986). Red scare politics: California’s campaign against Un-American activities, 1940–1970. Journal of American Studies, 20, 532.
Hebb, D. O. (1949). The organization of behavior: A neuropsychological theory. New York: Wiley and Sons.
Hebb, D. O. (1951). The role of neurological ideas in psychology. Journal of Personality, 20, 3955.
Hebb, D. O. (1959). Karl Spencer Lashley: 1890–1958. The American Journal of Psychology, 72, 142150.
Hebb, D. O. (1980). D. O. Hebb. In Lindzey, G. (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 7, pp. 273303). San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman & Co.
Heft, H. (2011). Holt’s “recession of the stimulus” and the emergence of the “situation” in psychology. In Charles, E. P. (Ed.), A new look at new realism: The psychology and philosophy of E. B. Holt (pp. 191219). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Henle, M. (1984). Robert M. Ogden and Gestalt psychology in America. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 20, 919.
Herrick, C. J. (1925). The natural history of purpose. Psychological Review, 32, 417430.
Herrnstein, R. J. (1973). Introduction to John B. Watson’s comparative psychology. In Henle, M., Jaynes, J., & Sullivan, J. J. (Eds.), Historical conceptions of psychology (pp. 98115). New York: Springer.
Hildebrand, J. H. (1950, May 4). Statement to Academic Senate. Joel Henry Hildebrand papers [BANC/MSS 71/69]. The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
Hilgard, E. R. (1948). Tolman’s sign-gestalt theory. In Hilgard, E. R. (Ed.), Theories of learning (pp. 261293). East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Hilgard, E. R. (1987). Psychology in America: A historical survey. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Hill, C. W. & Thune, L. E. (1952). Place and response learning in the white rat under simplified and mutually isolated conditions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43, 289297.
Hoffman, L. E. (1992). American psychologists and wartime research on Germany, 1941–1945. American Psychologist, 47, 264273.
Hornstein, G. A. (1992). The return of the repressed: Psychology’s problematic relations with psychoanalysis, 1909–1960. American Psychologist, 47, 254263.
Holt, E. B. (1915). The Freudian wish and its place in ethics. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Holt, E. B. (1912). The place of illusory experience in a realistic world. In Holt, E. B., Marvin, W. T., Montague, W. P., Perry, R. B., Pitkin, W. B., & Spaulding, E. G., The new realism: Cooperative studies in philosophy (pp. 303373). New York: MacMillan.
Holt, E. B., Marvin, M. T., Montague, W. P., Perry, R. B., Pitkin, W. B., & Spaulding, E. G. (1910). The program and first platform of six realists. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, 7, 393401.
Howison, G. H. (1896). Psychology and logic: Further views. Psychological Review, 3, 652657.
Hubel, D. H., & Wiesel, T. N. (1962). Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex. Journal of Physiology, 160, 106154.
Hull, C. L. (1934a). The concept of the habit-family hierarchy, and maze learning. Part I. Psychological Review, 41, 3354.
Hull, C. L. (1934b). The concept of the habit-family hierarchy, and maze learning. Part II. Psychological Review, 41, 134152.
Hull, C. L. (1943a). Principles of behavior: An introduction to behavior theory. Oxford, England: Appleton-Century.
Hull, C. L. (1943b). A postscript concerning intervening variables. Psychological Review, 50, 540.
Hull, C. L. (1952). Clark L. Hull. In Boring, E. G., Werner, H., Langfeld, H. S., & Yerkes, R. M. (Eds.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 4, pp. 143162). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Hunt, W. A. (1948). Review of Assessment of men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services. Psychological Bulletin, 45, 460461.
Hurd, D. H. (1890). History of Middlesex County with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men. Philadelphia: J. W. Lewis & Co.
Indian Rights Association. (1910). The annual report of the executive committee of the Indian Rights Association. Philadelphia: Office of Indian Rights Association.
Innis, N. K. (1987). Edward C. Tolman: Comparative psychologist? In Tobach, E. (Ed.), Historical perspectives and the international status of comparative psychology (pp. 119126), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Innis, N. K. (1992a). Tolman and Tryon: Early research on the inheritance of the ability to learn. American Psychologist, 47, 190197.
Innis, N. K. (1992b). Lessons from the controversy over the loyalty oath at the University of California. Minerva, 30, 337365.
Innis, N. K. (1998). David Krech: Scientist and social activist. In Kimble, G. A. & Wertheimer, M. (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (pp. 294306). Washington, DC: APA.
Innis, N. K. (2003). William McDougall: A major tragedy? In Kimble, G. A. & Wertheimer, M. (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 91108). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Innis, N. K. (2004). Having fun. Unpublished manuscript.
Jacobs, J., Weidemann, C. T., Miller, J. F., Solway, A., Burke, J. F., Wei, X-XKahana, M. J. (2013). Direct recordings of grid-like neuronal activity in human spatial navigation. Nature Neuroscience, 16, 11881191.
James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology (Vol. 1). London: MacMillan and Company.
James, W. (1892, February 21). Letter to Münsterberg. In Perry, R. B. (1935), The thought and character of William James, Volume II: Philosophy and psychology, London: Oxford University Press.
James, W. (1894, April 2). Letter to G. Howison. In Perry, R. B. (1935), The thought and character of William James, Vol. II. Philosophy and psychology. London: Oxford University Press.
James, W. (1898, August 26). Philosophical conceptions and practical results. Paper presented at the Philosophical Union, The University of California, Berkeley.
James, W. (1904a). Does consciousness exist? Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, 1, 477491.
James, W. (1904b, July 31). Letter to James Ward. In Perry, R. B. (1935), The thought and character of William James, Volume II: Philosophy and psychology, London: Oxford University Press.
James, W. (1906, June 28). Letter to Hugo Münsterberg. In Perry, R. B. (1935), The thought and character of William James, Volume II: Philosophy and psychology, London: Oxford University Press.
James, W. (1907). Pragmatism: A new name for some old ways of thinking. New York: Longman’s Green, and Company.
James, W. (1909). A pluralistic universe. New York: Longmans, Green, and Company.
Jeffress, L. A. (1951). (Ed.). Cerebral mechanisms in behavior: The Hixon symposium. New York: Wiley.
Johanssen, D. (1933). Review of Purposive behavior in animals and men. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 28, 222223.
Johnson, M. S. (1993). The second gold rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World War II. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press.
Kantor, J. R. (1920). A functional interpretation of human instincts. Psychological Review, 27, 5072.
Kent, M. T. (2003). The closing circle: A memoir. Berkeley, California: Creative Arts Book Company.
Kent, M. T. (2004). The Loyalty Oath at the University of California. Interview conducted by Germaine LaBerge in 1999, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Kent, M. T. (2004). The Loyalty Oath at the University of California, interview conducted by Germaine LaBerge in 1999, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
Kerr, C. (2003). The gold and the blue: A personal memoir of the University of California, 1947–1967 (Vol. 2). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Keyssar, A. (1985). Social change in Massachusetts in the Gilded Age. In Tager, J. & Ifkovic, J. W. (Eds.), Massachusetts in the Gilded Age (pp. 132147). Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Kimmel, P. R. (1997). A history of Division 9 (Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues). In Dewsbury, D. A. (Ed.), Unification through division: Histories of the divisions of the American Psychological Association (Vol. 2, pp. 953). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Kimmel, P. R. (2011). SPSSI and peace-building: A participant’s perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 67, 122136.
Kinnaman, A. J. (1902). Mental life of two macacus rhesus monkeys in captivity. I., The American Journal of Psychology, 13, 98148.
King, D. B., Montanez-Ramirez, L. M., & Wertheimer, M. (1996). Barbara Stoddard Burks: Pioneer behavioral geneticist and humanitarian. In Kimble, G. A., Boneau, C. A., & Wertheimer, M. (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 213225). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
King, D. B., & Wertheimer, M. (2005). Max Wertheimer & Gestalt theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Kirkwood, J. G., Wulf, O. R., & Epstein, P. S. (1952). Richard Chace Tolman, 1881–1948. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
Kline, L. W. (1899). Methods in animal psychology. The American Journal of Psychology, 10, 256279.
Koch, S. (1941). The logical character of the motivation concept. I. Psychological Review, 48, 1538.
Koch, S. (1959). Epilogue. In Koch, S. (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science (Vol. 3, pp. 729788). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Koffka, K. (1922). Perception: An introduction to Gestalt-theorie. Psychological Bulletin, 19, 531585.
Koffka, K. (1933). Review of Purposive behavior in animals and men. Psychological Bulletin, 30, 440451.
Köhler, W. (1925). The mentality of apes (Translated from the second revised edition by Winter, Ella). New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Köhler, W. (1943). A perspective on American psychology. Psychological Review, 50, 7779.
Köhler, W. (1959). Gestalt psychology today, American Psychologist, 14, 727734.
Kosslyn, S. M., Pick, H. L. Jr., & Fariello, G. R. (1974), Cognitive maps in children and men. Child Development, 45, 707716.
Krantz, D. L., & Wiggins, L. (1973). Personal and impersonal channels of recruitment in the growth of theory. Human Development, 16, 133156.
Krech, D. (1950). Dynamic systems, psychological fields, and hypothetical constructs. Psychological Review, 57, 783790.
Krech, D. (1959). Karl Friedrich Muenzinger: 1885–1958. The American Journal of Psychology, 72, 477479.
Krech, D. (1967). Introduction to the second printing. In Tolman, E. C., Purposive behavior in animals and men (pp. xixvi). New York: Irvington Publishers. Inc.
Krech, D. (1974). David Krech. In Lindzey, G. (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 6, pp. 221250). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Krech, D., & Cartwright, D. (1956). On SPSSI’s first twenty years. American Psychologist, 11, 470473.
Krech, D. & Crutchfield, R. S. (1948). Perceiving the world, In Krech, D. & Crutchfield, R. S. (Eds.), Theory and problems of social psychology (pp. 76109). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Krechevsky, I. (1932). “Hypotheses” in rats. Psychological Review, 39, 516532.
Krechevsky, I. (1933). The docile nature of “hypotheses.” Journal of Comparative Psychology, 15, 429443.
Krechevsky, I. (1935). Brain mechanisms and “hypotheses.” Journal of Comparative Psychology, 19, 425468.
Krechevsky, I. (1936, no date). Letter to members of the American Psychological Association. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) records, box 186, folder 2.
Krechevsky, I. (1940). Notes for SPSSI members: Minutes of the fourth annual meeting of the society, September 1939, Stanford University. The Journal of Social Psychology, 11, 199227.
Kropff, E., Carmichael, J. E., Moser, M.-B., & Moser, E. I. (2015). Speed cells in the medial entorhinal cortex. Nature, 523, 419424.
Krohn, W. O. (1892). Facilities in experimental psychology at various German universities. The American Journal of Psychology, 4, 585594.
Kruglanski, A. W., Chernikova, M., Rosenzweig, E., & Kopetz, C. (2014). On motivational readiness. Psychological Review, 121, 367388.
Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kuklick, B. (1977). The rise of American philosophy: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1860–1930. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Kuo, K.-Y. (1921). Giving up instincts in psychology. Journal of Philosophy, 18, 645664.
Kuo, K.-Y. (1922). How are instincts acquired? Psychological Review, 29, 344365.
Kuo, K.-Y. (1924). A psychology without heredity. Psychological Review, 31, 427448.
Kuo, K.-Y. (1928). The fundamental error of the concept of purpose and the trial and error fallacy. Psychological Review, 35, 414433.
Kuo, Z.-Y. (1976). The dynamics of behavior development. Oxford: Plenum.
Lachman, S. J. (1998). Ross Stagner (1909–1997). American Psychologist, 53, 483.
Ladd, G. T. (1894). President’s address before the New York meeting of the American Psychological Association. Psychological Review, 1, 121.
Landau, B., Spelke, E., & Gleitman, H. (1984). Spatial knowledge in a young blind child. Cognition, 16, 225260.
Landy, F. J. (1992). Hugo Münsterberg: Victim or visionary? American Psychologist, 77, 787802.
Lane, G. (1961). The Eastern Psychological Association: 1986–1960. American Psychologist, 16, 249255.
Langfeld, H. (1945). Symposium on operationism. Psychological Review, 52, 241242.
Langfeld, H. S., & Allport, F. H. (1916). Memory and the learning process. In Langfeld, H. S. & Allport, F. H., An elementary laboratory course in psychology (2nd rev. ed., pp. 122127). Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin, and Company.
Langston, R. F., Ainge, J. A., Couey, J. J., Canto, C. B., Bjerknes, T. L., Witter, M. PMoser, M-B. (2010). Development of the spatial representation system in the rat. Science, 328, 15761580.
Larsen, R. (2008). Jane Loevinger (1918–2008). American Psychologist, 63, 618.
Lashley, K. S. (1918). A simple maze: With data on the relation of the distribution of practice to the rate of learning. Psychobiology, 1, 353367.
Lashley, K. S. (1924). Studies of cerebral function in learning VI: The theory that synaptic resistance is reduced by the passage of the nerve impulse. Psychological Review, 31, 369375.
Lashley, K. S. (1929). Brain mechanisms and intelligence: A quantitative study of injuries to the brain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lashley, K. S. (1930). Basic neural mechanisms in behavior. Psychological Review, 37, 124.
Lashley, K. S. (1951). The problem of serial order in behavior. In Jeffress, L. A. (Ed.), Cerebral mechanisms in behavior: The Hixon symposium (pp. 112146). New York: Wiley.
Leahey, T. (1992). The mythical revolutions of American psychology. American Psychologist, 47, 308318.
Leary, D. E. (1987). From act psychology to probabilistic functionalism: The place of Egon Brunswik in the history of psychology. In Ash, M. G. & Woodward, W. R. (Eds.), Psychology in twentieth-century thought and society (pp. 115142). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levin, M. (1998). Kurt Lewin: His psychology and a daughter’s recollections. In Kimble, G. A. & Wertheimer, M. (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (pp. 105118). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Leytham, G. W. H. (1962). In memory of Edward Chace Tolman (1886–1959). Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 49, 2128.
Levine, D. O. (1988). The American college and the culture of aspiration, 1915–1940. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Lindsay, R. B. (1937). A critique of operationalism in physics. Philosophy of Science, 4, 456470.
Lindsley, D. B., & Harrell, T. W. (1964). History of the Western Psychological Association. American Psychologist, 19, 290291.
Lomax, E. (1977). The Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial: Some of its contributions to early research in child development. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 13, 283293.
Long, E. R. (1982). Earl Warren and the politics of anti-communism. Pacific Historical Review, 51, 5170.
Lovejoy, A. (1930). The revolt against dualism: An inquiry concerning the existence of ideas. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company.
Lubek, I., & Apfelbaum, E. (1987). Neo-behaviorism and the Garcia effect: A social psychology of science approach to the history of a paradigm clash. In Ash, M. G. & Woodward, W. R. (Eds.), Psychology in twentieth-century thought and society (pp. 5991). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
MacCorquodale, K., & Meehl, P. E. (1948). On a distinction between hypothetical constructs and intervening variables. Psychological Review, 55, 95107.
MacCorquodale, K., & Meehl, P. E. (1954). Edward C. Tolman. In Estes, W. K., Koch, S., MacCorquodale, K., Meehl, P. E., Mueller, C. G. Jr., Schoenfeld, W. N., & Verplanck, W. S. (Eds.), Modern learning theory: A critical analysis of five examples (pp. 177266). East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Macfarlane, J. W. (1967). Psychology. In Stadtman, V. A. (Ed.), The Centennial Record of the University of California, 1868–1968 (pp. 99100). Berkeley: University of California.
Mackintosh, N. J. (1986). Tolman and modern conditioning theory. British Journal of Psychology, 77, 517523.
Maguire, E. A., Gadian, D. G., Johnsrude, I. S., Good, C. D., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S. J., & Frith, C. D. (2000). Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, 43984403.
Mandler, G. M. (2002). Origins of the cognitive (r)evolution. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 38, 339353.
Marquis, D. G. (1944). The mobilization of psychologists for war service. Psychological Bulletin, 41, 469473.
Maslow, A. M. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370396.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (1898). Annual report of the president and treasurer. Boston: Rockwell and Churchill Press.
Mayer, R. W. (1972). Psychology, psychologists, and the University of California: The first twenty years, 1880–1900. Proceedings of the 80th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 777–778.
McCulloch, W. S., & Pitts, W. (1943). A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 5, 115133.
McDougall, W. (1908). An introduction to social psychology. London: Methuen.
McDougall, W. (1911). Body and mind: A history and defense of animism. London: Methuen.
McDougall, W. (1921/1922). The use and abuse of instincts in social psychology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 16, 285333.
McDougall, W. (1923). Purposive or mechanical psychology? Psychological Review, 30, 273288.
McDougall, W. (1926). Men or robots? II. In Murchison, C. (Ed.), Psychologies of 1925 (pp. 293305). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
McGaugh, J. L. (1972). Student questionnaire. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/9, Student and colleague views of Tolman], Wellcome Library, London.
McGaugh, J. L. (2004). James L. McGaugh. In Squire, L. (Ed.), The history of neuroscience in autobiography (Vol. 4, pp. 410450). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Menand, L. (2001). The metaphysical club: A story of ideas in America. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.
Miller, G. A. (1951). Language and communication. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 8197.
Miller, G. A. (1975). Some comments on competence and performance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 263, 201204.
Miller, G. A. (1989). George A. Miller. In Lindzey, G. (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 8, pp. 391418). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt.
Miller, N. E. (1935). A reply to ‘Sign-gestalt or conditioned reflex?’ Psychological Review, 42, 280292.
Miles, W. R. (1925). Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the Western Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 22, 325342.
Miles, W. R. (1926). Proceedings of the fifth annual meeting of the Western Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 23, 293304.
Mills, W. (1899). The nature of animal intelligence and the methods of investigating it. Psychological Review, 6, 262274.
Montague, W. P. (1937). The story of American realism. Philosophy, 12, 140161.
Moore, J. W. (1980). A memorial to A. H. Black. Physiological Psychology, 8, 148.
Morawski, J. G. (1986a). Psychologists for society and societies for psychologists: SPSSI’s place among professional organizations. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 111126.
Morawski, J. G. (1986b). Knowledge and behavior at Yale’s Institute of Human Relations. Isis, 77, 219242.
Morris, R. (1984). Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 11, 4760.
Morris, R. G. M., Garrud, P., Rawlins, J. N. P., & O’Keefe, J. (1982). Place navigation in rats with hippocampal lesions. Nature, 297, 681683.
Muenzinger, K. F. (1927). Physical and psychological reality. Psychological Review, 34, 220233.
Münsterberg, H. (1894a). Studies from the Harvard Psychology laboratory I. Psychological Review, 1, 3460.
Münsterberg, H. (1894b). The problems of experimental psychology. In Cattell, J. M., Proceedings of the American Psychological Association. New York: MacMillan and Company.
Münsterberg, H. (1899). Psychology and education. In Münsterberg, H., Psychology and life (pp. 100144). Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin, and Company.
Münsterberg, H. (1907). Psychology and industrial efficiency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Münsterberg, H. (1915). Scope and methods of causal psychology. In Münsterberg, H., Psychology: General and applied (pp. 4358). New York: D. Appleton and Company.
Murchison, C. (1926). Psychologies of 1925. Worcester, MA: Clark University.
Murray, H. A., & Mackinnon, D. W. (1946). Assessment of OSS personnel. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 10, 7680.
National Alliance of Unitarian and Other Christian Women (1910). Manual. New York: The Knickerbocker Press.
Newell, A., Shaw, J. C., & Simon, H. (1958). Elements of a theory of problem solving. Psychological Review, 84, 231259.
Newton, J. (2006). Justice for all: Earl Warren and the nation he made. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.
Neylan, J. F. (1950, March 31). Excerpts from the minutes of the Board of Regents of the University of California, Regular Session. University Archives, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
O’Donnell, J. M. (1985). The origins of behaviorism: American psychology, 1870–1920, New York: New York University Press.
Office of Strategic Services. (1945). Personnel file for Edward C. Tolman, National Archives, (Record Group 226).
Office of Strategic Services Assessment Staff (1948). Assessment of men: Selection of personnel for the Office of Strategic Services. New York: Rinehart.
O’Keefe, J. (1976). Place units in the hippocampus of the freely moving rat. Experimental Neurology, 51, 78109.
O’Keefe, J. & Dostrovsky, J. (1971). The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. Brain Research, 34, 171175
O’Keefe, J., & Nadel, L. (1978). The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Olson, M. C. (1939). Proceedings of the forty-seventh annual meeting of the American Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 36, 740783.
Olton, D. S. (1992). Tolman’s cognitive analyses: Predecessors of current approaches in psychology. American Psychologist, 121, 427428.
Palermo, D. S. (1971). Is a scientific revolution taking place in psychology? Science Studies, 1, 135155.
Paterson, D. G. (1936a). Proceedings of the forty-fourth meeting of the American Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 33, 677816.
Paterson, D. G. (1936b, April 21). Letter to Isadore Krechevsky. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) records, box 186, folder “Correspondence, 1937–1938.”
Paterson, D. G. (1937). Proceedings of the forty-fifth annual meeting of the American Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 639800.
Peirce, C. S. (1868). Questions concerning certain faculties claimed for man. Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 2, 103114.
Peirce, C. S. (1878). How to make our ideas clear. Popular Science Monthly, 12, 286302.
Perry, R. B. (1918). Docility and purposiveness. Psychological Review, 25, 120.
Perry, R. B. (1935). The thought and character of William James (Vol. 1). London: Oxford University Press.
Perry, R. B. (1943). James the psychologist—as a philosopher sees him. Psychological Review, 50, 122124.
Peterson, C., Park, N., & Castro, C. A. (2011). Assessment for the U. S. Army comprehensive soldier fitness program: The global assessment tool. American Psychologist, 66, 1018.
Petrinovich, L., & McGaugh, J. L. (1976), Introduction. In Petrinovich, L. & McGaugh, J. L. (Eds.), Knowing, thinking, and believing: Festschrift for Professor David Krech (pp. 18). New York: Plenum.
Pickren, W. E., & Rutherford, A. (2010). A history of modern psychology in context. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Postman, L., Bruner, J. S., & McGinnies, E. (1948). Personal values as selective factors in perception. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 43, 142154.
Redish, A. D. (2016). Vicarious trial and error. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 17, 147159.
Restle, F. (1957). Discrimination in mazes: A resolution of the “place versus response” controversy. Psychological Review, 64, 217228.
Rilling, M. (2000). Zing-Yang Kuo. In Kazdin, A. E. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 465). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Ritchie, B. F. (1959, December 17). Remarks at a meeting held in memory of Edward C. Tolman. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/11], Wellcome Library, London.
Ritchie, B. F. (1964). Edward Chace Tolman, 1886–1959. Biographical memoirs. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
Roback, A. A. (1937). Who’s who in behaviorism. Cambridge, MA: Sci-Art Publishers.
Roback, A. A. (1952). The structuralism of Titchener. In Roback, A. A. (Ed.), History of American psychology (pp. 180191). New York: Library Publishers.
Roback, A. A. (1960, January 22). Letter to Geoffrey Leytham. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/8, Roback correspondence], Wellcome Library, London.
Roberts, W. H. (1928). Some queries as to Kuo’s doctrine of passivity. Psychological Review, 35, 531532.
Robins, R. W., Gosling, S. D., & Craik, K. H. (1999). An empirical analysis of trends in psychology. American Psychologist, 54, 117128.
Rose, A. C. (2011). The invention of uncertainty in American psychology: Intellectual conflict and rhetorical resolution, 1890–1930. History of Psychology, 14, 356382.
Rosenblueth, A., Weiner, N., & Bigelow, J. (1943). Behavior, purpose and teleology. Philosophy of Science, 10, 1824.
Rosenfeld, S. (2012). Subversives: The FBI’s war on student radicals, and Reagan’s rise to power. New York: Picador.
Rosenzweig, M. R. (2006). Mark R. Rosenzweig. In Squire, L. R. (Ed.), The history of neuroscience in autobiography (Vol. 5, pp. 613654). Burlington, MA: The Society for Neuroscience.
Royce, J. (1892). The inner world and its meaning. In Royce, J., The spirit of modern philosophy: An essay in the form of lectures (pp. 341380). Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin, and Company.
Rudmin, F. (1991). Seventeen early peace psychologists. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 31, 1243.
Rumford, W. B. (1973). Oral history. Interview conducted by Joyce Henderson, Amelia R. Fry, and Edward France [BANC MSS 74 /165 c]. The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Russell, L. J. (1928). Review of The logic of modern physics. Mind, 37, 355361.
Samelson, F. (1981). Struggle for scientific authority: The reception of Watson’s behaviorism, 1913–1920. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 17, 399425.
Samelson, F. (1985). Organizing for the kingdom of behavior: Academic battles and organizational policies in the twenties. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 21, 3347.
Sargent, S. S., & Harris, B. (1986). Academic freedom, civil liberties, and SPSSI. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 4367.
Schachman, H. (2007). UC Berkeley Professor of Molecular Biology: On the Loyalty Oath Controversy, the Free Speech Movement, and Freedom in Scientific Research. Interview conducted by Ann Lage in 2000–2001, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Schlesinger, K. (1991). Robert Choate Tryon: Pioneer in differential psychology. In Kimble, G. A., Wertheimer, M., & White, C. L. (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (pp. 342355). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Scobie, I. W. (1974). Jack B. Tenney and the “parasitic menace”: Anti-communist legislation in California 1940–1949. Pacific Historical Review, 43, 188211.
Scott, J. (2009). Knowledge, power, and academic freedom. Social Research, 76, 451480.
Schrecker, E. W. (1986). No ivory tower: McCarthyism and the universities. New York: Oxford.
Schrecker, E. W. (2009). Subversives, squeaky wheels, and “special obligations”: Threats to academic freedom, 1890–1960. Social Research, 76, 513540.
Scoville, W. B., & Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 20, 1121.
Seligman, E. R. A., Bennett, C. E., Dealey, J. Q., Ely, R. T., Farnam, H. W., Fetter, F. AWeatherly, U. G. (1915). General report of the committee on academic freedom and academic tenure: Presented at the annual meeting of the association, December 1915. Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors, 1, 1543.
Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities (1948). Fourth Report of the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities. Sacramento: California State Legislature.
Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities (1951). Sixth Report of the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities. Sacramento: California State Legislature.
Siebert, W. H. (1896). Light on the Underground Railroad. The American Historical Review, 1, 455463.
Siebert, W. H. (1935). The Underground Railroad in Massachusetts. American Antiquarian Society, 45, 25100.
Siebert, W. H. (1936). The Underground Railroad in Massachusetts. The New England Quarterly, 9, 447467.
Silverman, R. A. (1977). Nathan Matthews: Politics of reform in Boston, 1890–1910. The New England Quarterly, 50, 626643.
Sisson, M. L. (1963, October 31). Letter to Geoffrey Leytham. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/9, Student and colleague views of Tolman], Wellcome Library, London.
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. Oxford, England: Appleton-Century.
Skinner, B. F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57, 193216.
Skinner, B. F. (1966). Preface to the seventh printing. In The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts. (Originally published 1938).
Skinner, D. M., Etchegary, C. M., Ekert-Maret, E. C., Baker, C. J., Harley, C. W., Evans, J. H., & Martin, G. M. (2003). An analysis of response, direction, and place learning in an open field and T maze. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 29, 313.
Small, W. S. (1899). Notes on the psychic development of the young white rat. The American Journal of Psychology, 11, 80100.
Smith, L. D. (1982). Purpose and cognition: The limits of neorealist influence on Tolman’s psychology. Behaviorism, 10, 151163.
Smith, L. D. (1986). Behaviorism and logical positivism: A reassessment of the alliance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Smith, M. B. (1999). Political psychology and peace: A half-century perspective. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 5, 116.
Sokal, M. M. (1984). The Gestalt psychologists in behaviorist America. American Historical Review, 89, 12401263.
Sokal, M. M. (1992). Origins and early years of the American Psychological Association. 1890–1906. American Psychologist, 47, 111122.
Sokal, M. M. (2009). James McKeen Cattell, Nicholas Murray Butler, and academic freedom at Columbia University, 1902–1923. History of Psychology, 12, 87122.
Solstad, T., Baccara, C. N., Kropff, E., Moser, M.-B., & Moser, E. I. (2008). Representation of geometric borders in the entorhinal cortex. Science, 322, 18651868.
Spence, K. W. (1932). The order of eliminating blinds in maze learning. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 14, 927.
Spence, K. W. (1936). The nature of discrimination learning in animals. Psychological Review, 43, 427449.
Spence, K. W. (1942). Theoretical interpretations of learning. In Moss, F. A. (Ed.), Comparative psychology (Rev. Ed., pp. 280329). New York: Prentice-Hall.
Spence, K. W. (1944). The nature of theory construction in contemporary psychology. Psychological Review, 51, 4768.
Spence, K. W. (1948). The postulates and methods of “behaviorism.” Psychological Review, 55, 6778.
Spence, K. W., & Lippitt, R. (1946). An experimental test of the sign-gestalt theory of trial and error learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 491502.
Spiers, J. H. (2011). Landscaping the Garden City: Transportation, utilities, and parks in Newton, Massachusetts, 1874–1915. Historical Geography, 39, 248274.
Spillmann, J., & Spillmann, L. (1993). The rise and fall of Hugo Münsterberg. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 29, 322338.
Sproul, R. G. (1954, August 12). Letter to Edward C. Tolman. The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley, University Archives, CU-5.2, 91:76.
Stadtman, V. A. (Ed.). (1967). The Centennial Record of the University of California, 1868–1968. Berkeley: University of California.
Stadtman, V. A. (1970). The University of California, 1868–1968. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Staff (1907, January 3). [Untitled editorial]. The Nation, 84, p. 2.
Stagner, R. (1986). Reminiscences about the founding of SPSSI. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 3542.
Stam, H. J. & Kalmanovitch, T. (1998). E. L. Thorndike and the origins of animal psychology: On the nature of the animal in psychology. American Psychologist, 53, 11351144.
Stevens, E. C. (1995). Elizabeth Buffum Chace and Lillie Chace Wyman: Motherhood as a subversive activity in nineteenth century Rhode Island. Quaker History, 84, 3758.
Stevens, E. C. (2003). Elizabeth Buffum Chace and Lillie Chace Wyman: A century of abolitionist, suffragist and workers’ rights activism. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company.
Stevens, S. S. (1935a). The operational basis of psychology. The American Journal of Psychology, 47, 323330.
Stevens, S.S. (1935b). The operational definition of psychological concepts. Psychological Review, 42, 517527.
Stevens, S. S. (1939). Psychology and the science of science. Psychological Review, 36, 221263.
Stevenson, L. L. (1979). Women anti-suffragists in the 1915 Massachusetts campaign. The New England Quarterly, 52, 8093.
Stewart, G. (1950). The year of the oath. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Strom, S. H. (1975). Leadership and tactics in the American Woman Suffrage Movement: A new perspective from Massachusetts. The Journal of American History, 62, 296315
Strube, M. J., Yost, J. H., & Bailey, J. R. (1993). William James and contemporary research on the self: The influence of pragmatism, reality, and truth. In Donnelly, M. E. (Ed.), Reinterpreting the legacy of William James (pp. 189207). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Super, D. E. (1949). Review of Assessment of men: Selection of personnel for the Office of Strategic Services. Journal of Applied Psychology, 33, 511515.
Sweetser, M. F. (1889). King’s handbook of Newton Massachusetts. Boston: Moses King Corporation.
Tager, J. (1985). Massachusetts and the Age of Economic Revolution. In Tager, J. & Ifkovic, J. W. (Eds.), Massachusetts in the Gilded Age (pp. 328). Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Tap, B. (1992). Suppression of dissent: Academic freedom at the University of Illinois during the World War I era. Illinois Historical Journal, 85, 222.
Taube, J. S., Muller, R. U., & Ranck, J. B. Jr. (1990). Head-direction cells recorded from the postsubiculum of freely moving rats. I. Description and quantitative analysis. The Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 420435.
Taylor, A. E. (1998). The Academic Senate of the University of California: Its role in the shared governance and operation of the University of California. University of California, Berkeley: Institute of Governmental Studies Press.
Terman, L. M. (1943). Barbara Stoddard Burks, 1903–1943. Psychological Bulletin, 40, 136141.
The regents versus the professors. (1950, October 2). Life, p. 43–46.
Thorndike, E. L. (1898). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of associative processes in animals. Psychological Review Monograph Supplement, 2, i109.
Thorndike, E. L. (1899). A reply to “The nature of animal intelligence and the methods of investigating it.” Psychological Review, 6, 412420.
Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal intelligence: Experimental studies. New York: Macmillan.
Thorndike, E. L. (1936). Edward Lee Thorndike. In Murchison, C. (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 3, pp. 263270). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Thorndike, R. L. (1991). Edward L. Thorndike: A personal and professional appreciation. In Kimble, G. A., Wertheimer, M., & White, C. L. (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (pp. 138151). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Thurstone, L. L. (1923). The stimulus-response fallacy in psychology. Psychological Review, 30, 354369.
Tinklepaugh, O. L. (1928). An experimental study of representative factors in monkeys. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 8, 197236.
Titchener, E. B. (1898). The postulates of a structural psychology. The Philosophical Review, 7, 449465.
Titchener, E. B. (1901–1905). Experimental psychology (Vols. 1–4). New York: MacMillan.
Titchener, E. B. (1909). The experimental psychology of thought. In Titchener, E. B., Lectures on the experimental psychology of the thought-processes (pp. 157194). New York: MacMillan and Company.
Titchener, E. B. (1912a). Prolegomena to a study of introspection. The American Journal of Psychology, 23, 427448.
Titchener, E. B. (1912b). The schema of introspection. The American Journal of Psychology, 23, 485508.
Tolman, E. C. (1915). Studies in memory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Philosophy and Psychology, Harvard University. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron.
Tolman, E. C. (1916, January 28). Letter to A. A. Roback. Papers related to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/8, Roback correspondence]. Wellcome Library, London.
Tolman, E. C. (1917). More concerning the temporal relations between meaning and imagery. Psychological Review, 24, 114138.
Tolman, E. C. (1918a). Nerve process and cognition. Psychological Review, 25, 423442.
Tolman, E. C. (1918b). Retroactive inhibition as affected by conditions of learning. Psychological Monographs, 25, 150.
Tolman, E. C. (1919a). English and mathematical abilities of a group of college students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 10, 95103.
Tolman, E. C. (1919b, May 27). Letter to A. A. Roback. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/8, Roback correspondence], Wellcome Library, London.
Tolman, E. C. (1920). Instinct and purpose. Psychological Review, 27, 217233.
Tolman, E. C. (1922a). A new formula for behaviorism, Psychological Review, 29, 4453.
Tolman, E. C. (1922b). Can instincts be given up in psychology? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 17, 139152.
Tolman, E. C. (1923a). The nature of instinct. Psychological Bulletin, 20, 200216.
Tolman, E. C. (1923b). A behavioristic account of the emotions. Psychological Review, 30, 217227.
Tolman, E. C. (1923c). Mr. Mursell’s concept of sensation. The Journal of Philosophy, 20, 271272.
Tolman, E. C. (1924). The inheritance of maze-learning ability in rats. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 4, 118.
Tolman, E. C. (1925a). Behaviorism and purpose. Journal of Philosophy, 22, 3641.
Tolman, E. C. (1925b). Purpose and cognition: The determiners of animal learning. Psychological Review, 32, 285297.
Tolman, E. C. (1926a). A behavioristic theory of ideas. Psychological Review, 33, 352369.
Tolman, E. C. (1926b). The nature of the fundamental drives. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 20, 247258.
Tolman, E. C. (1927a). Habit formation and higher mental processes in animals. Psychological Bulletin, 24, 135.
Tolman, E. C. (1927b). A behaviorist’s definition of consciousness. Psychological Review, 34, 433439.
Tolman, E. C. (1928a). Purposive behavior. Psychological Review, 35, 524530.
Tolman, E. C. (1928b, August 17). Letter to A. A. Roback. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/8, Roback correspondence], Wellcome Library, London.
Tolman, E. C. (1931, November 16). Letter to B. F. Skinner. HUGFP 60.7. Harvard.
Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York: Century.
Tolman, E. C. (1933a). Sign-gestalt or conditioned reflex? Psychological Review, 40, 246255.
Tolman, E. C. (1933b). Gestalt and sign-gestalt. Psychological Review, 40, 391411.
Tolman, E. C. (1935). Psychology versus immediate experience. Philosophy of Science, 2, 356380.
Tolman, E. C. (1936a). An operational analysis of ‘demands.’ Erkenntnis, 6, 383392.
Tolman, E. C. (1936b, November 10). Letter to A. A. Roback. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/8, Roback correspondence], Wellcome Library, London.
Tolman, E. C. (1937). The acquisition of string-pulling by rats—conditioned response or sign gestalt? Psychological Review, 44, 195211.
Tolman, E. C. (1938a). The determinants of behavior at a choice point. Psychological Review, 45, 141.
Tolman, E. C. (1938b). The law of effect. Psychological Review, 45, 200203.
Tolman, E. C. (1938c, November 14). Letter to B. F. Skinner. Papers of Burrhus Frederick Skinner, HUGFP 60.7, Box 1. Harvard University Archives.
Tolman, E. C. (1938d). Physiology, psychology, and sociology. Psychological Review, 45, 228241.
Tolman, E. C. (1939). Prediction of vicarious trial and error by schematic sowbug. Psychological Review, 46, 318336.
Tolman, E. C. (1941a). Psychological man. The Journal of Social Psychology, SPSSI Bulletin, 13, 205218.
Tolman, E. C. (1941b). Motivation, learning, and adjustment. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 84, 543563.
Tolman, E. C. (1941c). Discrimination vs. learning and the schematic sowbug. Psychological Review, 48, 367382.
Tolman, E. C. (1942). Drives toward war. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Tolman, E. C. (1943). A drive-conversion diagram. Psychological Review, 50, 503513.
Tolman, E. C. (1944, June 28). Letter to Kenneth W. Spence. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Kenneth W. Spence papers. Box M 938, Folder: Miscellaneous correspondence, M-Z.
Tolman, E. C. (1945). A stimulus-expectancy need-cathexis psychology. Science, 101, 160166.
Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 55, 189208.
Tolman, E. C. (1949a). Discussion: Interrelationships between perception and personality: A symposium, Journal of Personality, 11, 4850.
Tolman, E. C. (1949b). There is more than one kind of learning. Psychological Review, 56, 144155.
Tolman, E. C. (1949c). The nature and functioning of wants. Psychological Review, 56, 357369.
Tolman, E. C. (1949d, June 14). Statement to Academic Senate, Papers related to the Loyalty oath controversy (BANC MSS C-B, 1036, Box 1, Letters written by Tolman, 1949–1955), The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1949e, June 14). Letter to Robert Sproul, Papers related to the loyalty oath controversy (BANC MSS C-B 1036, Box 1, Folder: Letters), The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1949f). Syllabus for course in theories of social learning, 254, Harvard University. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Edward Tolman papers, Box M130, Folder: Learning.
Tolman, E. C. (1950a, April 6). Letter to Robert Sproul. Papers related to the Loyalty oath controversy [BANC MSS C-B, 1036, Box 1, Letters written by Tolman, 1949–1955], The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1950b, April 22). Statement to Academic Senate. Papers related to Loyalty oath controversy [BANC MSS C- B 1036, Box 2). The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1950c, June 29). Statement presented at meeting of non-signers. Papers related to Loyalty Oath controversy [BANC MSS C-B 1036, Box 2). The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1950d, July 18). Letter to Robert Sproul, Group for Academic Freedom papers (Box 2, Folder 13, Correspondence with President Sproul), The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1950e, March 7). Personal statement to the Academic Senate. Papers related to Loyalty oath controversy [BANC MSS C- B 1036, Box 2). The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1951). Operational behaviorism and current trends in psychology. In Tolman, E. C. (Ed.), Collected papers in psychology (pp. 115129). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. (Originally published 1936)
Tolman, E. C. (1951a). Collected papers in psychology. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Tolman, E. C. (1951b). Report on the controversy at the University of California. American Psychologist, 6, 6970.
Tolman, E. C. (1951c). A psychological model. In Parsons, T. & Shils, E. A. (Eds.), Toward a general theory of action (pp. 277361). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tolman, E. C. (1951d, July 11). Letter to Robert J. Havighurst, Papers related to the Loyalty Oath controversy (BANC MSS C-B 1036, Box 1, Tolman letters 1949–1955), The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1951e, August 20). Letter to Stringfellow Barr, Papers related to the Loyalty Oath controversy (BANC MSS C-B 1036, Box 1, Folder: Letters), The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1951f, December 14). Letter to Fillmore Sanford, Group for Academic Freedom papers (Box 2, Folder 6), The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1951g, December 31). Letter to Fillmore Sanford, Group for Academic Freedom papers (Box 2, Folder 6), The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Tolman, E. C. (1951h, September 10). Letter to Jerome S. Bruner. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Edward C. Tolman papers, Box M131, Folder: Notes-Tolman.
Tolman, E. C. (1952a). Edward Chace Tolman. In Boring, E. G., Werner, H., Langfeld, H. S., & Yerkes, R. M. (Eds.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 4, pp. 323339), Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Tolman, E. C. (1952b). A cognitive motivation model. Psychological Review, 59, 389400.
Tolman, E. C. (1952c, May 30). Letter to A. A. Roback. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/8, Roback correspondence], Wellcome Library, London.
Tolman, E. C. (1952d, November 18). Letter to Richard Christie. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Edward Tolman papers, Box M132, Folder “Tolman-9.”
Tolman, E. C. (1952e, October 24). Letter to Dael Wolfle. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Edward Tolman papers, Box M132, Folder “Tolman-9.”
Tolman, E. C. (1952f, December 2). Letter to George Hartman. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Edward Tolman papers, Box M132, Folder “Tolman-9.”
Tolman, E. C. (1953a, March 4). Letter to Paul E. Meehl. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Edward Tolman papers, Box M132, Folder “Tolman-9.”
Tolman, E. C. (1953b, October 1). Letter to Leland DeVinney. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Edward Tolman papers, Box M131, Folder “Tolman 1 of 2.”
Tolman, E. C. (1954a, May 25). Letter to Herbert Langfeld, Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Edward Tolman papers, Box M131, Folder “Tolman 2 of 2.”
Tolman, E. C. (1954b). Freedom and the cognitive need. American Psychologist, 9, 535538.
Tolman, E. C. (1955a, March). Introduction to Kohler’s Hitchcock lecture. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/2, Berkeley psychology department], Wellcome Library, London.
Tolman, E. C. (1955b). Principles of performance. Psychological Review, 62, 315326.
Tolman, E. C. (1956). Egon Brunswik: 1903–1955. American Journal of Psychology, 69, 315324.
Tolman, E. C. (1957, December 19). Letter to Sigmund Koch. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Geoffrey W. H. Leytham papers, Box M1044, Folder “Misc. correspondence, H-K.”
Tolman, E. C. (1958, October 9). Letter to Donald O. Hebb. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, The University of Akron, Geoffrey W. H. Leytham papers, Box 1044, Folder “Misc. correspondence, H-K.”
Tolman, E. C. (1959a). Principles of purposive behavior. In Koch, S. (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science (Vol. 2, pp. 92157). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tolman, E. C. (1959b). Performance vectors: A theoretical and experimental attack upon emphasis, effect, and repression. American Psychologist, 14, 17.
Tolman, E. C. (1961). George Malcolm Stratton, 1865–1957. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
Tolman, E. C., & Brunswik, E. (1935). The organism and the causal texture of the environment. Psychological Review, 42, 4377.
Tolman, E. C., Hall, C., & Bretnall, E. P. (1932). A disproof of the law of effect and a substitution of the laws of emphasis, motivation, and disruption. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 15, 601614.
Tolman, E. C., & Honzik, C. H. (1930a). “Insight” in rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 215232.
Tolman, E. C., & Honzik, C. H. (1930b). Degrees of hunger, reward and non-reward, and maze learning in rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 241256.
Tolman, E. C., & Honzik, C. H. (1930c). Introduction and removal of reward, and maze performance in rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 257275.
Tolman, E. C. & Horowitz, J. (1933). A reply to Mr. Koffka. Psychological Bulletin, 30, 459465.
Tolman, E. C., & Jeffress, L. A. (1925). A self-recording maze. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 5, 455463.
Tolman, E. C., & Krechevsky, I. (1933). Means-end-readiness and hypothesis–A contribution to comparative psychology. Psychological Review, 40, 6070.
Tolman, E. C., & Johnson, I. (1918). A note on association-time and feeling. American Journal of Psychology, 29, 187195.
Tolman, E. C., & Postman, L. (1954). Learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 5, 2756.
Tolman, E. C., & Ritchie, B. F. (1943). Correlation between VTE’s on a maze and on a visual discrimination apparatus. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 36, 9198.
Tolman, E. C., Ritchie, B. F., & Kalish, D. (1946a). Studies in spatial learning. I. Orientation and the short-cut. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 1324.
Tolman, E. C., Ritchie, B. F., & Kalish, D. (1946b). Studies in spatial learning. II. Place and response learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 221229.
Tolman, E. J. (1973). Autobiographical essay. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959) [PSY/TOL/1/3 Family Correspondence], Wellcome Library.
Tolman, H. S. (1869). James Tolman. Boston: Rand, Avery, & Frye.
Tolman, H. S. (1891). In memory for Elizabeth M. S. Tolman. National Cyclopedia of American Biography. New York: James T. White Company.
Tolman, K. D. (1961a, July 8). Letter to G. W. H. Leytham. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/3 Family Correspondence], Wellcome Library, London.
Tolman, K. D. (1961b, November 12). Letter to G. W. H. Leytham. Papers related to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/3, Family Correspondence], Wellcome library, London.
Tolman, K. D. (1962a, March 7). Letter to G. W. H. Leytham. Papers related to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/3, Family Correspondence], Wellcome Library, London.
Tolman, K. D. (1962b, July 6). Letter to G. W. H. Leytham. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959) [PSY/TOL/1/3 Family Correspondence], Wellcome Library.
Tolman, M. C. (1897, December). Quakers. Elizabeth Buffum Chace Papers [MS 89.12, Box 3, Folder 4]. John Hay Library, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
Tryon, R. C., Tolman, E. C. & Jeffress, L. A. (1929). A self-recording maze with an auto-delivery table. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 99112.
Turner, F. J. (1920). The significance of the frontier in American history. In Turner, F. J., The frontier in American history. New York: Henry Holt and Company. (Originally published 1893).
Tweney, R. D. (1987). Programmatic research in experimental psychology: E. B. Titchener’s laboratory investigations, 1891–1927. In Ash, M. G. & Woodward, W. R. (Ed.), Psychology in twentieth century thought and society (pp. 3557). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
University of California Regents (1920). Annual report of the president of the university on behalf of the Regents. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
University of California. (1963, March 13). Dedication ceremony of Edward Chace Tolman building. Drs. Nicholas and Dorothy Cummings Center for the History of Psychology, University of Akron, David Krech papers, Box M554.8, folder “misc. and correspondence.”
Varvel, W. A. (1934). A Gestalt critique of purposive behaviorism. Psychological Review, 41, 381399.
Waller, D. (2011). Wild Bill Donovan: The spymaster who created the OSS and modern American espionage. New York: Free Press.
Washburn, M. F. (1922). Introspection as an objective method. Psychological Review, 29, 89112.
Washburn, M. F. (1926a). The animal mind: A textbook of comparative psychology (3rd Ed.). New York: The Macmillan Company.
Washburn, M. F. (1926b). “Gestalt” psychology and motor psychology. The American Journal of Psychology, 37, 516520.
Waters, R. H., & Pennington, L. A. (1938). Operationism in psychology. Psychological Review, 414–423.
Watson, J. B. (1907). Kinaesthetic and organic sensations: Their role in the reactions of the white rat to the maze. Psychological Review Monograph Supplements, 8 (33), 1100.
Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158177.
Watson, J. B. (1914). Behavior—An introduction to comparative psychology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Watson, J. B. (1916). The place of the conditioned-reflex in psychology. Psychological Review, 23, 89116.
Watson, J. B. (1936). John Broadus Watson. In Murchison, C. (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 3, pp. 271281). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Watson, J. B., & Morgan, J. J. B. (1907). Emotional reactions and psychological experimentation. The American Journal of Psychology, 28, 163174.
Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 114.
Wehner, (2003). Desert ant navigation: How miniature brains solve complex tasks. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 189, 579588.
Weimer, W. & Palermo, D. S. (1973). Paradigms and normal science in psychology. Science Studies, 3, 211244.
Weisberg, S. M., Schinazi, V. R., Newcombe, N. S., Shipley, T. F., & Epstein, R. A. (2014). Variations in cognitive maps: Understanding individual differences in navigation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 669682.
Weiss, A. P. (1929). Some succor for Professor Kuo. Psychological Review, 36, 254255.
Wellesley College. (1914). Register of the Wellesley College Alumnae Association. Boston: Frank Wood.
Wessells, M. G. (1996). A history of Division 48 (Peace Psychology). In Dewsbury, D. A. (Ed.), Unification through division, Vol. 1: Histories of the divisions of the American Psychological Association (pp. 265298). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297333.
Whitney, D. D. (1963, July 27). Letter to G. W. H. Leytham. Papers relating to E. C. Tolman (1886–1959), [PSY/TOL/1/3 Family Correspondence], Wellcome Library, London.
Whitney, D. T. (2004). The loyalty oath at the University of California. Interview conducted by Germaine LaBerge in 1999, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.
Williams, K. A. (1931). Five behaviorisms. The American Journal of Psychology, 43, 337360.
Wills, T., Cacucci, F., Burgess, N., & O’Keefe, J. (2010). Development of the hippocampal cognitive map in pre-weaning rats. Science, 328, 15731576.
Wimmer, M. (2014). Kantorowicz’s oaths: A Californian moment in the history of academic freedom. Austrian Journal of Historical Studies, 25, 116147.
Winston, A. S. (1996). “As his name indicates”: R. S. Woodworth’s letters of reference and employment for Jewish psychologists in the 1930s. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 32, 3043.
Winston, A. S. (1998). “The defects of his race”: E. G. Boring and Antisemitism in American Psychology, 1923–1953. History of Psychology, 1, 2751.
Winston, A. S. (2011). Value neutrality and SPSSI: The quest for policy, purity, and legitimacy. Journal of Social Issues, 67, 5972.
Wolfle, D. (1946). The reorganized American Psychological Association. American Psychologist, 1, 36.
Woodward, W. (2010). Russian women émigrés in psychology: Informal Jewish networks. History of Psychology, 13, 111137.
Woodworth, R. S. (1918). Dynamic psychology. New York: Columbia University Press.
Woodworth, R. S. (1927). “Gestalt” psychology and the concept of reaction stages. American Journal of Psychology, 39, 6269.
Wozniak, R. H., & Santiago-Blay, J. A. (2013). Trouble at Tyson Alley: James Mark Baldwin’s arrest in a Baltimore bordello. History of Psychology, 16, 227248.
Wyman, L. B., & Wyman, A. C. (1914). Elizabeth Buffum Chace, 1806–1899: Her life and its environment (Vol. 2). Boston: W. B. Clarke.
Yerkes, R. M. (1907). The dancing mouse: A study in animal behavior. New York: Macmillan.
Yerkes, R. M. (1916). The mental life of monkeys and apes: A study of ideational behavior. Behavior Monographs, 3, 1145.
Yerkes, R. M. (1918). Psychology in relation to the war. Psychological Review, 25, 85115.
Yerkes, R. M. (1920). What psychology contributed to the war. In Yerkes, R. M. (Ed.), The new world of science: Its contribution to the war (pp. 364389). New York: The Century Company.
Yerkes, R. M. (1932). Robert Mearns Yerkes. In Murchison, C. (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography (pp. 381407). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Yerkes, R. M. (1940). Early days of comparative psychology. Psychological Review, 50, 7476.
Yerkes, R. M., & Watson, J. B. (1912). Methods of studying vision in animals. Cambridge, MA: Henry Holt & Company.
Yerkes, R. M., & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459482.
Young, P. T. (1933). Review of Purposive behavior in animals and men. The American Journal of Psychology, 45, 177178.
Zentall, T. R. (2013). Comparative cognition: An approach whose time has come. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 100, 257268.