Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Primate Communication
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 42
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Primates communicate with each other using a wide range of signals: olfactory signals to mark territories, screams to recruit help while fighting, gestures to request food and facial expressions to initiate play. Primate Communication brings together research on all forms of interchange and discusses what we know about primate communication via vocal, gestural, facial, olfactory and integrated multimodal signals in relation to a number of central topics. It explores the morphological, neural and cognitive foundations of primate communication through discussion of cutting-edge research. By considering signals from multiple modalities and taking a unified multimodal approach, the authors offer a uniquely holistic overview of primate communication, discussing what we know, what we don't know and what we may currently misunderstand about communication across these different forms. It is essential reading for researchers interested in primate behaviour, communication and cognition, as well as students of primatology, psychology, anthropology and cognitive sciences.

Reviews

'Primate Communication is appropriate for a wide audience, from those beginning in the field, to those already immersed in it. … [It] is an easily digestible, diverse, and thorough review of the importance of investigating – simultaneously - the multiple ways that primates communicate to each other. I highly recommend it for students, instructors and primate enthusiasts alike!'

Alex K. Piel Source: Primate Eye

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

References
Abbott, D. H. (1984). Behavioral and physiological suppression of fertility in subordinate marmoset monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 6(3), 169–186.
Abbott, D. H., Barrett, J. and George, L. M. (1993). Comparative aspects of the social suppression of reproduction in female marmosets and tamarins. In Rylands, A. B. (ed.), Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 152–163.
Abbott, D. H., Saltzman, W., Schultz-Darken, N. J. and Smith, T. E. (1997). Specific neuroendocrine mechanisms not involving generalized stress mediate social regulation of female reproduction in cooperatively breeding marmoset monkeys. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 807(1), 219–238.
Aboitiz, F., García, R. R., Bosman, C. and Brunetti, E. (2006). Cortical memory mechanisms and language origins. Brain and Language, 98(1), 40–56.
Aitken, P. G. (1981). Cortical control of conditioned and spontaneous vocal behavior in rhesus monkeys. Brain and Language, 13(1), 171–184.
Alcock, J. (1984). Animal Behavior. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.
Allison, T., Puce, A. and McCarthy, G. (2000). Social perception from visual cues: role of the STS region. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(7), 267–278.
Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227–267.
Altmann, S. A. (1962). Social behavior of anthropoid primates: analysis of recent concepts. In Bliss, E. L. (ed.), Roots of Behavior. New York: Harper, pp. 277–285.
Anderson, J. R., Kuroshima, H., Hattori, Y. and Fujita, K. (2010). Flexibility in the use of requesting gestures in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). American Journal of Primatology, 72(8), 707–714.
Anderson, J.R., Kuroshima, H., Kuwahata, H., Fujita, K., Vick, S.-J. (2001). Training squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) to deceive: acquisition and analysis of behavior toward cooperative and competitive trainers. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 115(3), 282–293.
Anderson, J. R., Kuwahata, H. and Fujita, K. (2007). Gaze alternation during ‘pointing’ by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)?Animal Cognition, 10(2), 267–271.
Andrew, R. J. (1963). Evolution of facial expression. Science, 142(3595), 1034–1041.
Ankel-Simons, F. (2000). Primate Anatomy (2nd edn). San Diego, CA: Academia Press.
Arbib, M. A. (2005). From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(2), 105–124.
Arbib, M. A., Liebal, K. and Pika, S. (2008). Primate vocalization, gesture, and the evolution of human language. Current Anthropology, 49(6), 1053–1076.
Arnold, K. and Zuberbühler, K. (2006). Language evolution: Semantic combinations in primate calls. Nature, 441(7091), 303.
Arnold, K. and Zuberbühler, K. (2008). Meaningful call combinations in a non-human primate. Current Biology, 18(5), R202–R203.
Arnold, K. and Zuberbühler, K. (2012). Call combinations in monkeys: Compositional or idiomatic expressions?Brain and Language, 120(3), 303–309.
Arnold, K., Pohlner, Y. and Zuberbühler, K. (2008). A forest monkey’s alarm call series to predator models. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 62(4), 549–559.
Arnold, K., Pohlner, Y. and Zuberbühler, K. (2011). Not words but meanings? Alarm calling behaviour in a forest guenon. In Sommer, V. and Ross, C. (eds), Primates of Gashaka, Vol. 35. New York: Springer, pp. 437–468.
Atsalis, S. (2008). A Natural History of the Brown Mouse Lemur. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Aujard, F. (1997). Effect of vomeronasal organ removal on male socio-sexual responses to female in a prosimian primate (Microcebus murinus). Physiology and Behavior, 62(5), 1003–1008.
Baldwin, L. A. and Teleki, G. (1976). Patterns of gibbon behavior on Hall’s Island, Bermuda: a preliminary ethogram for Hylobates lar. In D. M. Rumbaugh (ed.) Gibbon and Siamang, vol. 4, pp. 21–105.
Bamshad, M. and Albers, E. (1996). Neural circuitry controlling vasopressin-stimulated scent marking in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 369(2), 252–263.
Bard, K. A. (1992). Intentional behavior and intentional communication in young free-ranging orangutans. Child Development, 63(5), 1186–1197.
Bard, K. A. (2003). Development of emotional expressions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1000(1), 88–90.
Bard, K. A. (2007). Neonatal imitation in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) tested with two paradigms. Animal Cognition, 10(2), 233–242.
Baron-Cohen, S. (1992). How monkeys do things with ‘words’. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15(1), 148–149.
Barraclough, N. E. and Perrett, D. I. (2011). From single cells to social perception. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1571), 1739–1752.
Barraclough, N. E., Xiao, D., Baker, C. I., Oram, M. W. and Perrett, D. I. (2005). Integration of visual and auditory information by superior temporal sulcus neurons responsive to the sight of actions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(3), 377–391.
Barrett, J., Abbott, D. H. and George, L. M. (1993). Sensory cues and the suppression of reproduction in subordinate female marmoset monkeys, Callithrix jacchus. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 97(1), 301–310.
Bartlett, T. Q. (2008). The Gibbons of Khao Yai: Seasonal Variation in Behavior and Ecology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Barton, R. A. (2006). Olfactory evolution and behavioral ecology in primates. American Journal of Primatology, 68(6), 545–558.
Barton, R. A. and Harvey, P. H. (2000). Mosaic evolution of brain structure in mammals. Nature, 405(6790), 1055–1057.
Bates, E., Benigni, L., Bretherton, I., Camaioni, L. and Volterra, V. (1979). The Emergence of Symbols: Cognition and Communication in Infancy. New York: Academic Press.
Bates, E., Camaioni, L. and Volterra, V. (1975). The acquisition of performatives prior to speech. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development, 21(3), 205–226.
Bauer, H. R. and Philip, M. M. (1983). Facial and vocal individual recognition in the common chimpanzee. The Psychological Record, 33(2), 161–170.
Bearder, S. K. (1987). Lorises, bush babies, and tarsiers: Diverse societies in solitary foragers. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W. and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds), Primate Societies. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 12–24.
Beauchamp, G. K. and Yamazaki, K. (2005). Individual differences and the chemical senses. Chemical Senses, 30(suppl. 1), i6–i9.
Bekoff, M. (1974). Social play and play-soliciting by infant canids. American Zoologist, 14(1), 323–340.
Belcher, A., Epple, G., Küderling, I. and Smith, A. B. (1988). Volatile components of scent material from cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus o. oedipus). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 14(5), 1367–1384.
Beletsky, L. D. (1983). Aggressive and pair bond maintenance songs of female red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 62(1), 47–54.
Benga, O. (2005). Intentional communication and the anterior cingulate cortex. Interaction Studies, 6(2), 201–221.
Benz, J. J. (1993). Food-elicited vocalizations in golden lion tamarins: design-features for representational communication. Animal Behaviour, 45(3), 443–455.
Benz, J. J., Leger, D. W. and French, J. A. (1992). Relation between food preference and food-elicited vocalizations in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 106(2), 142–149.
Bergman, T. (2013). Speech-like vocalized lip-smacking in geladas. Current Biology, 23(7), R268–269.
Bering, J. M. (2004). A critical review of the ‘enculturation hypothesis’: the effects of human rearing on great ape social cognition. Animal Cognition, 7(4), 201–212.
Berkson, G. and Becker, J. D. (1975). Facial expressions and social responsiveness of blind monkeys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84(5), 519.
Bickerton, D. (1992). Language and Species. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Blaschke, M. and Ettlinger, G. (1987). Pointing as an act of social communication by monkeys. Animal Behaviour, 35(5), 1520–1523.
Bloch, J. I. and Silcox, M. T. (2006). Cranial anatomy of the Paleocene plesiadapiform Carpolestes simpsoni (Mammalia, Primates) using ultra high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, and the relationships of plesiadapiforms to Euprimates. Journal of Human Evolution, 50(1), 1–35.
Bloch, J. I., Silcox, M. T., Boyer, D. M. and Sargis, E. J. (2007). New Paleocene skeletons and the relationship of plesiadapiforms to crown-clade primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(4), 1159–1164.
Bodamer, M. D. and Gardner, R. A. (2002). How cross-fostered chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) initiate and maintain conversations. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 116(1), 12–26.
Bolwig, N. (1964). Facial expression in primates with remarks on a parallel development in certain carnivores (a preliminary report on work in progress). Behaviour, 22(3/4), 167–192.
Bonnie, K. E. and de Waal, F. B. M. (2006). Affiliation promotes the transmission of a social custom: handclasp grooming among captive chimpanzees. Primates, 47(1), 27–34.
Bouchet, H., Blois-Heulin, C. and Lemasson, A. (2012). Age- and sex-specific patterns of vocal behavior in De Brazza’s monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus). American Journal of Primatology, 74(1), 12–28.
Bouchet, H., Blois-Heulin, C., Pellier, A. S., Zuberbühler, K. and Lemasson, A. (2012). Acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness in the vocal repertoire of red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126(1), 45–56.
Bout, N. and Thierry, B. (2005). Peaceful meaning for the silent bared-teeth displays of mandrills. International Journal of Primatology, 26(6), 1215–1228.
Bradbury, J. W. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1998). Principles of Animal Communication. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.
Brentano, F. (1874 [1973]). Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt. Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag.
Bressem, J. (2008). Notating gestures: proposal for a form based notation system of coverbal gestures. Unpublished manuscript.
Brosch, M. and Scheich, H. (2003). Neural representation of sound patterns in the auditory cortex of monkeys. In Ghazanfar, A. A. (ed.), Primate Audition: Ethology and Neurobiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 151–175.
Brown, C. H., Gomez, R. and Waser, P. M. (1995). Old World monkey vocalizations: adaptation to the local habitat?Animal Behaviour, 50(4), 945–961.
Bruner, J. S. (1981). Intention in the structure of action and interaction. In Lipsitt, L. (ed.), Advances in Infancy Research, Vol. 1. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, pp. 41–56.
Bullinger, A. F., Zimmermann, F., Kaminski, J. and Tomasello, M. (2011). Different social motives in the gestural communication of chimpanzees and human children. Developmental Science, 14(1), 58–68.
Burling, R. (2005). The Talking Ape: How Language Evolved. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Burrows, A. M. (2008). The facial expression musculature in primates and its evolutionary significance. Bioessays, 30(3), 212–225.
Burrows, A. M. and Smith, T. D. (2003). Muscles of facial expression in Otolemur, with a comparison to Lemuroidea. Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular Cellular and Evolutionary Biology, 274(1), 827–836.
Burrows, A. M., Diogo, R., Waller, B. M., Bonar, C. J. and Liebal, K. (2011). Evolution of the muscles of facial expression in a monogamous ape: Evaluating the relative influences of ecological and phylogenetic factors in hylobatids. The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, 294(4), 645–663.
Burrows, A. M., Waller, B. M. and Parr, L. A. (2009). Facial musculature in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): evolutionary and functional contexts with comparisons to chimpanzees and humans. Journal of Anatomy, 215(3), 320–334.
Burrows, A. M., Waller, B. M., Parr, L. A. and Bonar, C. J. (2006). Muscles of facial expression in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): descriptive, comparative and phylogenetic contexts. Journal of Anatomy, 208(2), 153–167.
Butterworth, G. (1998). What is special about pointing in babies? In Simion, F. and Butterworth, G. (eds), The Development of Sensory, Motor and Cognitive Capacities in Early Infancy: From Perception to Cognition. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press, pp. 171–187.
Byrne, R. W. and Bates, L. A. (2006). Why are animals cognitive?Current Biology, 16(12), R445–448.
Caeiro, C., Waller, B. M., Zimmerman, E., Burrows, A. M. and Davila-Ross, M. (2013). OrangFACS: a muscle-based facial movement coding system for orangutans (Pongo spp.). International Journal of Primatology, 34(1), 115–129.
Caine, N. G., Addington, R. L. and Windfelder, T. L. (1995). Factors affecting the rates of food calls given by red-bellied tamarins. Animal Behaviour, 50(1), 53–60.
Call, J. and Tomasello, M. (1994). Production and comprehension of referential pointing by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 108(4), 307–317.
Call, J. and Tomasello, M. (eds). (2007). The Gestural Communication of Apes and Monkeys. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Call, J., Agnetta, B. and Tomasello, M. (2000). Cues that chimpanzees do and do not use to find hidden objects. Animal Cognition, 3(1), 23–34.
Calvert, G. A. (2001). Crossmodal processing in the human brain: Insights from functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex, 11(12), 1110–1123.
Campbell, M. W. and de Waal, F. B. M. (2011). Ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy. PLoS One, 6(4), e18283.
Candiotti, A., Zuberbühler, K. and Lemasson, A. (2012a). Convergence and divergence in Diana monkey vocalizations. Biology Letters, 8(3), 382–385.
Candiotti, A., Zuberbühler, K. and Lemasson, A. (2012b). Context-related call combinations in female Diana monkeys. Animal Cognition, 15(3), 327–339.
Candland, D. K., Blumer, E. S. and Mumford, M. D. (1980). Urine as a communicator in a New World primate, Saimiri sciureus. Animal Learning and Behavior, 8(3), 468–480.
Cantalupo, C. and Hopkins, W. D. (2001). Asymmetric Broca’s area in great apes: a region of the ape brain is uncannily similar to one linked with speech in humans. Nature, 414(6863), 505–505.
Carpenter, C. R. (1940) A Field Study in Siam of the Behavior and Social Relations of the Gibbon (Hylobates lar). New York: The Johns Hopkins Press pp. 1–212.
Carpenter, M., Nagell, K. and Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63(4), 1–174.
Cartmill, E. A. and Byrne, R. W. (2007). Orangutans modify their gestural signalling according to their audience’s comprehension. Current Biology, 17(15), 1345–1348.
Cartmill, E. A. and Byrne, R. W. (2010). Semantics of primate gestures: intentional meanings of orangutan gestures. Animal Cognition, 13(6), 793–804.
Cartmill, M. (1972). Arboreal adaptations and the origin of the order Primates. In Tuttle, R. H. (ed.), The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates. Chicago, IL: Aldine-Atherton, pp. 97–122.
Cartmill, M. (1974). Rethinking primate origins. Science, 184(4135), 436–443.
Cartmill, M. (1992). New views on primate origins. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 1(3), 105–111.
Cäsar, C., Byrne, R., Young, R. J. and Zuberbühler, K. (2012a). The alarm call system of wild black-fronted titi monkeys, Callicebus nigrifrons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 66(5), 653–667.
Cäsar, C., Byrne, R. W., Hoppitt, W., Young, R. J. and Zuberbühler, K. (2012b). Evidence for semantic communication in titi monkey alarm calls. Animal Behaviour, 84(2), 405–411.
Catani, M. and Jones, D. K. (2005). Perisylvian language networks of the human brain. Annals of Neurology, 57(1), 8–16.
Chalcraft, V. J. and Gardner, R. A. (2005). Cross-fostered chimpanzees modulate signs of American Sign Language. Gesture, 5(1–2), 107–132.
Chandrasekaran, C., Lemus, L., Trubanova, A., Gondan, M. and Ghazanfar, A. A. (2011). Monkeys and humans share a common computation for face/voice integration. PLoS Computational Biology, 7(9), e1002165.
Chapman, C. A. (1990). Association patterns of spider monkeys: the influence of ecology and sex on social organization. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 26(6), 409–414.
Charles-Dominique, P. (1977). Ecology and Behaviour of Nocturnal Primates. New York: Columbia University Press.
Charles-Dominique, P. (1978). Solitary and gregarious prosimians: evolution of social structure in primates. In Chivers, D. J. and Joysey, K. A. (eds), Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol. 3. London: Academic Press, pp. 139–149.
Cheney, D. L. (1981). Inter-group encounters among free-ranging vervet monkeys. Folia Primatologica, 35(2–3), 124–146.
Cheney, D. L. and Seyfarth, R. M. (1985). Vervet monkey alarm calls: manipulation through shared information?Behaviour, 94(1–2), 150–166.
Cheney, D. L. and Seyfarth, R. M. (1988). Assessment of meaning and the detection of unreliable signals by vervet monkeys. Animal Behaviour, 36(2), 477–486.
Cheney, D. L. and Seyfarth, R. M. (1990). How Monkeys See the World: Inside the Mind of Another Species. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Cheney, D. L. and Seyfarth, R. M. (2005). Constraints and preadaptations in the earliest stages of language evolution. Linguistic Review, 22(2–4), 135–159.
Cheney, D. L. and Wrangham, R. W. (1987). Predation. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W. and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds), Primate Societies. Chicago, IL, US: University of Chicago Press, pp. 227–239.
Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M. and Palombit, R. (1996). The function and mechanisms underlying baboon ‘contact’ barks. Animal Behaviour, 52(3), 507–518.
Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1973). Facial expression of emotion in nonhuman primates. In Ekman, P. (ed.), Darwin and Facial Expression: A Century of Research in Review. Oxford: Academic Press, pp. 11–89.
Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1974). Ontogenetic development of communication patterns in stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 40(1), 133–133.
Chivers, D. J. (1976). Communication within and between family groups of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). Behaviour, 57(1–2), 116–135.
Chomsky, N. (1966). Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Christiansen, M. H. and Kirby, S. (2003). Language evolution: consensus and controversies. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(7), 300–307.
Clark, A. B. (1982). Scent marks as social signals in Galago crassicaudatus I. Sex and reproductive status as factors in signals and responses. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 8(8), 1133–1151.
Clarke, E., Reichard, U. H. and Zuberbühler, K. (2006). The syntax and meaning of wild gibbon songs. PLoS One, 1(1), e73.
Clarke, P. M. R., Barrett, L. and Henzi, S. P. (2009). What role do olfactory cues play in chacma baboon mating?American Journal of Primatology, 71(6), 493–502.
Clay, Z. and Zuberbühler, K. (2009). Food-associated calling sequences in bonobos. Animal Behaviour, 77(6), 1387–1396.
Clay, Z. and Zuberbühler, K. (2011a). Bonobos extract meaning from call sequences. PLoS One, 6(4), e18786.
Clay, Z. and Zuberbühler, K. (2011b). The structure of bonobo copulation calls during reproductive and non-reproductive sex. Ethology, 117(12), 1158–1169.
Cleveland, J. and Snowdon, C. T. (1982). The complex vocal repertoire of the adult cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 58(3), 231–270.
Clutton-Brock, T. and Janson, C. (2012). Primate socioecology at the crossroads: past, present, and future. Evolutionary Anthropology, 21(4), 136–150.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. and Harvey, P. H. (1977). Primate ecology and social organization. Journal of Zoology, 183(1), 1–39.
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Brotherton, P. N. M., O’Riain, M. J. et al. (2000). Individual contributions to babysitting in a cooperative mongoose, Suricata suricatta. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 267(1440), 301–305.
Cohen, C. and Haun, D. B. M. (2013). The development of tag-based cooperation via a socially acquired trait. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34(3), 230–235.
Cohen, E. (2012). The evolution of tag-based cooperation in humans. Current Anthropology, 53(5), 588–616.
Coleman, S. W., Patricelli, G. L. and Borgia, G. (2004). Variable female preferences drive complex male displays. Nature, 428(6984), 742–745.
Colishaw, G. (1992). Song function in gibbons. Behaviour, 121(1–2), 131–153.
Colonnesi, C., Stams, G. J. J. M., Koster, I. and Noom, M. J. (2010). The relation between pointing and language development: a meta-analysis. Developmental Review, 30(4), 352–366.
Colquhoun, I. C. (2011). A review and interspecific comparison of nocturnal and cathemeral Strepsirrhine primate olfactory behavioural ecology. International Journal of Zoology, 2011, 1–11.
Conroy, G. C. (1990). Primate Evolution. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Cooper, B. G. and Goller, F. (2004). Multimodal signals: enhancement and constraint of song motor patterns by visual display. Science, 303(5657), 544–546.
Corballis, M. C. (1992). The Lopsided Brain: Evolution of the Generative Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
Corballis, M. C. (2002). From Hand to Mouth, the Origins of Language. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Corballis, M. C. (2003). From mouth to hand: gesture, speech, and the evolution of right-handedness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(2), 199–208.
Cords, M. (1987). Forest guenos and patas monkeys: male-male competition in one-male groups. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W. and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds), Primate Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 98–111.
Cords, M. (2002). When are there influxes in blue monkey groups? In Glenn, M. E. and Cords, M. (eds), The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 189–201.
Crockford, C. and Boesch, C. (2003). Context-specific calls in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus: analysis of barks. Animal Behaviour, 66(1), 115–125.
Crockford, C. and Boesch, C. (2005). Call combinations in wild chimpanzees. Behaviour, 142(4), 397–421.
Crockford, C., Herbinger, I., Vigilant, L. and Boesch, C. (2004). Wild chimpanzees produce group-specific calls: a case for vocal learning?Ethology, 110(3), 221–243.
Crockford, C., Wittig, R. M., Mundry, R. and Zuberbühler, K. (2012). Wild chimpanzees inform ignorant group members of danger. Current Biology, 22(2), 142–146.
Cussins, A. (1992). Content, embodiment and objectivity: the theory of cognitive trails. Mind, 101(404), 651–688.
Darwin, C. (1872). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. New York: Oxford University Press.
Davila-Ross, M., Allcock, B., Thomas, C. and Bard, K. A. (2011). Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others. Emotion, 11(5), 1013–1020.
Davila-Ross, M., J Owren, M. and Zimmermann, E. (2009). Reconstructing the evolution of laughter in great apes and humans. Current Biology, 19(13), 1106–1111.
Dawkins, R. and Krebs, J. R. (1978). Animal signals: information or manipulation. In Krebs, J. R. and Davies, N. B. (eds), Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 282–309.
De Boer, B., Sandler, W. and Kirby, S. (2012). New perspectives on duality of patterning: Introduction to the special issue. Language and Cognition, 4(4), 251–259.
De Marco, A. and Visalberghi, E. (2007). Facial displays in young tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): appearance, meaning, context and target. Folia Primatologica, 78(2), 118–137.
de Saussure, F. (1983). Course in General Linguistics. La Salle, IL: Open Court.
de Waal, F. B. M. (1988). The communicative repertoire of captive bonobos (Pan paniscus), compared to that of chimpanzees. Behaviour, 106(3/4), 183–251.
de Waal, F. B. M. (1989). Dominance ‘style’ and primate social organization. In Standen, V. and Foley, R. A. (eds), Comparative Socioecology: The Behavioural Ecology of Humans and Other Mammals. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 243–263.
de Waal, F. B. M. (1995). Sex as an alternative to aggression in the bonobo. In Abramson, P. R. and Pinkerton, S. D. (eds), Sexual Nature, Sexual Culture. Chicago, IL: University Press of Chicago, pp. 37–56.
Decety, J., Grezes, J., Costes, N. et al., (1997). Brain activity during observation of actions. Influence of action content and subject’s strategy. Brain, 120(10), 1763–1777.
delBarco-Trillo, J., Sacha, C. R., Dubay, G. R. and Drea, C. M. (2012). Eulemur, me lemur: the evolution of scent-signal complexity in a primate clade. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1597), 1909–1922.
Dennett, D. C. (1983). Intentional systems in cognitive ethology: the ‘Panglossian paradigm’ defended. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6(3), 343–390.
Dennett, D. C. (1987). The Intentional Stance. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Deschner, T., Heistermann, M., Hodges, K. and Boesch, C. (2004). Female sexual swelling size, timing of ovulation, and male behavior in wild West African chimpanzees. Hormones and Behavior, 46(2), 204–215.
DeWitt, I. and Rauschecker, J. P. (2012). Phoneme and word recognition in the auditory ventral stream. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(8), E505–E514.
Di Bitetti, M. S. (2003). Food-associated calls of tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) are functionally referential signals. Behaviour, 140(5), 565–592.
Di Fiore, A. and Campbell, C. J. (2007). The atelines: variation in ecology, behavior, and social organization. In Campbell, C. J., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K. C., Panger, M. and Bearder, S. K. (eds), Primates in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 155–185.
di Pellegrino, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V. and Rizzolatti, G. (1992). Understanding motor events: a neurophysiological study. Experimental Brain Research, 91(1), 176–180.
Digby, L. J. (1995). Social organization in a wild population of Callithrix jacchus: II. Intragroup social behavior. Primates, 36(3), 361–375.
Digby, L. J., Ferrari, S. F. and Saltzman, W. (2007). Callitrichines: The role of competition in cooperatively breeding species. In Campbell, C. J., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K. C., Panger, M. and Bearder, S. K. (eds), Primates in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 85–106.
Digweed, S. M., Fedigan, L. M. and Rendall, D. (2005). Variable specificity in the anti-predator vocalizations and behaviour of the white-faced capuchin, Cebus capucinus. Behaviour, 142(8), 997–1021.
Diogo, R., Wood, B. A., Aziz, M. A. and Burrows, A. (2009). On the origin, homologies and evolution of primate facial muscles, with a particular focus on hominoids and a suggested unifying nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia. Journal of Anatomy, 215(3), 300–319.
Dittus, W. P. J. (1984). Toque macaque food calls: semantic communication concerning food distribution in the environment. Animal Behaviour, 32(2), 470–477.
Dixson, A. F. (1983). Observations on the evolution and behavioral significance of ‘sexual skin’ in female primates. In Rosenblatt, J. S., Hinde, R. A., Beer, C. and Busnel, M.-C. (eds), Advances in the Study of Behavior Vol. 13. New York: Academic Press, pp. 63–106.
Dixson, A. F. (1998). Primate Sexuality: Comparative Studies of the Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Human Beings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dobson, S. D. (2009). Socioecological correlates of facial mobility in nonhuman anthropoids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3), 413–420.
Dobson, S. D. (2012). Coevolution of facial expression and social tolerance in macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 74(3), 229–235.
Dobson, S. D. and Sherwood, C. C. (2011). Correlated evolution of brain regions involved in producing and processing facial expressions in anthropoid primates. Biology Letters, 7(1), 86–88.
Dominy, N. J. and Lucas, P. W. (2001). Ecological importance of trichromatic vision to primates. Nature, 410(6826), 363–366.
Dominy, N. J., Ross, C. F. and Smith, T. D. (2004). Evolution of the special senses in primates: past, present, and future. The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology, 281(1), 1078–1082.
Dressnandt, J. and Jürgens, U. (1992). Brain stimulation-induced changes of phonation in the squirrel monkey. Experimental Brain Research, 89(3), 549–559.
Duchenne de Boulogne, G. B. (1990 [first published in French in 1862]). The Mechanisms of Human Facial Expression. Cuthbertson, R. A. (ed. and trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dulac, C. and Torello, A. T. (2003). Molecular detection of pheromone signals in mammals: from genes to behaviour. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(7), 551–562.
Dunbar, R. I. M. (1987). Habitat quality, population dynamics, and group composition in colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza). International Journal of Primatology, 8(4), 299–329.
Dunbar, R. I. M. (1988). Primate Social Systems. New York: Cornell University Press.
Dunbar, R. I. M. (1992). Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates. Journal of Human Evolution, 22(6), 469–493.
Dunbar, R. I. M. (1993). Coevolution of neocortical size, group-size and language in humans. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16(4), 681–694.
Dunbar, R. I. (1995). Neocortex size and group size in primates: a test of the hypothesis. Journal of Human Evolution, 28(3), 287–296.
Dunbar, R. I. M. (1996). Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language. London: Faber and Faber.
Dunbar, R. I. M. (1998). The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology, 6(5), 178–190.
Dunbar, R. I. M. (2003). The social brain: mind, language, and society in evolutionary perspective. Annual Review of Anthropology, 32, 163–181.
Dunbar, R. I. M. (2011). Evolutionary basis of the social brain. In Decety, J. and Cacioppo, J. J. (eds), Oxford Handbook of Social Neuroscience. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 28–38.
Dunbar, R. I. M. (2012). Bridging the bonding gap: the transition from primates to humans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1597), 1837–1846.
Dunbar, R. I. M. and Shultz, S. (2010). Bondedness and sociality. Behaviour, 147(7), 775–803.
Egbert, A. L. and Stokes, A. W. (1976). The social behavior of brown bears on an Alaskan stream. In Pelton, M. R., Lentfer, J. W. and Folk, G. E. (eds), Bears: Their Biology and Management: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Bear Research and Management. Morges, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of nature and Natural Resources, pp. 41–56.
Eggert, F., Ferstl, R. and Müller-Ruchholtz, W. (1999). MHC and olfactory communication in humans. In Johnston, R. E., Müller-Schwarze, D. and Sorensen, P. W. (eds), Advances in Chemical Signals in Vertebrates. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 181–188.
Ekman, P. (1979). About brows: emotional and conversational signals. In von Cranach, M., Koppa, F., Lepenies, W. and Ploog, D. (eds), Human Ethology: Claims and Limits of a New Discipline. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 169–202.
Ekman, P. (1984). Expression and the nature of emotion. In Scherer, K. and Ekman, P. (eds), Approaches to Emotion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 19–344.
Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6(3–4), 169–200.
Ekman, P. (1994). Moods, emotions, and traits. In Ekman, P. and Davidson, R. J. (eds), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 56–58.
Ekman, P. and Friesen, W. V. (1978). Facial Action Coding System: A Technique for the Measurement of Facial Movement. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J. and Friesen, W. V. (1990). The Duchenne smile: emotional expression and brain physiology: II. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(2), 342–353.
Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V. and Hager, J. C. (2002). The Facial Action Coding System (2nd edn). Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus.
Elliot Smith, G. (1927). The Evolution of Man. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Elowson, A. M. and Snowdon, C. T. (1994). Pygmy marmosets, Cebuella pygmaea, modify vocal structure in response to changed social environment. Animal Behaviour, 47(6), 1267–1277
Elowson, A. M., Tannenbaum, P. L. and Snowdon, C. T. (1991). Food-associated calls correlate with food preferences in cotton-top tamarins. Animal Behaviour, 42(6), 931–937.
Embick, D., Marantz, A., Miyashita, Y., O’Neil, W. and Sakai, K. L. (2000). A syntactic specialization for Broca’s area. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(11), 6150–6154.
Emery, N. J. (2000). The eyes have it: The neuroethology, function and evolution of social gaze. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24(6), 581–604.
Emery, N. J., Seed, A. M., von Bayern, A. M. P. and Clayton, N. S. (2007). Cognitive adaptations of social bonding in birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 362(1480), 489–505.
Engelhardt, A., Fischer, J., Neumann, C., Pfeifer, J. B. and Heistermann, M. (2012). Information content of female copulation calls in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 66(1), 121–134.
Engh, A. L., Hoffmeier, R. R., Cheney, D. L. and Seyfarth, R. M. (2006). Who, me? Can baboons infer the target of vocalizations?Animal Behaviour, 71(2), 381–387.
Enstam, K. L. and Isbell, L. A. (2007). The guenons (genus Cercopithecus) and their allies. Primates in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 252–274.
Epple, G. (1986). Communication by chemical signals. In Mitchell, G. and Erwin, J. (eds), Comparative Primate Biology: Behavior, Conservation, and Ecology, Vol. 2. New York: Alan R. Liss, pp. 531–580.
Epple, G. and Katz, Y. (1984). Social influences on estrogen excretion and ovarian cyclicity in saddle back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis). American Journal of Primatology, 6(3), 215–227.
Epple, G., Belcher, A. M., Kuderling, I. et al. (1993). Making sense out of scents: species differences in scent glands, scent-marking behaviour, and scent-mark composition in the Callitrichidae. In Rylands, A. B. (ed.), Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 123–151.
Evans, C. S. (1997). Referential signals. In Owings, D. H., Beacher, M. D. and Thompson, N. S. (eds), Perspectives in Ethology. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 99–143.
Evans, C. S. and Evans, L. (1999). Chicken food calls are functionally referential. Animal Behaviour, 58(2), 307–319.
Ey, E., Rahn, C., Hammerschmidt, K. and Fischer, J. (2009). Wild female olive baboons adapt their grunt vocalizations to environmental conditions. Ethology, 115(5), 493–503.
Fedurek, P. and Slocombe, K. E. (2011). Primate vocal communication: a useful tool for understanding human speech and language evolution?Human Biology, 83(2), 153–173.
Fedurek, P. and Slocombe, K. E. (2013). The social function of food-associated calls in male chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology.
Fedurek, P., Schel, A. M. and Slocombe, K. E. (2013). The acoustic structure of pant-hooting facilitates chorusing. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, .
Fernández-Carriba, S., Loeches, Á., Morcillo, A. and Hopkins, W. D. (2002). Asymmetry in facial expression of emotions by chimpanzees. Neuropsychologia, 40(9), 1523–1533.
Ferrari, P. F., Gallese, V., Rizzolatti, G. and Fogassi, L. (2003). Mirror neurons responding to the observation of ingestive and communicative mouth actions in the monkey ventral premotor cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17(8), 1703–1714.
Ferrari, P. F., Paukner, A., Ionica, C. and Suomi, S. J. (2009). Reciprocal face-to-face communication between rhesus macaque mothers and their newborn infants. Current Biology, 19(20), 1768–1772.
Ferrari, P. F., Vanderwert, R. E., Paukner, A., Bower, S., Suomi, S. J. and Fox, N. A. (2012). Distinct EEG amplitude suppression to facial gestures as evidence for a mirror mechanism in newborn monkeys. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(5), 1165–1172.
Ferrari, P. F., Visalberghi, E., Paukner, A., Fogassi, L., Ruggiero, A. and Suomi, S. J. (2006). Neonatal imitation in rhesus macaques. PLoS Biology, 4(9), e302.
Fichtel, C. and Kappeler, P. M. (2002). Anti-predator behavior of group-living Malagasy primates: mixed evidence for a referential alarm call system. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 51(3), 262–275.
Finlay, B. L. and Darlington, R. B. (1995). Linked regularities in the development and evolution of mammalian brains. Science, 268(5217), 1578–1584.
Firestein, S. (2001). How the olfactory system makes sense of scents. Nature 413(6852), 211–218.
Fischer, J. (1998). Barbary macaques categorize shrill barks into two call types. Animal Behaviour, 55(4), 799–807.
Fischer, J. (2003). Developmental modifications in the vocal behavior of nonhuman primates. In Ghazanfar, A. A. (ed.), Primate Audition: Ethology and Neurobiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 109–125.
Fischer, J., Cheney, D. L. and Seyfarth, R. M. (2000). Development of infant baboons’ responses to graded bark variants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 267(1459), 2317–2321.
Fitch, W. T. (2000). The evolution of speech: a comparative review. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(7), 258–267.
Fitch, W. T. and Hauser, M. D. (1995). Vocal production in nonhuman primates: acoustics, physiology, and functional constraints on ‘honest’ advertisement. American Journal of Primatology, 37(3), 191–219.
Fitch, W. T. and Reby, D. (2001). The descended larynx is not uniquely human. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 268(1477), 1669–1675.
Flack, J. C. and de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). Context modulates signal meaning in primate communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(5), 1581–1586.
Fleagle, J. G. (1999). Primate Adaptation and Evolution (2nd edn). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Fogassi, L. and Ferrari, P. F. (2007). Mirror neurons and the evolution of embodied language. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(3), 136–141.
Font, E. and Carazo, P. (2010). Animals in translation: Why there is meaning (but probably no message) in animal communication. Animal Behaviour, 80(2), e1–e6.
Fontaine, R. (1984). Imitative skills between birth and six months. Infant Behavior and Development, 7(3), 323–333.
Forrester, G. S. (2008). A multidimensional approach to investigations of behaviour: Revealing structure in animal communication signals. Animal Behaviour, 76(5), 1749–1760.
Fouts, R. (1975). Capacities for language in great apes. In Tuttle, R. H. (ed.), Socioecology and Psychology of Primates. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 371–390.
Fox, G. J. (1977). Social Dynamics in Siamangs. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.
Fox, G. J. (1982). Potentials for pheromones in chimpanzee vaginal fatty acids. Folia Primatologica, 37(3–4), 255–266.
Freeberg, T. M., Dunbar, R. I. M. and Ord, T. J. (2012). Social complexity as a proximate and ultimate factor in communicative complexity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1597), 1785–1801.
Freiwald, W. and Tsao, D. (2011). Taking apart the neural machinery of face processing. In Calder, A. J., Rhodes, G., Johnston, M. H. and Haxby, J. V. (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 707–718.
French, J. A. (1997). Proximate regulation of singular breeding in callitrichid primates. In Solomon, N. G. and French, J. A. (eds), Cooperative Breeding in Mammals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 34–75.
Fridlund, A. J. (1991). Sociality of solitary smiling: potentiation by an implicit audience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(2), 229–240.
Fridlund, A. J. (1992). Darwin’s anti-Darwinism in ‘The expression of the emotions in man and animals’. In Strongman, K. T. (ed.), International Review of Studies on Emotion, Vol. 2, New York: Wiley, pp. 117–137.
Friederici, A. D. and Alter, K. (2004). Lateralization of auditory language functions: a dynamic dual pathway model. Brain and Language, 89(2), 267–276.
Furuichi, T. and Ihobe, H. (1994). Variation in male relationships in bonobos and chimpanzees. Behaviour, 130(3–4), 211–228.
Galdikas, B. F. and Vasey, P. (1992). Why are orangutans so smart? Ecological and social hypotheses. In Burton, F. D. (ed.), Social Processes and Mental Abilities in Nonhuman Primates. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, pp. 183–224.
Galdikas, B. M. F. (1985). Orangutan sociality at Tanjung Puting. American Journal of Primatology, 9(2), 101–119.
Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L. and Rizzolatti, G. (1996). Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain, 119(2), 593–609.
Garber, P. A. (1988). Diet, foraging patterns, and resource defense in a mixed species troop of Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis in Amazonian Peru. Behaviour, 105(112), 18–34.
Garber, P. A. (1993). Feeding ecology and behavior of the genus Saguinus. In Rylands, A. B. (ed.), Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 273–295.
Gardner, B. T. and Gardner, R. A. (1974). Comparing the early utterances of child and chimpanzee. In Pick, A. (ed.), Minnesota Symposia of Child Psychology, Vol. 8. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 3–23.
Gardner, R. A., Gardner, B. T. and Van Cantford, (eds) (1989). Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees. New York: State University of New York Press.
Gardner, R. A. and Gardner, B. T. (1969). Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science, 165(3894), 664–672.
Gardner, R. A. and Gardner, B. T. (1971). Two-way communication with an infant chimpanzee. In Schrier, A. and Stollnitz, F. (eds), Behavior of Nonhuman Primates, Vol. 4. New York: Academic Press, pp. 117–184.
Geissmann, T. (1984). Inheritance of song parameters in the gibbon song, analyzed in 2 hybrid gibbons (Hylobates pileatus x H. lar). Folia Primatologica, 42(3–4), 216–235.
Geissmann, T. (1999). Duet songs of the siamang, Hylobates syndactylus: II. Testing the pair-bonding hypothesis during a partner exchange. Behaviour, 136, 1005–1039.
Gemba, H., Miki, N. and Sasaki, K. (1995). Cortical field potentials preceding vocalization and influences of cerebellar hemispherectomy upon them in monkeys. Brain Research, 697(1–2), 143–151.
Gentilucci, M. and Corballis, M. C. (2006). From manual gesture to speech: A gradual transition. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(7), 949–960.
Genty, E. and Byrne, R. W. (2010). Why do gorillas make sequences of gestures?Animal Cognition, 13(2), 287–301.
Genty, E., Breuer, T., Hobaiter, C. and Byrne, R. W. (2009). Gestural communication of the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla): repertoire, intentionality and possible origins. Animal Cognition, 12(3), 527–546.
Ghazanfar, A. A. and Hauser, M. D. (1999). The neuroethology of primate vocal communication: Substrates for the evolution of speech. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3(10), 377–384.
Ghazanfar, A. A. and Logothetis, N. K. (2003). Neuroperception: facial expressions linked to monkey calls. Nature, 423(6943), 937–938.
Ghazanfar, A. A. and Rendall, D. (2008). Evolution of human vocal production. Current Biology, 18(11), R457–R460.
Ghazanfar, A. A. and Schroeder, C. E. (2006). Is neocortex essentially multisensory?Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(6), 278–285.
Ghazanfar, A. A., Chandrasekaran, C. and Morrill, R. J. (2010). Dynamic, rhythmic facial expressions and the superior temporal sulcus of macaque monkeys: implications for the evolution of audiovisual speech. European Journal of Neuroscience, 31(10), 1807–1817.
Ghazanfar, A. A., Maier, J. X., Hoffman, K. L. and Logothetis, N. K. (2005). Multisensory integration of dynamic faces and voices in rhesus monkey auditory cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25(20), 5004–5012.
Ghazanfar, A. A., Takahashi, D. Y., Mathur, N. and Fitch, W. (2012). Cineradiography of monkey lip-smacking reveals putative precursors of speech dynamics. Current Biology, 22(13), 1176–1182.
Gil-da-Costa, R., Martin, A., Lopes, M. A., Muñoz, M., Fritz, J. B. and Braun, A. R. (2006). Species-specific calls activate homologs of Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas in the macaque. Nature Neuroscience, 9(8), 1064–1070.
Gillette, R. G., Brown, R., Herman, P., Vernon, S. and Vernon, J. (1973). The auditory sensitivity of the lemur. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 38(2), 365–370.
Glowa, J. R. and Newman, J. D. (1986). Benactyzine increases alarm call rates in the squirrel monkey. Psychopharmacology, 90(4), 457–460.
Goldfoot, D. A., Essock-Vitale, S. M., Asa, C. S., Thornton, J. E. and Leshner, A. I. (1978). Anosmia in male rhesus monkeys does not alter copulatory activity with cycling females. Science, 199(4333), 1095–1096.
Goldin-Meadow, S. (2003). Beyond words: the importance of gesture to researchers and learners. Child Development, 71(1), 231–239.
Gómez, J. C. (1990). The emergence of intentional communication as a problem-solving strategy in the gorilla. In Parker, S. T. and Gibson, K. R. (eds), ‘Language’ and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 333–355.
Gómez, J. C. (1996). Ostensive behavior in great apes: The role of eye contact. In Russon, A. E., Parker, S. T. and Bard, K. A. (eds.), Reaching into Thought: The Minds of the Great Apes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 131–151.
Gómez, J. C. (2007). Pointing behaviors in apes and human infants: a balanced interpretation. Child Development, 78(3), 729–734.
Goodall, J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University.
Goodall, J., Bandora, A., Bergmann, E. et al. (1979). Intercommunity interactions in the chimpanzee population of the Gombe National Park. In Hamburg, D. and McCown, E. R. (eds), The Great Apes. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin/Cummings, pp. 13–53.
Goossens, B., Dekleva, M., Reader, S. M., Sterck, E. H. M. and Bolhuis, J. J. (2008). Gaze following in monkeys is modulated by observed facial expressions. Animal Behaviour, 75(5), 1673–1681.
Gordon, S. D. and Uetz, G. W. (2011). Multimodal communication of wolf spiders on different substrates: evidence for behavioural plasticity. Animal Behaviour, 81(2), 367–375.
Gothard, K. M., Battaglia, F. P., Erickson, C. A., Spitler, K. M. and Amaral, D. G. (2007). Neural responses to facial expression and face identity in the monkey amygdala. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97(2), 1671–1683.
Gottlieb, G. (1971). Ontogenesis of sensory function in birds and mammals. In Tobach, E., Aronson, L. and Shaw, E. (eds), The Biopsychology of Development. New York: Academic Press, pp. 67–128.
Gould, J. L. and Gould, C. G. (1988). The Honey Bee. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Gould, S. J. and Lewontin, R. C. (1979). The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 205(1161), 581–598.
Gouzoules, S., Gouzoules, H. and Marler, P. (1984). Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) screams: representational signalling in the recruitment of agonistic aid. Animal Behaviour, 32(1), 182–193.
Gouzoules, H., Gouzoules, S. and Marler, P. (1985). External reference in mammalian vocal communication. In Zivin, G. (ed.), The Development of Expressive Behavior: Biology–Environment Interactions. New York: Academic Press, pp. 77–101.
Grafton, S. T., Arbib, M. A., Fadiga, L. and Rizzolatti, G. (1996). Localization of grasp representations in humans by positron emission tomography. 2. Observation compared with imagination. Experimental Brain Research, 112(1), 103–111.
Greenfield, P. M. and Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. (1990). Grammatical combination in Pan paniscus: processes of learning and invention in the evolution and development of language. In Parker, S. T. and Gibson, K. R. (eds), ‘Language’ and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes. Comparative Developmental Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 540–578.
Grice, H. P. (1957). Meaning. The Philosophical Review, 66(3), 377–388.
Gros-Louis, J. (2004a). Responses of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) to naturalistic and experimentally presented food-associated calls. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118(4), 396–402.
Gros-Louis, J. (2004b). The function of food-associated calls in white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus, from the perspective of the signaller. Animal Behaviour, 67(3), 431–440.
Gross, L. (2006). Evolution of neonatal imitation. PLoS Biology, 4(9), e311.
Groswasser, Z., Korn, C., Groswasser-Reider, I. and Solzi, P. (1988). Mutism associated with buccofacial apraxia and bihemispheric lesions. Brain and Language, 34(1), 157–168.
Groves, C. (2001). Primate Taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Guilford, T. and Dawkins, M. S. (1991). Receiver psychology and the evolution of animal signals. Animal Behaviour, 42(1), 1–14.
Gursky, S. (2003). Territoriality in the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum. In Wright, P. C., Simons, E. L. and Gursky, S. L. (eds), Tarsiers: Past, Present and Future. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, pp. 221–236.
Gustison, M. L., le Roux, A. and Bergman, T. J. (2012). Derived vocalizations of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and the evolution of vocal complexity in primates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1597), 1847–1859.
Hadj-Bouziane, F., Bell, A. H., Knusten, T. A., Ungerleider, L. G. and Tootell, R. B. H. (2008). Perception of emotional expressions is independent of face selectivity in monkey inferior temporal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(14), 5591–5596.
Hagey, L. R., Fry, B. G. and Fitch-Snyder, H. (2007). Talking defensively, a dual use for the brachial gland exudate of slow and pygmy lorises. In Gursky, S. L. and Nekaris, K. A. I. (eds), Primate Anti-predator Strategies. New York: Springer, pp. 253–272.
Halpern, M. (1987). The organization and function of the vomeronasal system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 10, 325–362.
Halpin, Z. T. (1980). Individual odors and individual recognition: review and commentary. Biology of Behaviour, 5(3), 233–248.
Hammerschmidt, K., Newman, J. D., Champoux, M. and Suomi, S. J. (2000). Changes in rhesus macaque ‘coo’ vocalizations during early development. Ethology, 106(10), 873–886.
Hardus, M. E., Lameira, A. R., Singleton, I. et al. (2009a). A description of the orangutans, vocal and sound repertoire, with a focus on geographic variation. In Wich, S. A., Atmoki, S. S. U., Setia, T. M. and van Schaik, C. P. (eds), Orangutans: Geographical Variation in Behavioral Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 49–65.
Hardus, M. E., Lameira, A. R., van Schaik, C. P. and Wich, S. A. (2009b). Tool use in wild orang-utans modifies sound production: a functionally deceptive innovation?Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1673), 3689–3694.
Hare, B. and Tomasello, M. (2004). Chimpanzees are more skilful in competitive than in cooperative cognitive tasks. Animal Behaviour, 68(3), 571–581.
Hare, B., Brown, M., Williamson, C. and Tomasello, M. (2002). The domestication of social cognition in dogs. Science, 298(5598), 1634–1636.
Harlow, H. F. and Harlow, M. (1966). Learning to love. American Scientist, 54(3), 244–272.
Harris, T. R. and Monfort, S. L. (2003). Behavioral and endocrine dynamics associated with infanticide in a black and white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza). American Journal of Primatology, 61(3), 135–142.
Hasselmo, M. E., Rolls, E. T. and Baylis, G. C. (1989). The role of expression and identity in the face-selective responses of neurons in the temporal visual cortex of the monkey. Behavioural Brain Research, 32(3), 203–218.
Hattori, Y., Kano, F. and Tomonaga, M. (2010). Differential sensitivity to conspecific and allospecific cues in chimpanzees and humans: A comparative eye-tracking study. Biology Letters, 6(5), 610–613.
Hattori, Y., Kuroshima, H. and Fujita, K. (2010). Tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) show understanding of human attentional states when requesting food held by a human. Animal Cognition, 13(1), 87–92.
Hauser, M. D. (1989). Ontogenetic changes in the comprehension and production of vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) vocalizations. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 103(2), 149–158.
Hauser, M. D. (1993). Right hemisphere dominance for the production of facial expression in monkeys. Science, 261(5120), 475–477.
Hauser, M. D. (1998). Functional referents and acoustic similarity: field playback experiments with rhesus monkeys. Animal Behaviour, 55(6), 1647–1658.
Hauser, M. D. and Akre, K. (2001). Asymmetries in the timing of facial and vocal expressions by rhesus monkeys: implications for hemispheric specialization. Animal Behaviour, 61(2), 391–400.
Hauser, M. D. and Marler, P. (1993). Food-associated calls in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): II. Costs and benefits of call production and suppression. Behavioral Ecology, 4(3), 206–212.
Hauser, M. D., Chomsky, N. and Fitch, W. T. (2002). The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve?Science, 298(5598), 1569–1579.
Hauser, M. D., Teixidor, P., Field, L. and Flaherty, R. (1993). Food-elicited calls in chimpanzees: Effects of food quantity and divisibility. Animal Behaviour, 45(4), 817–819.
Haxby, J. V., Hoffman, E. A. and Gobbini, M. I. (2000). The distributed human neural system for face perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(6), 223–233.
Haxby, J. V., Hoffman, E. A. and Gobbini, M. I. (2002). Human neural systems for face recognition and social communication. Biological Psychiatry, 51(1), 59–67.
Hayes, C. (1951). The Ape in our House. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Hayes, K. J. and Hayes, C. (1951). The intellectual development of a home-raised chimpanzee. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 95(2), 105–109.
Hayes, R. A., Morelli, T. L. and Wright, P. C. (2004). Anogenital gland secretions of Lemur catta and Propithecus verreauxi coquereli: A preliminary chemical examination. American Journal of Primatology, 63(2), 49–62.
Hebets, E. A. and Papaj, D. R. (2005). Complex signal function: developing a framework of testable hypotheses. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 57(3), 197–214.
Heesy, C. P. (2003). The evolution of orbit orientation in mammals and the function of the primate postorbital bar. Unpublished PhD dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY.
Heesy, C. P. and Ross, C. F. (2001). Evolution of activity patterns and chromatic vision in primates: morphometrics, genetics and cladistics. Journal of Human Evolution, 40(2), 111–149.
Heffner, H. E., Ravizza, R. J. and Masterton, B. (1969). Hearing in primitive mammals, IV: bushbaby (Galago senegalensis). Journal of Auditory Research, 9, 19–23.
Heffner, R. S. (2004). Primate hearing from a mammalian perspective. The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology, 281A(1), 1111–1122.
Henglmüller, S. M. and Ladichm, F. (1999). Development of agonistic behaviour and vocalization in croaking gouramis. Journal of Fish Biology, 54(2), 380–395.
Hennessy, D. F., Owings, D. H., Rowe, M. P., Coss, R. G. and Leger, D. W. (1981). The information afforded by a variable signal: constraints on snake-elicited tail flagging by California ground squirrels. Behaviour, 78(3/4), 188–226.
Herbinger, I., Papworth, S., Boesch, C. and Zuberbühler, K. (2009). Vocal, gestural and locomotor responses of wild chimpanzees to familiar and unfamiliar intruders: a playback study. Animal Behaviour, 78(6), 1389–1396.
Hesler, N. and Fischer, J. (2007). Gestural communication in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus): an overview. In Tomasello, M. and Call, J. (eds), The Gestural Communication of Apes and Monkeys. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 159–195.
Hewes, G. W. (1973). Primate communication and gestural origin of language. Current Anthropology, 14(1–2), 5–24.
Heymann, E. W. (2006). The neglected sense: olfaction in primate behavior, ecology and evolution. American Journal of Primatology, 68(6), 519–524.
Hickok, G. and Poeppel, D. (2007). The cortical organization of speech processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(5), 393–402.
Hill, C. M. (1994). The role of female Diana monkeys, Cercopithecus diana, in territorial defence. Animal Behaviour, 47(2), 425–431.
Hinde, R. A. (1976). Interactions, relationships and social structure. Man, 11, 1–17.
Hobaiter, C. and Byrne, R. W. (2011a). The gestural repertoire of the wild chimpanzee. Animal Cognition, 14(5), 745–767.
Hobaiter, C. and Byrne, R. W. (2011b). Serial gesturing by wild chimpanzees: its nature and function for communication. Animal Cognition, 14(6), 827–838.
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203, 89–97.
Hook-Costigan, M. A. and Rogers, L. J. (1998). Lateralized use of the mouth in production of vocalizations by marmosets. Neuropsychologia, 36(12), 1265–1273.
Hoover, K. C. (2010). Smell with inspiration: The evolutionary significance of olfaction. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 143(S51), 63–74.
Hopkins, W. D. and Cantalupo, C. (2005). Individual and setting differences in the hand preferences of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a critical analysis and some alternative explanations. Laterality, 10(1), 65–80.
Hopkins, W. D. and Leavens, D. A. (1998). Hand use and gestural communication in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112(1), 95–99.
Hopkins, W. D. and Nir, T. M. (2010). Planum temporale surface area and grey matter asymmetries in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): the effect of handedness and comparison with findings in humans. Behavioural Brain Research, 208(2), 436–443.
Hopkins, W. D., Cantalupo, C. and Taglialatela, J. (2007). Handedness is associated with asymmetries in gyrification of the cerebral cortex of chimpanzees. Cerebral Cortex, 17(8), 1750–1756.
Hopkins, W. D., Pika, S., Liebal, K. et al. (2012). Handedness for manual gestures in great apes. A meta-analysis. In Pika, S. and Liebal, K. (eds), Developments in Primate Gesture Research. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 93–112.
Hopkins, W. D., Taglialatela, J. P. and Leavens, D. A. (2011). Do chimpanzees have voluntary control of their facial expressions and vocalizations? In Vilain, A., Schwartz, J.-L., Abry, C. and Vauclair, J. (eds.), Primate Communication and Human Language: Vocalisation, Gestures, Imitation and Deixis in Humans and Non-humans. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 71–88.
Hopkins, W. D., Taglialatela, J. P. and Leavens, D. A. (2007). Chimpanzees differentially produce novel vocalizations to capture the attention of a human. Animal Behaviour, 73(2), 281–286.
Hostetter, A. B., Cantero, M. and Hopkins, W. D. (2001). Differential use of vocal and gestural communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to the attentional status of a human (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 115(4), 337–343.
Huber, E. (1931). Evolution of Facial Musculature and Facial Expression. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hurford, J. R. (2011). The Origins of Grammar: Language in the Light of Evolution II. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hurlbert, S. H. (1984). Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs, 54(2), 187–211.
Huxley, J. S. (1914). The courtship-habits of the great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus); with an addition to the theory of sexual selection. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 84(3), 491–562.
Isbell, L. A. (1991). Contest and scramble competition: patterns of female aggression and ranging behavior among primates. Behavioral Ecology, 2(2), 143–155.
Isbell, L. A. (1994). The vervets’ year of doom. Natural History, 103(8), 48–55.
Iverson, J. M. and Goldin-Meadow, S. (1998). Why people gesture when they speak. Nature, 396(6708), 228–230.
Jablonka, E., Ginsburg, S. and Dor, D. (2012). The co-evolution of language and emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1599), 2152–2159.
Jacob, S., McClintock, M. K., Zelano, B. and Ober, C. (2002). Paternally inherited HLA alleles are associated with women’s choice of male odor. Nature Genetics, 30(2), 175–179.
Jaeggi, A. V., Burkart, J. M. and van Schaik, C. P. (2010). On the psychology of cooperation in humans and other primates: combining the natural history and experimental evidence of prosocialityPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365(1553), 2723–2735.
Janson, C. H. (2000). Primate socio-ecology: the end of a golden age. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 9(2), 73–86.
Janson, C. H. and Chapman, C. A. (1999). Resources as determinants of primate community structure. In Fleagle, J. G., Janson, C. H. and Reed, K. E. (eds), Primate Communities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 237–267.
Jia, C., Chen, W. R. and Shepherd, G. M. (1999). Synaptic organization and neurotransmitters in the rat accessory olfactory bulb. Journal of Neurophysiology, 81(1), 345–355.
Johnstone, R. A. (1996). Multiple displays in animal communication: ‘Backup signals’ and ‘multiple messages’. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 351(1337), 329–338.
Jolly, C. J. (2007). Baboons, mandrills, and mangabeys. Afro-papionin socioecology in a phylogentic perspective. In Campbell, C. J., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K. C., Panger, M. and Bearder, S. (Eds.), Primates in perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 240–251.
Joly, O., Ramus, F., Pressnitzer, D., Vanduffel, W. and Orban, G. A. (2012). Interhemispheric differences in auditory processing revealed by fMRI in awake rhesus monkeys. Cerebral Cortex, 22(4), 838–853.
Jones, C. B. and Van Cantford, T. E. (2007a). A schema for multimodal communication applied to male mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 46(2), 6–9.
Jones, C. B. and Van Cantford, T. E. (2007b). Multimodal communication by male mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in sexual contexts: a descriptive analysis. Folia Primatologica, 78(3), 166–185.
Jung-Beeman, M. (2005). Bilateral brain processes for comprehending natural language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(11), 512–518.
Jürgens, U. (1976). Projections from the cortical larynx area in the squirrel monkey. Experimental Brain Research, 25(4), 401–411.
Jürgens, U. (2002). Neural pathways underlying vocal control. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26(2), 235–258.
Jürgens, U., Kirzinger, A. and von Cramon, D. (1982). The effects of deep-reaching lesions in the cortical face area on phonation. A combined case report and experimental monkey study. Cortex; A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 18(1), 125–139.
Kaas, J. H., Hackett, T. A. and Tramo, M. J. (1999). Auditory processing in primate cerebral cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9(2), 164–170.
Kaminski, J., Call, J. and Fischer, J. (2004). Word learning in a domestic dog: Evidence for ‘fast mapping’. Science, 304(5677), 1682–1683.
Kaminski, J., Call, J. and Tomasello, M. (2004). Body orientation and face orientation: two factors controlling apes’ begging behavior from humans. Animal Cognition, 7, 216–223.
Kano, F., Call, J. and Tomonaga, M. (2012). Face and eye scanning in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and humans (Homo sapiens): Unique eye-viewing patterns in humans among hominids. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126(4), 388–398.
Kano, T. (1992). The Last Ape: Pygmy Chimpanzee Behavior and Ecology. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Kaplan, G. and Rogers, L. J. (2002). Patterns of gazing in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). International Journal of Primatology, 23(3), 501–526.
Kappeler, P. M. (1997). Determinants of primate social organization: comparative evidence and new insights from Malagasy lemurs. Biological Reviews, 72(1), 111–151.
Kappeler, P. M. (1998). To whom it may concern: the transmission and function of chemical signals in Lemur catta. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 42(6), 411–421.
Kappeler, P. M. and van Schaik, C. P. (2002). Evolution of primate social systems. International Journal of Primatology, 23(4), 707–740.
Kawai, M., Ohsawa, H., Mori, U. and Dunbar, R. (1983). Social organization of gelada baboons: social units and definitions. Primates, 24(1), 13–24.
Kellogg, W. N. and Kellogg, L. A. (1933). The Ape and the Child. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kendon, A. (2004). Gesture: Visible Action as Utterance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Keverne, E. B. (1999). The vomeronasal organ. Science, 286(5440), 716–720.
Keysers, C. and Gazzola, V. (2009). Expanding the mirror: vicarious activity for actions, emotions and sensations. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 19(6), 666–671.
Kimura, D. (1993). Neuromotor Mechanisms in Human Communication. New York: Oxford University Press.
King, A. J. and Palmer, A. R. (1985). Integration of visual and auditory information in bimodal neurons in the guinea-pig superior colliculus. Experimental Brain Research, 60(3), 492–500.
King, B. J. (1999). The Origin of Language: What Non-human Primates Can Tell Us. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.
King, B. J. (2004). The Dynamic Dance: Nonvocal Communication in African Great Apes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kinzey, W. G. (1981). The Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus. In Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1.Rio de Janeiro: Academia Brasileira de Ciências, pp. 241–276.
Kirchhof, J. and Hammerschmidt, K. (2006). Functionally referential alarm calls in tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax): evidence from playback experiments. Ethology, 112(4), 346–354.
Kirk, E. C. and Kay, R. F. (2004). The evolution of high visual acuity in the Anthropoidea. In Ross, C.F. and Kay, R.F. (eds), Anthropoid Origins. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 539–602.
Kirk, E. C., Cartmill, M., Kay, R. F. and Lemelin, P. (2003). Comment on ‘Grasping primate origins’. Science, 300(5620), 741.
Kirzinger, A. and Jürgens, U. (1985). The effects of brainstem lesions on vocalization in the squirrel monkey. Brain Research, 358(1–2), 150–162.
Kita, S. (2003). Pointing: Where Language, Culture and Cognition Meet. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kitzmann, C. D. and Caine, N. G. (2009). Marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi) food-associated calls are functionally referential. Ethology, 115(5), 439–448.
Kleiman, D. G. (1977). Monogamy in mammals. Quarterly Review of Biology, 52(1), 39–69.
Klein, J. (1986). Natural History of the Major Histocompatibility Complex. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Knapp, L. A., Robson, J. and Waterhouse, J. S. (2006). Olfactory signals and the MHC: a review and a case study in Lemur catta. American Journal of Primatology, 68(6), 568–584.
Kobayashi, H. and Kohshima, S. (1997). Unique morphology of the human eye. Nature, 387(6635), 767–768.
Kobayashi, H. and Kohshima, S. (2001). Unique morphology of the human eye and its adaptive meaning: Comparative studies on external morphology of the primate eye. Journal of Human Evolution, 40(5), 419–435.
Koenig, A. (2002). Competition for resources and its behavioral consequences among female primates. International Journal of Primatology, 23(4), 759–783.
Kohler, E., Keysers, C., Umilta, M. A. et al. (2002). Hearing sounds, understanding actions: action representation in mirror neurons. Science, 297(5582), 846–848.
Kojima, S., Izumi, A. and Ceugniet, M. (2003). Identification of vocalizers by pant hoots, pant grunts and screams in a chimpanzee. Primates, 44(3), 225–230.
Krebs, J. R. and Davies, N. B. (1993). An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Kroodsma, D. E., Byers, B. E., Goodale, E., Johnson, S. and Liu, W. C. (2001). Pseudoreplication in playback experiments, revisited a decade later. Animal Behaviour, 61, 1029–1033.
Kruuk, H. (1972). The Spotted Hyena: A Study of Predation and Social Behavior. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Kumashiro, M., Ishibashi, H., Itakura, S., Iriki, A. (2002). Bidirectional communication between a Japanese monkey and a human through eye gaze and pointing. Current Psychology of Cognition, 21(1), 3–32.
Kummer, H. (1968). Social Organization of Hamadryas Baboons: A Field Study. Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
Kummer, H. (1997). In Quest of the Sacred Baboon: A Scientist’s Journey. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kummer, H. and Kurt, F. (1965). A comparison of social behavior in captive and wild hamadryas baboons. In Vagtborg, H. (ed.) The Baboon in Medical Research, Vol. 1. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, pp. 65–80.
Kuroda, S. (1980). Social behavior of the pygmy chimpanzees. Primates, 21(2), 181–197.
Kuypers, H. G. J. M. (1958). Corticobulbar connexions to the pons and lower brainstem in man. An anatomical study. Brain, 81, 364–388.
Laidre, M. E. (2008). Do captive mandrills invent new gestures?Animal Cognition, 11(2), 179–187.
Laidre, M. E. (2009). Informative breath: olfactory cues sought during social foraging among Old World monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx, M. leucophaeus and Papio anubis). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 123(1), 34–44.
Laidre, M. E. (2011). Meaningful gesture in monkeys? Investigating whether mandrills create social culture. PLoS One, 6(2), e14610.
Laporte, M. N. C. and Zuberbühler, K. (2010). Vocal greeting behaviour in wild chimpanzee females. Animal Behaviour, 80(3), 467–473.
Laporte, M. N. C. and Zuberbühler, K. (2011). The development of a greeting signal in wild chimpanzees. Developmental Science, 14(5), 1220–1234.
Laska, M., Seibt, A. and Weber, A. (2000). ‘Microsmatic’ primates revisited: Olfactory sensitivity in the squirrel monkey. Chemical Senses, 25(1), 47–53.
Le Gros Clark, W. E. (1959). The Antecedents of Man. New York: Harper and Row.
Leavens, D. A. (2004). Manual deixis in apes and humans. Interaction Studies, 5(3), 387–408.
Leavens, D. A. and Hopkins, W. D. (1998). Intentional communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a cross-sectional study of the use of referential gestures. Developmental Psychology, 34(5), 813–822.
Leavens, D. A. and Hopkins, W. D. (1999). The whole-hand point: the structure and function of pointing from a comparative perspective. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113(4), 417–425.
Leavens, D. A., Hopkins, W. D. and Bard, K. A. (1996). Indexical and referential pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110(4), 346–353.
Leavens, D. A., Hopkins, W. D. and Bard, K. A. (2005). Understanding the point of chimpanzee pointing epigenesis and ecological validity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(4), 185–189.
Leavens, D. A., Hopkins, W. D. and Thomas, R. K. (2004). Referential communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118(1), 48–57.
Leavens, D. A., Hostetter, A. B., Wesley, M. J. and Hopkins, W. D. (2004). Tactical use of unimodal and bimodal communication by chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Animal Behaviour, 67(3), 467–476.
Leavens, D. A., Russell, J. L. and Hopkins, W. D. (2005). Intentionality as measured in the persistence and elaboration of communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Child Development, 76(1), 291–306.
Leavens, D. A., Russell, J. L. and Hopkins, W. D. (2010). Multimodal communication by captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Animal Cognition, 13(1), 33–40.
Leitten, L., Jensvold, M. L. A., Fouts, R. S. and Wallin, J. M. (2012). Contingency in requests of signing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Interaction Studies, 13(2), 147–164.
Leliveld, L. M. C., Scheumann, M. and Zimmermann, E. (2010). Effects of caller characteristics on auditory laterality in an early primate (Microcebus murinus). PLoS One, 5(2), e9031.
Lemasson, A., Gandon, E. and Hausberger, M. (2010a). Attention to elders' voice in non-human primates. Biology Letters, 6, 325–328.
Lemasson, A., Koda, H., Kato, A. et al. (2010). Influence of sound specificity and familiarity on Japanese macaques’ (Macaca fuscata) auditory laterality. Behavioural Brain Research, 208(1), 286–289.
Liberman, A. M., Harris, K. S., Hoffman, H. S. and Griffith, B. C. (1957). The discrimination of speech sounds within and across phoneme boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54(5), 358–368.
Liebal, K. and Call, J. (2012). The origins of non-human primates’ manual gestures. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1585), 118–128.
Liebal, K., Behne, T., Carpenter, M. and Tomasello, M. (2009). Infants use shared experience to interpret pointing gestures. Developmental Science, 12(2), 264–271.
Liebal, K., Bressem, J. and Müller, C. (2010). Simultaneous structures of gestures in non-human primates. Paper presented at the 3rd Conference of the International Society of Gesture Studies.
Liebal, K., Call, J. and Tomasello, M. (2004a). Use of gesture sequences in chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology, 64(4), 377–396.
Liebal, K., Pika, S., Call, J. and Tomasello, M. (2004b). To move or not to move: how apes adjust to the attentional state of others. Interaction Studies, 5(2), 199–219.
Liebal, K., Pika, S. and Tomasello, M. (2004c). Social communication in siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus): use of gestures and facial expressions. Primates, 45(1), 41–57.
Liebal, K., Pika, S. and Tomasello, M. (2006). Gestural communication of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Gesture, 6(1), 1–38.
Lieberman, P. (1984). The Biology and Evolution of Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lieberman, P. (2012). Vocal tract anatomy and the neural bases of talking. Journal of Phonetics, 40(4), 608–622.
Lieberman, P., Klatt, D. H. and Wilson, W. H. (1969). Vocal tract limitations on the vowel repertoires of rhesus monkey and other nonhuman primates. Science, 164(3884), 1185–1187.
Liotti, M., Gay, C. T. and Fox, P. T. (1994). Functional imaging and language: evidence from positron emission tomography. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society, 11(2), 175–190.
Liszkowski, U., Brown, P., Callaghan, T., Takada, A. and de Vos, C. (2012). A prelinguistic gestural universal of human communication. Cognitive Science, 36(4), 698–713.
Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., Henning, A., Striano, T. and Tomasello, M. (2004). Twelve-month-olds point to share attention and interest. Developmental Science, 7(3), 297–307.
Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., Striano, T. and Tomasello, M. (2006). 12- and 18-month-olds point to provide information for others. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7(2), 173–187.
Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M. and Tomasello, M. (2007). Reference and attitude in infant pointing. Journal of Child Language, 34(1), 1–20.
Liszkowski, U., Schaefer, M., Carpenter, M. and Tomasello, M. (2009). Prelinguistic Infants, but not chimpanzees, communicate about absent entities. Psychological Science, 20(5), 654–660.
Losin, E. A. R., Russell, J. L., Freeman, H., Meguerditchian, A. and Hopkins, W. D. (2008). Left hemisphere specialization for oro-facial movements of learned vocal signals by captive chimpanzees. PLoS One, 3(6), e2529.
Luckett, W. P. (1976). Cladistic relationships among primate higher categories: Evidence of the fetal membranes and placenta. Folia Primatologica, 25(4), 245–276.
Luef, E. M. and Liebal, K. (2012). Infant-directed communication in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla): Do older animals scaffold communicative competence in infants?American Journal of Primatology, 74(9), 841–852.
Lüthe, L., Häusler, U. and Jürgens, U. (2000). Neuronal activity in the medulla oblongata during vocalization. A single-unit recording study in the squirrel monkey. Behavioural Brain Research, 116(2), 197–210.
Lyn, H., Greenfield, P. M., Savage-Rumbaugh, S., Gillespie-Lynch, K. and Hopkins, W. D. (2011). Nonhuman primates do declare! A comparison of declarative symbol and gesture use in two children, two bonobos, and a chimpanzee. Language and Communication, 31(1), 63–74.
Ma, W. and Klemm, W. R. (1997). Variations of equine urinary volatile compounds during the oestrous cycle. Veterinary Research Communications, 21(6), 437–446.
Macedonia, J. M. (1990). What is communicated in the antipredator calls of lemurs: evidence from playback experiments with ringtailed and ruffed lemurs. Ethology, 86(3), 177–190.
Macedonia, J. M. and Evans, C. S. (1993). Essay on contemporary issues in ethology: variation among mammalian alarm call systems and the problem of meaning in animal signals. Ethology, 93(3), 177–197.
Machlis, L., Dodd, P. W. D. and Fentress, J. C. (1985). The pooling fallacy: problems arising when individuals contribute more than one observation to the data set. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 68(3), 201–214.
Maciej, P., Fischer, J. and Hammerschmidt, K. (2011). Transmission characteristics of primate vocalizations: implications for acoustic analyses. PLoS One, 6(8), e23015.
MacKay, D. M. (1972). Formal analysis of communicative processes. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Non-verbal Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–26.
MacKinnon, J. (1974). The behaviour and ecology of wild orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus). Animal Behaviour, 22(1), 3–74.
MacNeilage, P. F., Studdert-Kennedy, M. G. and Lindblom, B. (1987). Primate handedness reconsidered. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10(2), 247–303.
Maestripieri, D. (1996a). Gestural communication and its cognitive implications in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Behaviour, 133(13–14), 997–1022.
Maestripieri, D. (1996b). Social communication among captive stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). International Journal of Primatology, 17(5), 785–802.
Maestripieri, D. (1997). Gestural communication in macaques: Usage and meaning of nonvocal signals. Evolution of Communication, 1(2), 193–222.
Maestripieri, D. (1999). Primate social organization, gestural repertoire size, and communication dynamics: a comparative study of macaques. In King, B. J. (ed.), The Evolution of Language: Assessing the Evidence from Nonhuman Primates. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research, pp. 55–77.
Maille, A., Engelhart, L., Bourjade, M. and Blois-Heulin, C. (2012). To beg, or not to beg? That is the question: mangabeys modify their production of requesting gestures in response to human’s attentional states. PLoS One, 7(7), e41197.
Mann, J. (2000). Unraveling the dynamics of social life: long term studies and observational methods. In Mann, J., Connor, R. C., Tyack, P. L. and Whitehead, H. (eds), Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 45–64.
Manser, M. B., Seyfarth, R. M. and Cheney, D. L. (2002). Suricate alarm calls signal predator class and urgency. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(2), 55–57.
Mariani, C., Spinnler, H., Sterzi, R. and Vallar, G. (1980). Bilateral perisylvian softenings: bilateral anterior opercular syndrome (Foix–Chavany–Marie syndrome). Journal of Neurology, 223(4), 269–284.
Marler, P. (1965). Communication in monkeys and apes. In DeVore, I. (ed.), Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, pp. 544–584.
Marler, P. (1976). Social organization, communication and graded signals: the chimpanzee and the gorilla. In Bateson, P. P. G. and Hinde, R. A. (eds), Growing Points. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 239–280.
Marler, P. (1977). The structure of animal communication sounds. In Bullock, T. (ed.), Recognition of complex acoustic signals. Berlin: Dahlem Konferenzen, pp. 17–35.
Marler, P., Evans, C. S. and Hauser, M. D. (1992). Animal signals: Motivational, referential, or both? In Papoušek, H. and Jürgens, U. (Eds.), Nonverbal Vocal Communication: Comparative and Developmental Approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–86.
Marshall, A. J., Wrangham, R. W. and Arcadi, A. C. (1999). Does learning affect the structure of vocalizations in chimpanzees?Animal Behaviour, 58(4), 825–830.
Martin, P. and Bateson, P. (2007). Measuring Behaviour: An Introductory Guide (3rd edn). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Martin, R. D. (1973). A review of the behaviour and ecology of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus J.F. Miller, 1777). In Michael, R. P. and Crook, J. H. (eds), Comparative Ecology and Behaviour of Primates. London: Academic Press, pp. 1–68.
Martin, R. D. (1990). Primate Origins and Evolution: A Phylogenetic Reconstruction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Martin, R. D. and Bearder, S. K. (1979). Radio bush baby. Natural History, 88, 76–81.
Mason, W. A. (1960). The effects of social restriction on the behavior of rhesus monkeys: I. Free social behavior. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 53(6), 582–589.
Masterton, B., Heffner, H. and Ravizza, R. (1969). The evolution of human hearing. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 45, 966–985.
Matsumoto-Oda, A., Oda, R., Hayashi, Y. et al. (2003). Vaginal fatty acids produced by chimpanzees during menstrual cycles. Folia Primatologica, 74(2), 75–79.
Matsumura, S. (1999). The evolution of ‘egalitarian’ and ‘despotic’ social systems among macaques. Primates, 40(1), 23–31.
Mayr, E. (1961). Cause and effect in biology. Science, 134(3489), 1501–1506.
Mayr, E. (1963). Animal Species and Evolution. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Mayr, E. (1969). Principles of Systematic Zoology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
McComb, K. and Semple, S. (2005). Coevolution of vocal communication and sociality in primates. Biology Letters, 1(4), 381–385.
McDowell, J. (1994). Mind and World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McGrew, W. C. and Tutin, C. E. G. (1978). Evidence for a social custom in wild chimpanzees?Man, 13, 234–251.
McGurk, H. and MacDonald, J. (1976). Hearing lips and seeing voices. Nature, 264(5588), 746–748.
McNeill, D. (2002). Gesture and language dialectic. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 34(1), 7–37.
Mech, L. D., Adams, L. G., Meier, T. J., Burch, J. W. and Dale, B. W. (1998). The Wolves of Denali. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Meguerditchian, A. and Vauclair, J. (2006). Baboons communicate with their right hand. Behavioural Brain Research, 171(1), 170–174.
Meguerditchian, A., Gardner, M. J., Schapiro, S. J. and Hopkins, W. D. (2012). The sound of one-hand clapping: handedness and perisylvian neural correlates of a communicative gesture in chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279(1735), 1959–1966.
Meguerditchian, A., Molesti, S. and Vauclair, J. (2011). Right-handedness predominance in 162 baboons (Papio anubis) for gestural communication: Consistency across time and groups. Behavioral Neuroscience, 125(4), 653–660.
Meguerditchian, A., Vauclair, J. and Hopkins, W. D. (2010). Captive chimpanzees use their right hand to communicate with each other: implications for the origin of the cerebral substrate for language. Cortex, 46(1), 40–48.
Mehu, M., Grammer, K. and Dunbar, R. I. M. (2007). Smiles when sharing. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28(6), 415–422.
Meredith, M. (1991). Sensory processing in the main and accessory olfactory systems: comparisons and contrasts. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 39(4), 601–614.
Meredith, M. A. and Stein, B. E. (1983). Interactions among converging sensory inputs in the superior colliculus. Science, 221(4608), 389–391.
Meredith, M. A. and Stein, B. E. (1986). Spatial factors determine the activity of multisensory neurons in cat superior colliculus. Brain Research, 365(2), 350–354.
Meunier, H., Prieur, J. and Vauclair, J. (2013). Olive baboons communicate intentionally by pointing. Animal Cognition, 16(2), 155–163.
Michael, R. P. and Zumpe, D. (1982). Influence of olfactory signals on the reproductive behaviour of social groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Endocrinology, 95(2), 189–205.
Micheletta, J., Engelhardt, A., Matthews, L. E. E., Agil, M. and Waller, B. M. (2013). Multicomponent and multimodal lipsmacking in crested macaques (Macaca nigra). American Journal of Primatology, 75(7), 763–773.
Michelsen, A., Andersen, B. B., Storm, J., Kirchner, W. H. and Lindauer, M. (1992). How honeybees perceive communication dances, studied by means of a mechanical model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 30(3), 143–150.
Miklósi, Á. and Soproni, K. (2006). A comparative analysis of animals’ understanding of the human pointing gesture. Animal Cognition, 9(2), 81–93.
Miles, H. L. (1983). Apes and language: the search for communicative competence. In de Luce, J. and Wilder, H. T. (eds), Language in Primates. Perspectives and Implications. New York: Springer, pp. 43–61.
Miles, H. L. (1990). The cognitive foundations for reference in a signing orangutan. In Parker, S. T. and Gibson, K. R. (eds), Language and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 511–539.
Miller, L. E. and Treves, A. (2007). Predation on primates: Past studies, current challenges, and directions for the future. In Campbell, C. J., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, J., Panger, M. and Bearder, S. K. (eds), Primates in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 525–542.
Miller, R. E., Caul, W. F. and Mirsky, I. A. (1967). Communication of affects between feral and socially isolated monkeys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7(3), 231–239.
Milton, K. (1975). Urine-rubbing behaviour in the mantled howler monkey Alouatta palliata. Folia Primatologica, 23(1–2), 105–112.
Mitani, J. C. (1988). Male gibbon (Hylobates agilis) singing behavior: natural history, song variations and function. Ethology, 79(3), 177–194.
Mitani, J. C. and Brandt, K. L. (1994). Social factors influence the acoustic variability in the long-distance calls of male chimpanzees. Ethology, 96(3), 233–252.
Mitani, J. C. and Gros-Louis, J. (1998). Chorusing and call convergence in chimpanzees: tests of three hypotheses. Behaviour, 135, 1041–1064.
Mitani, J. C. and Marler, P. (1989). A phonological analysis of male gibbon singing behavior. Behaviour, 109, 20–45.
Mitani, J. C. and Nishida, T. (1993). Contexts and social correlates of long-distance calling by male chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 45, 735–746.
Mitani, J. C., Hasegawa, T., Gros-Louis, J., Marler, P. and Byrne, R. (1992). Dialects in wild chimpanzees?American Journal of Primatology, 27(4), 233–243.
Mitani, J. C., Hunley, K. L. and Murdoch, M. E. (1999). Geographic variation in the calls of wild chimpanzees: a reassessment. American Journal of Primatology, 47(2), 133–151.
Mitchell, R. W. and Anderson, J. R. (1997). Pointing, withholding information, and deception in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 111(4), 351–361.
Møller, G. W., Harlow, H. F., and Mitchell, G. D. (1968). Factors affecting agonistic communication in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Behaviour, 31(3/4), 339–357.
Mollon, J. D. (1989). ‘Tho’ she kneel’d in that place where they grew. . .’ The uses and origins of primate colour vision. Journal of Experimental Biology, 146(1), 21–38.
Moore, C. and Corkum, V. (1994). Social understanding at the end of the first year of life. Developmental Review, 14(4), 349–372.
Moore, R. (in press). Ontogenetic constraints on Grice's Theory of Communication. In Matthews, D. (ed.), Pragmatic Development in First Language Acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Morecraft, R. J., Louie, J. L., Herrick, J. L. and Stilwell-Morecraft, K. S. (2001). Cortical innervation of the facial nucleus in the non-human primate. Brain, 124(1), 176–208.
Morimoto, Y. and Fujita, K. (2011). Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) modify their own behaviors according to a conspecific’s emotional expressions. Primates, 52(3), 279–286.
Morrill, R. J., Paukner, A., Ferrari, P. F. and Ghazanfar, A. A. (2012). Monkey lipsmacking develops like the human speech rhythm. Developmental Science, 15(4), 557–568.
Morton, E. S. (1975). Ecological sources of selection on avian sounds. The American Naturalist, 109(965), 17–34.
Mulcahy, N. J. and Call, J. (2009). The performance of bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in two versions of an object-choice task. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 123(3), 304–309.
Mulcahy, N. J. and Hedge, V. (2012). Are great apes tested with an abject object-choice task?Animal Behaviour, 83(2), 313–321.
Munger, S. D., Leinders-Zufall, T. and Zufall, F. (2009). Subsystem organization of the mammalian sense of smell. Annual Review of Physiology, 71, 115–140.
Munoz, N. E. and Blumstein, D. T. (2012). Multisensory perception in uncertain environments. Behavioral Ecology, 23(3), 457–462.
Myowa, M. (1996). Imitation of facial gestures by an infant chimpanzee. Primates, 37(2), 207–213.
Myowa-Yamakoshi, M., Tomonaga, M., Tanaka, M. and Matsuzawa, T. (2004). Imitation in neonatal chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Developmental Science, 7(4), 437–442.
Narins, P. M. and Capranica, R. R. (1976). Sexual differences in the auditory system of the tree frog Eleutherodactylus coqui. Behavioral and Brain Science, 192(4237), 378–380.
Narins, P. M., Grabul, D. S., Soma, K. K., Gaucher, P. and Hödl, W. (2005). Cross-modal integration in a dart-poison frog. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(7), 2425–2429.
Nieuwenhuys, R., Donkelaar, H. J. and Nicholson, C. (eds). (1998). The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates, Vol. 3. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag.
Nishida, T. (1968). The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali Mountains. Primates, 9(3), 167–224.
Nishida, T. (1979). The Social Structure of the Chimpanzees of the Mahali Mountains. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company.
Nishida, T. (1980). The leaf-clipping display: a newly discovered expressive gesture in wild chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution, 9(2), 117–128.
Nishida, T. and Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M. (1987). Chimpanzees and bonobos: Cooperative relationships among males. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W. and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds), Primate Societies. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 165–177.
Nishida, T., Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M., Hasegawa, T. and Takahata, Y. (1985). Group extinction and female transfer in wild chimpanzees in the Mahale National Park, Tanzania. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 67(1–4), 284–301.
Notman, H. and Rendall, D. (2005). Contextual variation in chimpanzee pant hoots and its implications for referential communication. Animal Behaviour, 70(1), 177–190.
O’Connell, S. (1994). Joint attention in chimpanzees, bonobos and squirrel monkeys. Paper presented at the Hang Seng Center for Cognitive Studies conference on Theories of Mind.
Olzanowslei, M., Pochwatko, G., Kukliński, K., Ścibor-Rylski, M. and Ohme, R. (2008). Warsaw set of emotional facial expression pictures: validation study. Opatija, Croatia: EAESP General Meeting.
Onishi, K. H., Baillargeon, R. and Leslie, A. M. (2007). 15-month-old infants detect violations in pretend scenarios. Acta Psychologica, 124(1), 106–128.
Ouattara, K., Lemasson, A. and Zuberbühler, K. (2009a). Campbell’s monkeys use affixation to alter call meaning. PLoS One, 4(11), e7808.
Ouattara, K., Lemasson, A. and Zuberbühler, K. (2009b). Campbell’s monkeys concatenate vocalizations into context-specific call sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(51), 22026–22031.
Owings, D. H. and Virginia, R. A. (1978). Alarm calls of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 46(1), 58–70.
Owren, M. J. and Rendall, D. (2001). Sound on the rebound: Bringing form and function back to the forefront in understanding nonhuman primate vocal signaling. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 10(2), 58–71.
Owren, M. J., Dieter, J. A., Seyfarth, R. M. and Cheney, D. L. (1992). ‘Food’ calls produced by adult female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Japanese (M. fuscata) macaques, their normally-raised offspring, and offspring cross-fostered between species. Behaviour, 120(3/4), 218–231.
Owren, M. J., Dieter, J. A., Seyfarth, R. M. and Cheney, D. L. (1993). Vocalizations of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Japanese (M. fuscata) macaques cross-fostered between species show evidence of only limited modification. Developmental Psychobiology, 26(7), 389–406.
Palagi, E. and Mancini, G. (2011). Playing with the face: playful facial ‘chattering’ and signal modulation in a monkey species (Theropithecus gelada). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 125(1), 11–21.
Palagi, E. and Norscia, I. (2009). Multimodal signaling in wild Lemur catta: Economic design and territorial function of urine marking. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(2), 182–192.
Palagi, E., Dapporto, L., and Borgognini Tarli, S. B. (2005). The neglected scent: on the marking function of urine in Lemur catta. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 58(5), 437–445.
Palombit, R. A. (1996). Pair bonds in monogamous apes: a comparison of the siamang Hylobates syndactylus and the white-handed gibbon Hylobates lar. Behaviour, 133, 321–356.
Panksepp, J. (1998). The periconscious substrates of consciousness: affective states and the evolutionary origins of the SELF. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5(5–6), 566–582.
Panksepp, J. and Burgdorf, J. (2003). ‘Laughing’ rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy?Physiology and Behavior, 79(3), 533–547.
Parker, S. T. and Gibson, K. R.(eds) (1990). Language and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes: Comparative Developmental Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Parr, L. A. (2001). Cognitive and physiological markers of emotional awareness in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Animal Cognition, 4(3–4), 223–229.
Parr, L. A. (2004). Perceptual biases for multimodal cues in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) affect recognition. Animal Cognition, 7(3), 171–178.
Parr, L. A. and Hecht, E. E. (2011). Facial perception in non-human primates. In Calder, A. J., Rhodes, G., Johnston, M. H. and Haxby, J. V. (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 691–706.
Parr, L. A. and Waller, B. M. (2006). Understanding chimpanzee facial expression: insights into the evolution of communication. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1(3), 221–228.
Parr, L. A., Cohen, M. and de Waal, F. B. M. (2005a). Influence of social context on the use of blended and graded facial displays in chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology, 26(1), 73–103.
Parr, L. A., Hecht, E., Barks, S. K., Preuss, T. M. and Votaw, J. R. (2009). Face processing in the chimpanzee brain. Current Biology, 19(1), 50–53.
Parr, L. A., Hopkins, W. D. and de Waal, F. B. M. (1998). The perception of facial expressions by chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Evolution of Communication, 2(1), 1–23.
Parr, L. A., Waller, B. M., Burrows, A. M., Gothard, K. M. and Vick, S. J. (2010). Brief communication. MaqFACS: a muscle-based facial movement coding system for the rhesus macaque. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 143(4), 625–630.
Parr, L. A., Waller, B. M. and Fugate, J. (2005b). Emotional communication in primates: implications for neurobiology. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15(6), 716–720.
Parr, L. A., Waller, B. M. and Heintz, M. (2008). Facial expression categorization by chimpanzees using standardized stimuli. Emotion, 8(2), 216–231.
Parr, L. A., Waller, B. M., Vick, S. J. and Bard, K. A. (2007). Classifying chimpanzee facial expressions using muscle action. Emotion, 7(1), 172–181.
Partan, S. and Marler, P. (1999). Communication goes multimodal. Science, 283(5406), 1272–1273.
Partan, S., Yelda, S., Price, V. and Shimizu, T. (2005). Female pigeons, Columba livia, respond to multisensory audio/video playbacks of male courtship behaviour. Animal Behaviour, 70(4), 957–966.
Partan, S. R. (1998). Multimodal communication: The integration of visual and acoustic signals by macaques. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of California, Davis.
Partan, S. R. (2002). Single and multichannel signal composition: Facial expressions and vocalizations of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Behaviour, 139, 993–1028.
Partan, S. R. and Marler, P. (2005). Issues in the classification of multimodal communication signals. The American Naturalist, 166(2), 231–245.
Partan, S. R., Fulmer, A. G., Gounard, M. A. M. and Redmond, J. E. (2010). Multimodal alarm behavior in urban and rural gray squirrels studied by means of observation and a mechanical robot. Current Zoology, 56(3), 313–326.
Partan, S. R., Larco, C. P. and Owens, M. J. (2009). Wild tree squirrels respond with multisensory enhancement to conspecific robot alarm behaviour. Animal Behaviour, 77(5), 1127–1135.
Patel, E. R. and Girard-Buttoz, C. (2008). Non-nutritive tree gouging in wild Milne-Edwards’ sifakas (Propithecus edwardsi): description and potential communicative functions. Primate Eye, 96, 283.
Patterson, F. G. (1978). The gestures of a gorilla: language acquisition in another pongid. Brain and Language, 5(1), 72–97.
Patterson, F. G. (1980). Innovative uses of language by a gorilla: A case study. In Nelson, K. E. (ed.), Children’s Language, Vol. 2. New York: Gardner Press, pp. 497–561.
Patterson, F. (1981). Ape language. Science, 211(4477), 86–87.
Patterson, F. G. and Linden, F. (1981). The Education of Koko. New York: Holt, Rinehardt and Winston.
Paukner, A. and Anderson, J. R. (2006). Video-induced yawning in stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Biology Letters, 2(1), 36–38.
Paukner, A., Ferrari, P. F. and Suomi, S. J. (2011). Delayed imitation of lipsmacking gestures by infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). PLoS One, 6(12), e28848.
Pelé, M., Dufour, V., Thierry, B. and Call, J. (2009). Token transfers among great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Pan troglodytes): species differences, gestural requests, and reciprocal exchange. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 123(4), 375–384.
Penn, D. J. and Potts, W. K. (1999). The evolution of mating preferences and major histocompatibility complex genes. The American Naturalist, 153(2), 145–164.
Pereira, M. E. and Macedonia, J. M. (1991). Ringtailed lemur anti-predator calls denote predator class, not response urgency. Animal Behaviour, 41(3), 543–544.
Peres, C. A. (1989). Costs and benefits of territorial defense in wild golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 25(3), 227–233.
Perret, M. (1995). Chemocommunication in the reproductive function of mouse lemurs. In Alterman, L., Doyle, G. A. and Izard, M. K. (eds), Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians. New YorkPlenum Press, pp. 377–392.
Perrett, D. I. and Mistlin, A. J. (1990). Perception of facial characteristics by monkeys. In Stebbins, W. C. and Berkley, M. A. (eds), Comparative Perception, Complex Signals, Vol 2. New York: Wiley, pp. 187–215.
Perry, S. (2011). Social traditions and social learning in capuchin monkeys (Cebus). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1567), 988–996.
Perry, S. and Manson, J. H. (2003). Traditions in monkeys. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 12(2), 71–81.
Petersen, M. R., Beecher, M. D., Zoloth, S. R., Green, S., Marler, P. R., Moody, D. B. and Stebbins, W. C. (1984). Neural lateralization of vocalizations by Japanese macaques: Communicative significance is more important than acoustic structure. Behavioral Neuroscience, 98(5), 779–790.
Petersen, M. R., Beecher, M. D., Zoloth, S. R., Moody, D. B. and Stebbins, W. C. (1978). Neural lateralization of species-specific vocalizations by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Science, 202(4365), 324–327.
Petkov, C. I., Kayser, C., Steudel, T., Whittingstall, K., Augath, M. and Logothetis, N. K. (2008). A voice region in the monkey brain. Nature Neuroscience, 11(3), 367–374.
Petrulis, A., Peng, M. and Johnston, R. E. (1999). Effects of vomeronasal organ removal on individual odor discrimination, sex-odor preference, and scent marking by female hamsters. Physiology & Behavior, 66(1), 73–83.
Pfefferle, D., Brauch, K., Heistermann, M., Hodges, J. K. and Fischer, J. (2008). Female Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) copulation calls do not reveal the fertile phase but influence mating outcome. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275(1634), 571–578.
Pfefferle, D., Heistermann, M., Hodges, J. K. and Fischer, J. (2008). Male Barbary macaques eavesdrop on mating outcome: a playback study. Animal Behaviour, 75(6), 1885–1891.
Phillips, K. A., Buzzell, C. A., Holder, N. and Sherwood, C. C. (2011). Why do capuchin monkeys urine wash? An experimental test of the sexual communication hypothesis using fMRI. American Journal of Primatology, 73(6), 578–584.
Pierce, Jr, J. D. (1985). A review of attempts to condition operantly alloprimate vocalizations. Primates, 26(2), 202–213.
Pika, S. and Mitani, J. (2006). Referential gestural communication in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Current Biology, 16(6), R191–R192.
Pika, S., Liebal, K. and Tomasello, M. (2003). Gestural communication in young gorillas (Gorilla gorilla): gestural repertoire, learning, and use. American Journal of Primatology, 60(3), 95–111.
Pika, S., Liebal, K. and Tomasello, M. (2005). Gestural communication in subadult bonobos (Pan paniscus): repertoire and use. American Journal of Primatology, 65(1), 39–61.
Pilcher, D. L., Hammock, E. A. D. and Hopkins, W. D. (2001). Cerebral volumetric asymmetries in non-human primates: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 6(2), 165–179.
Plooij, F. X. (1978). Some basic traits of language in wild chimpanzees? In Lock, A. (ed.), Action, Gesture and Symbol: The Emergence of Language. London: Academic Press, pp. 111–131.
Plooij, F. X. (1979). How wild chimpanzee babies trigger the onset of mother-infant play – and what the mother makes of it. In Bullowa, M. (ed.), Before Speech: The Beginning of Interpersonal Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 223–244.
Plooij, F. X. (1984). The behavioral development of free-living chimpanzee babies and infants. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Pollard, K. A. and Blumstein, D. T. (2012). Evolving communicative complexity: Insights from rodents and beyond. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1597), 1869–1878.
Pollick, A. S. and de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). Ape gestures and language evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(19), 8184–8189.
Poremba, A., Malloy, M., Saunders, R. C., Carson, R. E., Herscovitch, P. and Mishkin, M. (2004). Species-specific calls evoke asymmetric activity in the monkey’s temporal poles. Nature, 427(6973), 448–451.
Porter, R. H. (1998). Olfaction and human kin recognition. Genetica, 104(3), 259–263.
Poss, S., Kuhar, C., Stoinski, T.&