Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: February 2016

5 - Aerobic exercise for people with schizophrenic psychosis

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Acil, A. A., Dogan, S. & Dogan, O. 2008. The effects of physical exercises to mental state and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs, 15, 808–15.
Adriano, F., Caltagirone, C. & Spalletta, G. 2012. Hippocampal volume reduction in first-episode and chronic schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis. Neuroscientist, 18, 180200.
Behere, R. V., Arasappa, R., Jagannathan, A., Varambally, S., Venkatasubramanian, G., Thirthalli, J., Subbakrishna, D. K., Nagendra, H. R. & Gangadhar, B. N. 2011. Effect of yoga therapy on facial emotion recognition deficits, symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica, 123, 147–53.
Bredin, S. S., Warburton, D. E. & Lang, D. J. 2013. The health benefits and challenges of exercise training in persons living with schizophrenia: a pilot study. Brain Sci, 3, 821–48.
Colcombe, S. J., Kramer, A. F., Mcauley, E., Erickson, K. I. & Scalf, P. 2004. Neurocognitive aging and cardiovascular fitness: recent findings and future directions. J Mol Neurosci, 24, 914.
Cooper, D., Barker, V., Radua, J., Fusar-Poli, P. & Lawrie, S. M. 2014. Multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in those at elevated genetic risk of developing schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res, 221, 6977.
De Peri, L., Crescini, A., Deste, G., Fusar-Poli, P., Sacchetti, E. & Vita, A. 2012. Brain structural abnormalities at the onset of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of controlled magnetic resonance imaging studies. Current pharmaceutical design, 18, 486–94.
Dishman, R. K., Berthoud, H. R., Booth, F. W., Cotman, C. W., Edgerton, V. R., Fleshner, M. R., Gandevia, S. C., Gomez-Pinilla, F., Greenwood, B. N., Hillman, C. H., Kramer, A. F., Levin, B. E., Moran, T. H., Russo-Neustadt, A. A., Salamone, J. D., Van Hoomissen, J. D., Wade, C. E., York, D. A. & Zigmond, M. J. 2006. Neurobiology of exercise. Obesity (Silver Spring), 14, 345–56.
Dodd, K. J., Duffy, S., Stewart, J. A., Impey, J. & Taylor, N. 2011. A small group aerobic exercise programme that reduces body weight is feasible in adults with severe chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study. Disabil Rehabil, 33, 1222–9.
Duraiswamy, G., Thirthalli, J., Nagendra, H. R. & Gangadhar, B. N. 2007. Yoga therapy as an add-on treatment in the management of patients with schizophrenia—a randomized controlled trial. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116, 226–32.
Ellison-Wright, I. & Bullmore, E. 2010. Anatomy of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia research, 117, 1–12.
Falkai, P., Malchow, B., Wobrock, T., Gruber, O., Schmitt, A., Honer, W. G., Pajonk, F. G., Sun, F. & Cannon, T. D. 2013. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 263, 469–73.
Falkai, P., Rossner, M. J., Schulze, T. G., Hasan, A., Brzózka, M. M., Malchow, B., Honer, W. G., Schmitt, A. 2015. Kraepelin revisited: schizophrenia from degeneration to failed regeneration. Mol Psychiatry, 20(6), 671-6.
Firth, J., Cotter, J., Elliott, R., French, P. & Yung, A. R. 2015. A systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise interventions in schizophrenia patients. Psychol Med, 119.
Fleischhacker, W. W., Cetkovich-Bakmas, M., De Hert, M., Hennekens, C. H., Lambert, M., Leucht, S., Maj, M., Mcintyre, R. S., Naber, D., Newcomer, J. W., Olfson, M., Osby, U., Sartorius, N. & Lieberman, J. A. 2008. Comorbid somatic illnesses in patients with severe mental disorders: clinical, policy, and research challenges. J Clin Psychiatry, 69, 514–9.
Garber, C. E., Blissmer, B., Deschenes, M. R., Franklin, B. A., Lamonte, M. J., Lee, I. M., Nieman, D. C. & Swain, D. P. 2011. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 43, 1334–59.
Goff, D. C., Hill, M. & Barch, D. 2011. The treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 99, 245–53.
Green, M. F. 1996. What are the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 321–30.
Haijma, S. V., Van Haren, N., Cahn, W., Koolschijn, P. C., Hulshoff Pol, H. E. & Kahn, R. S. 2012. Brain Volumes in Schizophrenia: a Meta-Analysis in Over 18 000 Subjects. Schizophrenia bulletin, 39(5):1129–38.
Hannan, A. J. 2014. Environmental enrichment and brain repair: harnessing the therapeutic effects of cognitive stimulation and physical activity to enhance experience-dependent plasticity. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol, 40, 1325.
Hasan, A., Falkai, P., Wobrock, T., Lieberman, J., Glenthoj, B., Gattaz, W. F., Thibaut, F., Moller, H. J. & WFSBP Task force on Treatment Guidelines for Schizophrenia 2013. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 2: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of schizophrenia and management of antipsychotic-induced side effects. World J Biol Psychiatry, 14, 244.
Hazlett, E. A., Buchsbaum, M. S., Haznedar, M. M., Newmark, R., Goldstein, K. E., Zelmanova, Y., Glanton, C. F., Torosjan, Y., New, A. S., Lo, J. N., Mitropoulou, V. & Siever, L. J. 2008. Cortical gray and white matter volume in unmedicated schizotypal and schizophrenia patients. Schizophr Res, 101, 111–23.
Heggelund, J., Morken, G., Helgerud, J., Nilsberg, G. E. & Hoff, J. 2012. Therapeutic effects of maximal strength training on walking efficiency in patients with schizophrenia—a pilot study. BMC Res Notes, 5, 344.
Heggelund, J., Nilsberg, G. E., Hoff, J., Morken, G. & Helgerud, J. 2011. Effects of high aerobic intensity training in patients with schizophrenia: a controlled trial. Nord J Psychiatry, 65, 269–75.
Heinrichs, R. W. & Zakzanis, K. K. 1998. Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology, 12, 426–45.
Helmstaedter, C. & Durwen, H. F. 1990. The Verbal Learning and Retention Test. A useful and differentiated tool in evaluating verbal memory performance. Schweiz Arch Neurol Psychiatr, 141, 2130.
Hoff, A. L., Sakuma, M., Wieneke, M., Horon, R., Kushner, M. & Delisi, L. E. 1999. Longitudinal neuropsychological follow-up study of patients with first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1336–41.
Hoff, A. L., Svetina, C., Shields, G., Stewart, J. & Delisi, L. E. 2005. Ten year longitudinal study of neuropsychological functioning subsequent to a first episode of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia research, 78, 2734.
Honea, R., Crow, T. J., Passingham, D. & Mackay, C. E. 2005. Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 2233–45.
Hottenrott, K. & Neumann, G. 2010. Methods of endurance training. Schorndorf: Verlag Karl Hofmann.
Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Schnack, H. G., Bertens, M. G., Van Haren, N. E., Van Der Tweel, I., Staal, W. G., Baare, W. F. & Kahn, R. S. 2002. Volume changes in gray matter in patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 244–50.
Johansen-Berg, H. 2012. The future of functionally-related structural change assessment. Neuroimage, 62, 1293–8.
Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A. & Opler, L. A. 1987. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia bulletin, 13, 261–76.
Kuipers, E., Yesufu-Udechuku, A., Taylor, C. & Kendall, T. 2014. Management of psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: summary of updated NICE guidance. BMJ, 348, g1173.
Lieberman, J. A., Tollefson, G. D., Charles, C., Zipursky, R., Sharma, T., Kahn, R. S., Keefe, R. S., Green, A. I., Gur, R. E., Mcevoy, J., Perkins, D., Hamer, R. M., Gu, H. & Tohen, M. 2005. Antipsychotic drug effects on brain morphology in first-episode psychosis. Archives of general psychiatry, 62, 361–70.
Maass, A., Duzel, S., Goerke, M., Becke, A., Sobieray, U., Neumann, K., Lovden, M., Lindenberger, U., Backman, L., Braun-Dullaeus, R., Ahrens, D., Heinze, H. J., Muller, N. G. & Duzel, E. 2014. Vascular hippocampal plasticity after aerobic exercise in older adults. Mol Psychiatry, 20(5), 585–93.
Malchow, B., Keeser, D., Keller, K., Hasan, A., Rauchmann, B. S., Kimura, H., Schneider-Axmann, T., Dechent, P., Gruber, O., Ertl-Wagner, B., Honer, W. G., Hillmer-Vogel, U., Schmitt, A., Wobrock, T., Niklas, A. & Falkai, P. 2015a. Effects of endurance training on brain structures in chronic schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Schizophr Res., DOI:
Malchow, B., Keller-Varady, K., Hasan, A., Dörfler, S., Schneider-Axmann, T., Hillmer-Vogel, U., Honer, W. G., Schulze, T. G., Niklas, A., Wobrock, T., Schmitt, A. & Falkai, P. 2015b. Effects of endurance training combined with cognitive remediation on everyday functioning, symptoms and cognition in multi-episode schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41(4), 847-58.
Mane, A., Falcon, C., Mateos, J. J., Fernandez-Egea, E., Horga, G., Lomena, F., Bargallo, N., Prats-Galino, A., Bernardo, M. & Parellada, E. 2009. Progressive gray matter changes in first episode schizophrenia: a 4-year longitudinal magnetic resonance study using VBM. Schizophr Res, 114, 136–43.
Manjunath, R. B., Varambally, S., Thirthalli, J., Basavaraddi, I. V. & Gangadhar, B. N. 2013. Efficacy of yoga as an add-on treatment for in-patients with functional psychotic disorder. Indian J Psychiatry, 55, S374-8.
Marzolini, S., Jensen, B. & Melville, P. 2009. Feasibility and effects of a group-based resistance and aerobic exercise program for individuals with severe schizophrenia: a multidisciplinary approach. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 2, 2936.
May, A. 2011. Experience-dependent structural plasticity in the adult human brain. Trends Cogn Sci, 15, 475–82.
Milner, B. 1971. Interhemispheric differences in the localization of psychological processes in man. Br Med Bull, 27, 272–7.
Montgomery, S. A. & Asberg, M. 1979. A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382–9.
Murray, C. J. & Lopez, A. D. 1996. Evidence-based health policy—lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Science, 274, 740–3.
Oertel-Knochel, V., Mehler, P., Thiel, C., Steinbrecher, K., Malchow, B., Tesky, V., Ademmer, K., Prvulovic, D., Banzer, W., Zopf, Y., Schmitt, A. & Hansel, F. 2014. Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance and individual psychopathology in depressive and schizophrenia patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 264(7), 589604.
Olabi, B., Ellison-Wright, I., Mcintosh, A. M., Wood, S. J., Bullmore, E. & Lawrie, S. M. 2011. Are there progressive brain changes in schizophrenia? A meta-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies. Biol Psychiatry, 70, 8896.
Pajonk, F. G., Wobrock, T., Gruber, O., Scherk, H., Berner, D., Kaizl, I., Kierer, A., Muller, S., Oest, M., Meyer, T., Backens, M., Schneider-Axmann, T., Thornton, A. E., Honer, W. G. & Falkai, P. 2010. Hippocampal plasticity in response to exercise in schizophrenia. Archives of general psychiatry, 67, 133–43.
Park, J. K., Lee, S. J. & Kim, T. W. 2014. Treadmill exercise enhances NMDA receptor expression in schizophrenia mice. J Exerc Rehabil, 10, 1521.
Pereira, A. C., Huddleston, D. E., Brickman, A. M., Sosunov, A. A., Hen, R., Mckhann, G. M., Sloan, R., Gage, F. H., Brown, T. R. & Small, S. A. 2007. An in vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 5638–43.
Raichlen, D. A. & Polk, J. D. 2013. Linking brains and brawn: exercise and the evolution of human neurobiology. Proc Biol Sci, 280, 20122250.
Sahay, A., Scobie, K. N., Hill, A. S., O’Carroll, C. M., Kheirbek, M. A., Burghardt, N. S., Fenton, A. A., Dranovsky, A. & Hen, R. 2011. Increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis is sufficient to improve pattern separation. Nature, 472, 466–70.
Scheewe, T. W., Backx, F. J., Takken, T., Jorg, F., Van Strater, A. C., Kroes, A. G., Kahn, R. S. & Cahn, W. 2013a. Exercise therapy improves mental and physical health in schizophrenia: a randomised controlled trial. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 127, 464–73.
Scheewe, T. W., Van Haren, N. E., Sarkisyan, G., Schnack, H. G., Brouwer, R. M., De Glint, M., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Backx, F. J., Kahn, R. S. & Cahn, W. 2013b. Exercise therapy, cardiorespiratory fitness and their effect on brain volumes: a randomised controlled trial in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 23, 675–85.
Schmitt, A., Steyskal, C., Bernstein, H. G., Schneider-Axmann, T., Parlapani, E., Schaeffer, E. L., Gattaz, W. F., Bogerts, B., Schmitz, C. & Falkai, P. 2009. Stereologic investigation of the posterior part of the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Acta neuropathologica, 117, 395407.
Silverstein, M. L., Harrow, M., Mavrolefteros, G. & Close, D. 1997. Neuropsychological dysfunction and clinical outcome in psychiatric disorders: a two-year follow-up study. J Nerv Ment Dis, 185, 722–9.
Steen, R. G., Mull, C., Mcclure, R., Hamer, R. M. & Lieberman, J. A. 2006. Brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 510–8.
Tamminga, C. A., Stan, A. D. & Wagner, A. D. 2010. The hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry, 167, 1178–93.
Van Haren, N. E., Cahn, W., Hulshoff Pol, H. E. & Kahn, R. S. 2012. Confounders of excessive brain volume loss in schizophrenia. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 37(10 Pt 1), 2418–23.
Van Praag, H., Kempermann, G. & Gage, F. H. 1999. Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nature neuroscience, 2, 266–70.
Van Praag, H., Shubert, T., Zhao, C. & Gage, F. H. 2005. Exercise enhances learning and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 8680–5.
Vancampfort, D., Knapen, J., Probst, M., Scheewe, T., Remans, S. & De Hert, M. 2012. A systematic review of correlates of physical activity in patients with schizophrenia. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica, 125, 352–62.
Varambally, S., Gangadhar, B. N., Thirthalli, J., Jagannathan, A., Kumar, S., Venkatasubramanian, G., Muralidhar, D., Subbakrishna, D. K. & Nagendra, H. R. 2012. Therapeutic efficacy of add-on yogasana intervention in stabilized outpatient schizophrenia: randomized controlled comparison with exercise and waitlist. Indian J Psychiatry, 54, 227–32.
Veit, C. T. & Ware, J. E. 1983. The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations. J Consult Clin Psychol, 51, 730742.
Vita, A. & De Peri, L. 2007. Hippocampal and amygdala volume reductions in first-episode schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 271.
Vita, A., De Peri, L., Deste, G. & Sacchetti, E. 2012. Progressive loss of cortical gray matter in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of longitudinal MRI studies. Transl Psychiatry, 2, e190.
Voss, M. W., Vivar, C., Kramer, A. F. & Van Praag, H. 2013. Bridging animal and human models of exercise-induced brain plasticity. Trends Cogn Sci, 17, 525–44.
Wolf, S. A., Melnik, A. & Kempermann, G. 2011. Physical exercise increases adult neurogenesis and telomerase activity, and improves behavioral deficits in a mouse model of schizophrenia. Brain Behav Immun, 25, 971–80.