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    Zaheer, Akbar and Kamal, Darcy Fudge 2011. Creating trust in piranha-infested waters: The confluence of buyer, supplier and host country contexts. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 48.

    Fulmer, C. Ashley and Gelfand, Michele J. 2012. At What Level (and in Whom) We Trust. Journal of Management, Vol. 38, Issue. 4, p. 1167.

    Alexopoulos, Angelos N. and Buckley, Finian 2013. What Trust Matters When. Group & Organization Management, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 361.

    Branzei, Oana Camp, Ronald D. and Vertinsky, Ilan 2013. In Whom Collectivists Trust: The Role of (in) Voluntary Social Obligations in Japan. Management and Organization Review, Vol. 9, Issue. 02, p. 319.

    Labarca, Claudia 2014. International business and trust. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, Vol. 14, Issue. 3, p. 323.


    Dheer, Ratan Lenartowicz, Tomasz Peterson, Mark F and Petrescu, Maria 2014. Cultural regions of Canada and United States. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, Vol. 14, Issue. 3, p. 343.

    Amoako, Isaac Oduro and Matlay, Harry 2015. Norms and Trust-Shaping Relationships among Food-Exporting SMEs in Ghana. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 16, Issue. 2, p. 123.

    Curnin, Steven Owen, Christine Paton, Douglas Trist, Cain and Parsons, David 2015. Role Clarity, Swift Trust and Multi-Agency Coordination. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 29.

    Michetti, Giovanni 2015. Preservation as a Service for Trust (PaaST). p. 465.

    Doyle, Emma E. H. and Paton, Douglas 2017. Observing the Volcano World. p. 549.

    Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija Menard, Rusten Verma, Jyoti and Kassea, Raul 2017. Social representations of trust among teachers and principals in Cameroonian, Indian, and Finnish schools. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 29.

    Jucevičienė, Rita and Jucevičius, Giedrius 2017. Intercultural Interactions in the Multicultural Workplace. p. 173.

    Lewicki, Roy J. and Brinsfield, Chad 2017. Trust Repair. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 287.

    Pratt, Michael G. Lepisto, Douglas A. and Dane, Erik 2018. The Hidden Side of Trust: Supporting and Sustaining Leaps of Faith among Firefighters. Administrative Science Quarterly, p. 000183921876925.

    Layland, Adam 2018. Why is trust important for effective healthcare teams?. British Journal of Healthcare Management, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 61.

    Amoako, Isaac Oduro 2019. Trust, Institutions and Managing Entrepreneurial Relationships in Africa. p. 237.

    Amoako, Isaac Oduro 2019. Trust, Institutions and Managing Entrepreneurial Relationships in Africa. p. 67.

    Omeihe, Kingsley Obi Dakhan, Sarfraz Ahmed Khan, Mohammad Saud Gustafsson, Veronika and Amoako, Isaac Oduro 2019. Women Entrepreneurs and Strategic Decision Making in the Global Economy. p. 20.

    Amoako, Isaac Oduro 2019. Trust, Institutions and Managing Entrepreneurial Relationships in Africa. p. 23.

  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: June 2012

1 - Unravelling the complexities of trust and culture



Badri is an Iranian businesswoman representing her firm in first-round negotiations with a new alliance partner from Munich, Germany. When she enters the room, her counterpart from the German firm, Johann, reaches out his hand for her to shake as a first gesture of goodwill. Badri hesitates, but takes Johann's hand briefly, shakes it once, smiling the whole time. Then she sits down. Johann is impressed by her apparent openness; for him, this bodes well for the talks ahead. Behind him, a few colleagues wince at his indiscretion, but are relieved when it appears he has got away with it. Behind her, Badri's male colleagues from Iran are shocked. Some are disgusted. For women to touch unfamiliar men is neither customary nor appropriate in their culture. But Badri has studied and worked in the States for several years and, though she finds such incidents uncomfortable, she has learned to ‘switch’ between styles of working when required. Plus, for her, the priorities of her employer mean that nurturing a solid, trusting relationship with their German partner is of paramount importance.

Sean and Nils are elected employee representatives sitting on the European Works Council of the Anglo–Dutch steel firm, Corus, for whom they both work. Nils is Dutch and works in his native Holland; Sean is Irish but works in a smelting works in England. They are both union members (though in different unions), both Corus employees, and both engineers.

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Organizational Trust
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